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=== Alternative shells ===
=== Alternative shells ===
Bash is a good default shell for beginner and experienced users alike. The Live CD has a more powerful and featureful shell enabled called zsh
Bash is a good default shell for beginner and experienced users alike. The Live CD has a more powerful and featureful shell enabled called zshand grml-zsh-config
=== Aliases ===
=== Aliases ===
Revision as of 22:03, 10 August 2013
zh-CN:General Recommendations zh-TW:General Recommendations Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary end
This document is an annotated index of other popular articles and important information for improving and adding functionalities to the installed Arch system. Various pages listed here will require using pacman to install additional packages present in the official repositories, and those in the unofficial Arch User Repository by employing makepkg with the optional aid of an AUR helper. As such, the concept of package management should be fully understood before continuing. Readers are assumed to have read and followed the Beginners' Guide or Installation Guide to obtain a basic Arch Linux installation.
- 1 Appearance
- 2 Audio/video
- 3 Booting
- 4 Console improvements
- 5 Input
- 6 Networking
- 7 Optimization
- 8 Package management
- 9 Power management
- 10 System administration
- 11 System service
- 12 X Window System
This section contains frequently-sought "eye candy" tweaks for an aesthetically pleasing Arch experience. For more, please see Category:Eye candy.
Even though a number of applications have built-in color capabilities, using a general-purpose colorizing wrapper, such as
cope, is another route. Install AUR from the AUR. AUR and AUR are similar alternatives.
Colorizing the output of specific core utilities such as
ls is covered in the Core Utilities article.
Emacs is known for featuring options beyond the duties of regular text editing, one of these being a full shell replacement. Consult Emacs#Colored output issues for a fix regarding garbled characters that may result from enabling colored output.
Man pages (or manual pages) are one of the most useful resources available to GNU/Linux users. To aid readability, the pager can be configured to render colored text as explained in Man Page#Colored man pages.
If spending a significant amount of time working from the virtual console (i.e. outside an X server), users may wish to change the console font to improve readability; see Fonts#Console fonts.
Patched font packages
Font rendering libraries can be patched to provide improved rendering compared to the standard packages; see Font Configuration#Patched packages.
Category:Audio/Video includes additional multimedia resources.
To enjoy media-rich web content and for a complete browsing experience, browser plugins such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, Adobe Flash Player, and Java can be installed.
Codecs are utilized by multimedia applications to encode or decode audio or video streams. In order to play encoded streams, users must ensure an appropriate codec is installed.
Hardware should be auto-detected by udev during the boot process by default. A potential improvement in boot time can be achieved by disabling module auto-loading and specifying required modules manually, as described in Kernel modules#Loading. Additionally, Xorg should be able to auto-detect required drivers using udev, but users have the option to configure the X server manually too.
Num Lock activation at boot
Num Lock is a toggle key found in most keyboards. For activating Num Lock's number key-assignment during startup, see Activating Numlock on Bootup.
Retaining boot messages
Once it concludes, the screen is cleared and the login prompt appears, leaving users unable to gather feedback from the boot process. Disable clearing of boot messages to overcome this limitation.
Start X at boot
If utilizing an X server to provide a graphical user interface, users may wish to start this server during the boot process rather than starting it manually after login. See Display Manager if desiring a graphical login or Start X at Boot for methods that do not involve a display manager.
This section applies to small modifications that better console programs' practicality. For more, please see Category:Command shells.
Bash is a good default shell for beginner and experienced users alike. The Live CD has a more powerful and featureful shell enabled calledand uses the addon package.
Users can define shortcuts for frequently-used commands using a built-in shell command. Common time-saving aliases can be found in Bash#Aliases.
Users may switch their default shell to zsh by issuing this command. Remember to logout and log back in for changes to take effect:
$ chsh -s /usr/bin/zsh
Compressed files, or archives, are frequently encountered on a GNU/Linux system. Tar is one of the most commonly used archiving tools, and users should be familiar with its syntax (Arch Linux packages, for example, are simply xzipped tarballs). See Bash#Functions for other helpful commands.
To be able to save and view text which has scrolled off the screen, refer to Scrollback buffer.
Using terminal multiplexers like tmux or screen, programs may be run under sessions composed of tabs and panes that can be detached at will, so when the user either kills the terminal emulator, terminates X, or logs off, the programs associated with the session will continue to run in the background as long as the terminal multiplexer server is active. Interacting with the programs requires reattaching to the session.
This section contains popular input device configuration tips. For more, please see Category:Input devices.
Owners of advanced or unusual mice may find that not all mouse buttons are recognized by default, or may wish to assign different actions for extra buttons. Instructions can be found in Get All Mouse Buttons Working.
Non-English or otherwise non-standard keyboards may not function as expected by default. To define the keymap in virtual consoles, the KEYMAP variable must be set in
/etc/vconsole.conf. For Xorg users, the required changes are described in Xorg#Keyboard layout.
Many laptops use Synaptics or ALPS "touchpad" pointing devices. These, and several other touchpad models, use the Synaptics input driver; see Touchpad Synaptics for installation and configuration details.
To configure your TrackPoint device refer to ThinkWiki.
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol for synchronizing the clocks of computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks.
DNS speed improvement
To improve load time by caching queries, use pdnsd, a very simple DNS server that does not attempt to fill every need. Or install dnsmasq, a broader choice which also supports turning the system into a DHCP server.
Setting up a firewall
A firewall can provide an extra layer of protection on top of the Linux networking stack. The Linux kernel includes iptables, a stateful firewall, as part of the Netfilter project. It can be configured directly or through a front end. Arch ships with no ports open and network daemons will not be started automatically without explicit configuration, so a firewall is usually not very useful if you aren't running services that need to be protected.
This section aims to summarize tweaks, tools and available options useful to improve system and application performance.
Benchmarking is the act of measuring performance and comparing the results to another system's results or a widely accepted standard through a unified procedure.
File system tunables
There are several key tunables governing filesystems that users should consider adding to
/etc/sysctl.conf which is auto-loaded at boot by systemd:
# Contains, as a percentage of total system memory, the number of pages at which # a process which is generating disk writes will start writing out dirty data. vm.dirty_ratio = 3 # Contains, as a percentage of total system memory, the number of pages at which # the background kernel flusher threads will start writing out dirty data. vm.dirty_background_ratio = 2
As noted in the comments, one needs to consider the total amount of RAM when setting these values.
- vm.dirty_ratio defaults to 10 (percent of RAM). Consensus is that 10% of RAM when RAM is say half a gig (so 10% is ~50 MB) is a sane value on spinning disks, but it can be MUCH worse when RAM is larger, say 16 gig (10% is ~1.6 gig), as that's several seconds of writeback on spinning disks. A more sane value in this cause is 3 (16*0.03 ~ 491 MB).
- vm.dirty_background_ratio similarly, 5 (% of RAM) by default may be just fine for small memory values, but again, consider and adjust accordingly for the amount of RAM on a particular system.
The Maximizing Performance article gathers information and is a basic rundown about gaining performance in Arch Linux.
Solid state drives
The Solid State Drives article covers many aspects of solid state drives, including configuring them to maximize their lifetimes.
Aliases for pacman
Aliasing a command, or a group thereof, is a way of saving time when using the console. This is specially helpful for repetitive tasks that do not need significant alteration to their parameters between executions. Various time saving pacman aliases are organized in pacman Tips, besides other suggested tools.
Arch Build System
Ports is a system initially used by BSD distributions consisting of build scripts that reside in a directory tree on the local system. Simply put, each port contains a script within a directory intuitively named after the installable third-party application.
The ABS tree offers the same functionality by providing build scripts called PKGBUILDs, which are populated with information for a given piece of software; integrity hashes, project URL, version, license and build instructions. These PKGBUILDs are later parsed by makepkg, the actual program that generates packages cleanly manageable by pacman.
Every package in the repositories along with those present in the AUR are subject to recompilation with makepkg.
Arch User Repository
While the ABS tree allows the ability of building software available in the official repositories, the AUR is the equivalent for user submitted packages. It is an unsupported repository of build scripts accessible through the web interface or by an AUR helper.
An AUR helper can add seamless access to the AUR. They may vary in features, but all ease in searching, fetching, building, and installing from over 40'000 PKGBUILDs found in the unofficial repository.
Visit Mirrors for steps on taking full advantage of using the fastest and most up to date pacman mirrors. As explained in the article, a particularly good advice is to routinely check the Mirror Status page and/or Mirror-Status for a list of mirrors that have been recently synced.
This section may be of use to laptop owners or users otherwise seeking power management controls. For more, please see Category:Power management.
See Power Management for more general overview.
Users can configure how the system reacts to ACPI events such as pressing the power button or closing a laptop's lid. For the new (recommended) method using systemd, see Power management with systemd. For the old method, see acpid.
CPU frequency scaling
Modern processors can decrease their frequency and voltage to reduce heat and power consumption. Less heat leads to more quiet system and prolongs the life of hardware. See CPU Frequency Scaling for details.
For articles related to portable computing along with model-specific installation guides, please see Category:Laptops. For a general overview of laptop-related articles and recommendations, see Laptop.
Suspend and Hibernate
See main article Suspend and Hibernate.
This section deals with administrative tasks and system management. For more, please see Category:System administration.
A new installation leaves users with only the super user account, better known as root. Logging in as root for prolonged periods of time is widely considered to be foolish and insecure. Instead, users should create and use unprivileged user accounts for most tasks, only using the root account for system administration. The su (substitute user) command allows assuming the identity of another user on the system (usually root) from an existing login, whereas the sudo command grants temporary privilege escalation for a specific command.
Users and groups
Users and groups are used on GNU/Linux for access control; administrators may fine-tune group membership and ownership to grant or deny users and services access to system resources. Access to peripheral devices such as optical (CD/DVD) drives and sound hardware often requires membership in an appropriate group.
To enable communication between Windows and Arch Linux machines across a network, users can use Samba; a re-implementation of the SMB/CIFS networking protocol.
To configure an Arch Linux machine to join and use Active Directory for authentication, read the article on Active Directory Integration.
Arch is a rolling release system and has rapid package turnover, so users have to take some time to do system maintenance. And Enhancing Arch Linux Stability page provides tips on how to make an Arch Linux system as stable as possible.
This section relates to daemons. For more, please see Category:Daemons and system services.
File index and search
Most distributions have a
locate command available to be able to quickly search for files. To get this functionality is the recommended install. After the install you should run
updatedb to index the filesystems.
Local mail delivery
X Window System
Xorg is the public, open-source implementation of the X Window System version 11. If a graphical user interface is desired, the majority of users will use Xorg. See Category:X Server for additional resources.
Whilst Xorg provides the basic framework for building a graphical environment, there are additional components that may be considered necessary for a complete user experience. Desktop environments such as GNOME, KDE, LXDE, and Xfce bundle together a wide range of X clients, such as a window manager, panel, file manager, terminal emulator, text editor, icons, and other utilities. See Category:Desktop environments for a complete list and additional resources.
The default vesa display driver will work with most video cards, but performance can be significantly improved and additional features harnessed by installing the appropriate driver for ATI, Intel, or NVIDIA products.
A full-fledged desktop environment provides a complete and consistent graphical user interface, but tends to consume a considerable amount of system resources. Users seeking to maximize performance or otherwise simplify their environment may opt to install a window manager instead and hand-pick desired extras. An alternative window manager can also be used with most desktop environments. Dynamic, stacking, and tiling window managers differ in their handling of window placement.