Difference between revisions of "General recommendations (正體中文)"

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===硬體自動偵測===
 
===硬體自動偵測===
預設情況下,硬體應該要在啟動時被 [[udev]] 自動偵測。 在啟動時關閉自動偵測而手動指定所需的模組,有能力可以加快開機速度,參見[[Rc.conf (正體中文)#硬體]]。另外 [[Xorg]] 也是以 [[udev]] 自動偵測硬體, 用戶也對 X server 有設定的選擇。
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預設情況下,硬體應該要在啟動時被 [[udev]] 自動偵測。另外 [[Xorg]] 也是以 [[udev]] 自動偵測硬體, 用戶也對 X server 有設定的選擇。
  
 
===開機時啟動 Num Lock===
 
===開機時啟動 Num Lock===

Revision as of 13:24, 28 June 2013

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Summary help replacing me
這是一份注解過的建議閱讀索引,其中涵蓋廣泛多樣的主題。常用軟體列表請參考 Common ApplicationsLightweight Applications
相關文章
FAQ (正體中文)

這篇文章是一份關於熱門文章和重要資訊的詳細索引。 本文所列的大多數文章都會需要使用 pacman官方軟體倉庫 安裝額外的軟體包(packages), 在非官方的 Arch使用者倉庫 的軟體包則需要使用 makepkgAUR helper。 如上,在了解管理軟體包的概念你才能繼續閱讀本文。

本文假設你已閱讀並從 Beginners' GuideOfficial Arch Linux Install Guide 建立了一個基本的Arch Linux環境。 當然對一個可用的系統有更多的軟體包需要更嚴格的需求環境。 舉例來說,如果想要有圖形化介面,請先閱讀 Xorg; 而對列印有興趣的那些人應該去讀 CUPS; 所有使用者可以透過閱讀 Filesystem Hierarchy Standard 來對文件系統有個概念。

外觀美化

這個小節包含如何美化ArchLinux介面的討論。更多訊息請見 Category:Eye candy (正體中文)

彩色輸出

Even though a number of applications have built-in color capabilities, using a general-purpose, colorizing wrapper such as cope is another route. Install copeAUR or cope-gitAUR, the more often updated Git version, from the AUR. acocAUR and cwAUR are similar alternatives.

Console prompt

The console prompt (PS1) can be customized to a great extent. See the What's your PS1? forum thread for ideas. Also see Color Bash Prompt or Zsh#Prompts if using Bash or Zsh, respectively.

核心工具

關於核心工具像是 grepls 的彩色輸出請參考 Core Utilties

Emacs shell

Emacs is known for featuring options beyond the duties of regular text editing, one of these being a full shell replacement. Consult Emacs#Colored output issues for a fix regarding garbled characters that may result from enabling colored output.

Man 提示頁

Man 提示頁 (或手冊頁) 是GUN/Linux 用戶的一個非常有效的工具。 為提高可讀性, Man 提示頁可以打開彩色輸出功能, 請參照Man Page#Colored man pages.

字型

更多有關「字型」訊息可以在 FontsFont Configuration 文章中找到。

終端機字型

對於經常使用虛擬終端機的用戶, 您可能會想要更改終端機的字型來加強可讀性。 請參見 Fonts#Console fonts

LCD filtered fonts

Font rendering software can be patched to provide smoother fonts on LCD monitors by taking advantage of sub-pixel elements; see Font Configuration#LCD filter patched packages.

音頻/影頻

Category:Audio/Video (正體中文) 包含更多多媒體方面的資源

瀏覽器插件

用戶可以安裝像是 Adobe Acrobat Reader, Adobe Flash Player, 與 Java 的瀏覽器插件,來享受一個完整的流覽體驗。

解碼器

多媒體應用程式利用 解碼器 來編碼或解碼聲音或影像流。為了播放多媒體文件,用戶必須安裝適當的解碼器。

聲音

Sound由核心聲音驅動(ALSAOOS)驅動。此外,用戶可以依照意願安裝與設定聲音伺服器。

啟動

這個章節包含了系統啟動方面的訊息。對於 ArchLinux 的啟動過程概覽可以在 Arch Boot Process找到。 更多訊息請參閱 Ccategory:Boot process (English


後台進程 或 守護行程 (守護進程)

守護行程 (Daemons) 是指在後台運行的程式, 且通常在啟動時運行。 在要加速開機過程時, 某些守護進程可以後台化, 允許守護進程加載而啟動程序繼續。 請參照 Daemon 來獲取更多資訊。

硬體自動偵測

預設情況下,硬體應該要在啟動時被 udev 自動偵測。另外 Xorg 也是以 udev 自動偵測硬體, 用戶也對 X server 有設定的選擇。

開機時啟動 Num Lock

在大多數的鍵盤上都可以找到 Num Lock。 要在開機時激活 Num Lock, 請參照 啟動時激活 Numlock

保留啟動訊息

當系統啟動完成, 畫面會被清空並且顯示終端機登入訊息, 如此會讓使用者無法獲得啟動行程中的錯誤回報。 關閉清空啟動訊息 可以幫你解決這個問題。.

開機時啟動 X

如果使用 X server 啟用圖形用戶介面, 用戶可能會希望在開機時啟動 X 而不是在登入完後啟動。 如果希望用圖形介面登入 請參照 登入管理員 , 或是不希望使用圖形介面登入請參照 Start X at Login

Console 改善

這一節用了些小修改使得console程式更好用。更多內容請看 Category:Command shellsCategory:Utilities (English)

Aliases

使用者可以用內建shell指令定義常用指令捷徑。一般的省時alias可在 Core Utilities#alias 找到。

Bash additions

各種 Bash 設定清單,包括自動補齊、指令歷史搜尋及readline巨集指令都在 Bash#Extended usage

壓縮檔

壓縮檔或歸檔文件(archives)很常在 GNU/Linux 系統遇到。 Tar 是其中一種使用最普遍的歸檔工具,使用者應該也最熟悉它的語法。 其它有用的指令參考 Core Utilities#Extracting compressed files

滑鼠支援

在console下使用滑鼠複製貼上可能比在 GNU screen 裡用傳統的複製模式要好的多。 完整的指示見 Console Mouse Support

頁面滾動緩衝

如果想要儲存並觀看那些被擠出畫面的訊息, 請參見Scrollback buffer

Session managament

Using terminal multiplexers like tmux or screen, programs may be ran under sessions composed of tabs and panes that can be detached at will, so when the user either kills the terminal emulator, terminates X, or logs off, the programs associated with the session will continue to run in the background as long as the terminal multiplexer server is active. Interacting with the programs requires reattaching to the session.

輸入裝置

這一節包含了受歡迎的輸入裝置的組態檔撰寫提示。更多請看 Category:Input devices

Configure all mouse buttons

進階或非一般滑鼠的擁有者可能會發現不是所有滑鼠按鍵都能預設被辨識出來, 或者可能想指定不同的執行動作給額外的按鍵。 這些在 Get All Mouse Buttons Working 能找到解決方法。

鍵盤按鍵配置 (keyboard layouts)

非英文或其它非標準的鍵盤使用上可能會和預期的反應不一樣。 有需要可以將虛擬終端(virtual consoled)的按鍵映對(keymap)定義的變數內容要寫在 rc.conf 裡。 而 Xorg 使用者的部分在 Xorg#Keyboard layout 會提到。

筆電觸控板

許多筆電使用 SynapticsALPS 的 "touchpad" 指向裝置。 這些和許多其它觸控板產品都使用 Synaptics 驅動程式(input driver),安裝方式和組態檔細節在 Touchpad Synaptics 可找到。

軌跡點 (小紅點)

對於軌跡點 (小紅點)的設定請參照 ThinkWiki

套件管理

本節包含有關套件管理工具的有用資訊,使用者至少要熟悉套件管理工具pacman 更多內容請見 Category:Package management

常用pacman別名(alias)

在console下對常用指令設定別名可以節省很多打字時間,尤其對不常改變參數且常重複的工作有幫助。 許多省時的pacman別名整理在 pacman Tips#Aliases,裡面還有介紹其它推薦工具。

Arch建罝系統(ABS)

Ports 一開始在BSD發行版中使用,是由 build scripts 組成的套件系統,這些 scripts 散布在本地系統的 Ports 目錄樹之下。 每個port目錄有一個script,名稱很直覺得就是第三方應用程式命名。

The ABS tree offers the same functionality by providing build scripts called PKGBUILDs, which are populated with information for a given piece of software; integrity hashes, project URL, version, license and build instructions. These PKGBUILDs are later parsed by makepkg, the actual program that generates packages cleanly manageable by pacman.

Every package in the repositories along with those present in the AUR are subject to recompilation with makepkg.

Arch User Repository

While the ABS tree allows the ability of building software available in the official repositories, the AUR is the equivalent for user submitted packages. It is an unsupported repository of build scripts accessible through the web interface or by an AUR helper.

AUR helpers (like Yaourt, aurbuild, packer, aurget) add seamless access to the AUR. They may vary in features, but all ease in searching, fetching, building, and installing from over 18,673 PKGBUILDs found in the unofficial repository.

映像 (Mirrors)

Visit Mirrors for steps on taking full advantage of using the fastest and most up to date pacman mirrors. As explained in the article, a particularly good advice is to routinely check Mirrorcheck and/or Mirror status for a list of mirrors that have been recently synced.

電源管理

這個章節對於筆記型電腦用戶可能更為有用,或是那些尋求電源管理的用戶。 更多訊息請參見 Category:Power management.

acpid

用戶可以以 acpid 設定系統對 ACPI 事件的反應, 例如說「按下電源鍵」或是 「關閉筆記型電腦螢幕」

CPU 時脈調整

現代處裡器可以用減低時脈與電壓的方式來減少熱能與電源消耗。 較少的熱量可以讓系統更為安靜與延長硬體設備的壽命。 cpufrequtils 是一套用來協助 CPU時脈調整的工具集。

筆記型電腦

對於特定型號筆記型電腦的設定, 請參照 Category:Laptops。 對於一般筆記型電腦設定與建議, 請參照 Laptop

待機與休眠

Several options are available to users desiring suspend-to-RAM (sleep/stand-by) and suspend-to-disk (hibernate) functionality. pm-utils describes one popular method, while hibernate-script is an older alternative that does not depend on Xorg packages.

Networking

This section is confined to small networking procedures. Head over to Network for a full guide. For more, please see Category:Networking.

Disable IPv6

Not only does the IPv6 module take around 250k of memory, it has also been reported that disabling the feature notoriously speeds up network access for programs that erroneously try to query servers with this newer version. Incidentally, Firefox is listed among the affected applications. So until the widespread adoption of IPv6, one may benefit by disabling the module.

DNS speed improvement

To improve load time by caching queries, use pdnsd, a very simple DNS server that does not attempt to fill every need. Or install dnsmasq, a broader choice which also supports turning the system into a DHCP server.

系統優化

這個章節旨在總結調整, 工具, 與可行的選項來優化系統與程式的效能。

性能測試 (Benchmarking)

性能測試 (Benchmarking) 讓你可以評比與比較系統、軟硬體效能。

性能最優化

性能最優化 一文中提出了許多優化 ArchLinux 的方法。

系統管理

This section deals with administrative tasks and system management. For more, please see Category:System administration.

Log maintenance

By default, log files are rotated using logrotate, which rotates existing log files to an alternatively named file (suffixed with a number) and empties the original log files. Logrotate is typically executed via cron job; users must ensure the cron daemon is running in order to initiate log rotation.

Users of the syslog-ng syslog daemon may wish to configure ISO 8601 timestamps (yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss-zz:zz) in log files.

Privilege escalation

A new installation leaves users with only the super user account, better known as root. Logging in as root for prolonged periods of time is widely considered to be foolish and insecure. Instead, users should create and use unprivileged user accounts for most tasks, only using the root account for system administration. The su (substitute user) command allows assuming the identity of another user on the system (usually root) from an existing login, whereas the sudo command grants temporary privilege escalation for a specific command.

使用者與群組

Users and groups are used on GNU/Linux for access control; administrators may fine-tune group membership and ownership to grant or deny users and services access to system resources. Access to peripheral devices such as optical (CD/DVD) drives and sound hardware often requires membership in an appropriate group.

Windows networking

To enable communication between Windows and Arch Linux machines across a network, users can use Samba; a re-implementation of the SMB/CIFS networking protocol.

系統服務

This section relates to daemons. For more, please see Category:Daemons and system services.

HAL

After having installed a desktop environment or window manager, installing HAL seems like a natural follow-up since it enables plug-and-play functionality for mobile phones, MP3 players, external HDDs, and other hardware. Often, HAL is used to mount the device and make an icon on a convenient place, like the desktop or in 'My Computer', allowing access to the peripheral soon after it has been plugged in. Altogether, this avoids manual fstab configuration or making udev rules for each and every new device.

KDE, GNOME and Xfce all use HAL.

Local mail delivery

A default base setup bestows no means for mail syncing. To configure Postfix for simple local mailbox delivery, see Local Mail Delivery with Postfix. Other options are SSMTP, MSMTP and fdm.

X Window系統

Xorg 是 X Window系統11版的一個公開, 開源的實現。 如果一個用戶圖形介面是需要的, Xorg是大多數人的第一選擇。 更多訊息請參見 Category:X Server

桌面環境

Xorg 提供了基礎的圖形用戶介面, 而其他的組件則可以更加完善圖形介面。 像 GNOMEKDELXDEXfce 這些 桌面環境 集合了桌面管理員, 面板, 檔案管理員, 虛擬終端機, 文字編輯器與其他 X 用戶端 的工具。 完整的列表與額外功能請參見 Category:Desktop environments

顯示卡驅動

ArchLinux 的預設顯示卡驅動 vesa 能夠驅動大多數的顯示卡, 但如果想要增進顯示卡效能或是額外的功能的話,用戶應該安裝相應的驅動器如 ATIIntel, 或 NVIDIA

視窗管理員

A full-fledged desktop environment provides a complete and consistent graphical user interface, but tends to consume a considerable amount of system resources. Users seeking to maximize performance or otherwise simplify their environment may opt to install a window manager instead and hand-pick desired extras. An alternative window manager can also be used with most desktop environments. Dynamic, stacking, and tiling window managers differ in their handling of window placement.