Difference between revisions of "General recommendations (한국어)"
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[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
[[Category:Getting and installing Arch ]]
Revision as of 04:56, 15 August 2012
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이 문서는, 아치 시스템을 향상시키고 기능을 추가하는, 유명한 문서들이나 중요한 정보를 다루는 문서니다. 여기에 나열된 여러 페이지는 공식 저장소에 있는 추가적인 패키지를 설치하기 위해 팩맨을 사용하고 AUR의 비공식 패키지를 설치하기 위해 makepkg를 이용할 것(이 때 AUR 도우미를 사용하실 수도 있습니다)입니다. 그러므로, 계속하기 전에 패키지 관리의 개념에 대해 완전히 이해해야 합니다. 이 문서는 여러분이 초보자 안내서나 설치 안내서를 통해 기본적인 아치 리눅스 설치를 끝낸 뒤라고 가정합니다.
- 1 외관
- 2 오디오/동영상
- 3 Booting
- 4 Console improvements
- 5 Input
- 6 Networking
- 7 Optimization
- 8 Package management
- 9 Power management
- 10 System administration
- 11 System service
- 12 X Window System
이 부분은 자주 사용되는 "눈요깃거리" 개조를 담고 있으며 아치를 보기 좋게 꾸미는 데 중점을 둡니다. 더 많은 것을 위해서는 Category:Eye candy를 보십시오.
grep나 ls와 같은 특정 핵심 유틸리티를 컬러로 출력하는 방법은 핵심 유틸리티 문서에서 다룹니다.
이맥스는 쉘을 완전히 대체하는 것과 같이 일반적인 텍스트 수정에 관련된 것을 넘어서는 옵션을 가진 것으로 유명합니다. Emacs#Colored output issues에서 컬러 출력으로 인한 문자 깨짐에 대한 해결법을 알아보십시오.
Man 페이지 (혹은 매뉴얼 페이지)는 GNU/리눅스 유저에게 가장 유용한 자료입니다. 가독성을 향상시키기 위해 Man Page#Colored man pages에 설명된 대로 설정하실 수 있습니다.
가상 콘솔에서(즉 X 서버 외부에서) 일하는데 많은 시간을 투자한다면 가독성을 높이기 위해 콘솔 글꼴을 변경하실 수도 있습니다. Fonts#Console fonts를 보세요.
글꼴 패키지 패치하기
표준 패키지에 비해 더 나은 렌더링을 제공하기 위해 글꼴 렌더링 라이브러리를 패치할 수도 있습니다. Font Configuration#Patched packages를 보세요.
Category:Audio/Video에 추가적인 멀티미디어 자료가 있습니다.
To enjoy media-rich web content and for a complete browsing experience, browser plugins such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, Adobe Flash Player, and Java can be installed.
Codecs are utilized by multimedia applications to encode or decode audio or video streams. In order to play encoded streams, users must ensure an appropriate codec is installed.
Daemons are programs that run in the background, and are typically started during boot. In order to speed up the boot process, certain daemons can be backgrounded, allowing the boot process to continue whilst the daemon loads. See Daemon for a complete explanation.
Hardware should be auto-detected by udev during the boot process by default. A potential improvement in boot time can be achieved by disabling module auto-loading and specifying required modules manually, as described in rc.conf#Hardware. Additionally Xorg should be able to auto-detect required drivers using udev, but users have the option to configure the X server manually too.
Num Lock activation at boot
Num Lock is a toggle key found in most keyboards. For activating Num Lock's number key-assignment during startup, see Activating Numlock on Bootup.
Retaining boot messages
Once it concludes, the screen is cleared and the login prompt appears, leaving users unable to gather feedback from the boot process. Disable clearing of boot messages to overcome this limitation.
Start X at boot
If utilizing an X server to provide a graphical user interface, users may wish to start this server during the boot process rather than starting it manually after login. See Display Manager if desiring a graphical login or Start X at Boot for methods that do not involve a display manager.
This section applies to small modifications that better console programs' practicality. For more, please see Category:Command shells.
Users can define shortcuts for frequently-used commands using a built-in shell command. Common time-saving aliases can be found in Bash#Aliases.
A list of miscellaneous Bash settings, including completion enhancements, history search and readline macros is available in Bash#Tips and tricks.
Compressed files, or archives, are frequently encountered on a GNU/Linux system. Tar is one of the most commonly used archiving tools, and users should be familiar with its syntax (Arch Linux packages, for example, are simply xzipped tarballs). See Core Utilities#extract for other helpful commands.
To be able to save and view text which has scrolled off the screen, refer to Scrollback buffer.
Using terminal multiplexers like tmux or screen, programs may be ran under sessions composed of tabs and panes that can be detached at will, so when the user either kills the terminal emulator, terminates X, or logs off, the programs associated with the session will continue to run in the background as long as the terminal multiplexer server is active. Interacting with the programs requires reattaching to the session.
This section contains popular input device configuration tips. For more, please see Category:Input devices.
Owners of advanced or unusual mice may find that not all mouse buttons are recognized by default, or may wish to assign different actions for extra buttons. Instructions can be found in Get All Mouse Buttons Working.
Non-English or otherwise non-standard keyboards may not function as expected by default. To define the keymap in virtual consoles, the KEYMAP variable must be set in
/etc/rc.conf using the legacy rc.conf format). For Xorg users, the required changes are described in Xorg#Keyboard layout.
Many laptops use Synaptics or ALPS "touchpad" pointing devices. These, and several other touchpad models, use the Synaptics input driver; see Touchpad Synaptics for installation and configuration details.
To configure your TrackPoint device refer to ThinkWiki.
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol for synchronizing the clocks of computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks.
Not only does the IPv6 module take around 250k of memory, it has also been reported that disabling the feature notoriously speeds up network access for programs that erroneously try to query servers with this newer version. Incidentally, Firefox is listed among the affected applications. So until the widespread adoption of IPv6, one may benefit by disabling IPv6 support.
DNS speed improvement
To improve load time by caching queries, use pdnsd, a very simple DNS server that does not attempt to fill every need. Or install dnsmasq, a broader choice which also supports turning the system into a DHCP server.
Setting up a Firewall
A firewall can provide an extra layer of protection on top of the Linux networking stack. The Linux kernel includes iptables, a stateful firewall, as part of the Netfilter project. It can be configured directly or through a front end. Arch ships with no ports open and daemons will not be started automatically without explicit configuration in rc.conf, so a firewall is not essential if you aren't running services that need to be protected.
This section aims to summarize tweaks, tools and available options useful to improve system and application performance.
Benchmarking is the act of measuring performance and comparing the results to another system's results or a widely accepted standard through a unified procedure.
The Maximizing Performance article gathers information and is a basic rundown about gaining performance in Arch Linux.
Aliases for pacman
Aliasing a command, or a group thereof, is a way of saving time when using the console. This is specially helpful for repetitive tasks that do not need significant alteration to their parameters between executions. Various time saving pacman aliases are organized in pacman Tips, besides other suggested tools.
Arch Build System
Ports is a system initially used by BSD distributions consisting of build scripts that reside in a directory tree on the local system. Simply put, each port contains a script within a directory intuitively named after the installable third-party application.
The ABS tree offers the same functionality by providing build scripts called PKGBUILDs, which are populated with information for a given piece of software; integrity hashes, project URL, version, license and build instructions. These PKGBUILDs are later parsed by makepkg, the actual program that generates packages cleanly manageable by pacman.
Every package in the repositories along with those present in the AUR are subject to recompilation with makepkg.
Arch User Repository
While the ABS tree allows the ability of building software available in the official repositories, the AUR is the equivalent for user submitted packages. It is an unsupported repository of build scripts accessible through the web interface or by an AUR helper.
An AUR helper can add seamless access to the AUR. They may vary in features, but all ease in searching, fetching, building, and installing from over 20,000 PKGBUILDs found in the unofficial repository.
Visit Mirrors for steps on taking full advantage of using the fastest and most up to date pacman mirrors. As explained in the article, a particularly good advice is to routinely check the Mirror Status page and/or Mirror-Status for a list of mirrors that have been recently synced.
This section may be of use to laptop owners or users otherwise seeking power management controls. For more, please see Category:Power management.
Users can configure how the system reacts to ACPI events such as pressing the power button or closing a laptop's lid using acpid.
CPU frequency scaling
Modern processors can decrease their frequency and voltage to reduce heat and power consumption. Less heat leads to a quieter system and prolongs the life of hardware. cpufrequtils is a set of utilities designed to assist CPU frequency scaling.
For articles related to portable computing along with model-specific installation guides, please see Category:Laptops. For a general overview of laptop-related articles and recommendations, see Laptop.
Suspending and hibernation
Several options are available to users desiring suspend-to-RAM (sleep/stand-by) and suspend-to-disk (hibernate) functionality. pm-utils describes one popular method, while hibernate-script is an older alternative that does not depend on Xorg packages. Tuxonice is an option growing in popularity and, while it claims to have more features than the other two options, requires kernel patching or the use of AUR available in the AUR.
This section deals with administrative tasks and system management. For more, please see Category:System administration.
By default, log files are rotated using logrotate, which rotates existing log files to an alternatively named file (suffixed with a number) and empties the original log files. Logrotate is typically executed via cron job; users must ensure the cron daemon is running in order to initiate log rotation.
Users of the ISO 8601 timestamps (yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss-zz:zz) in log files.syslog daemon may wish to configure
A new installation leaves users with only the super user account, better known as root. Logging in as root for prolonged periods of time is widely considered to be foolish and insecure. Instead, users should create and use unprivileged user accounts for most tasks, only using the root account for system administration. The su (substitute user) command allows assuming the identity of another user on the system (usually root) from an existing login, whereas the sudo command grants temporary privilege escalation for a specific command.
Users and groups
Users and groups are used on GNU/Linux for access control; administrators may fine-tune group membership and ownership to grant or deny users and services access to system resources. Access to peripheral devices such as optical (CD/DVD) drives and sound hardware often requires membership in an appropriate group.
To enable communication between Windows and Arch Linux machines across a network, users can use Samba; a re-implementation of the SMB/CIFS networking protocol.
To configure an Arch Linux machine to join and use Active Directory for authentication, read the article on Active_Directory_Integration.
File index and search
Most distributions have a
locate command available to be able to quickly search for files. To get this functionality is the recommended install. After the install you should run
updatedb to index the filesystems.
Local mail delivery
X Window System
Xorg is the public, open-source implementation of the X Window System version 11. If a graphical user interface is desired, the majority of users will use Xorg. See Category:X Server for additional resources.
Whilst Xorg provides the basic framework for building a graphical environment, there are additional components that may be considered necessary for a complete user experience. Desktop environments such as GNOME, KDE, LXDE, and Xfce bundle together a wide range of X clients, such as a window manager, panel, file manager, terminal emulator, text editor, icons, and other utilities. See Category:Desktop environments for a complete list and additional resources.
The default vesa display driver will work with most video cards, but performance can be significantly improved and additional features harnessed by installing the appropriate driver for ATI, Intel, or NVIDIA products.
A full-fledged desktop environment provides a complete and consistent graphical user interface, but tends to consume a considerable amount of system resources. Users seeking to maximize performance or otherwise simplify their environment may opt to install a window manager instead and hand-pick desired extras. An alternative window manager can also be used with most desktop environments. Dynamic, stacking, and tiling window managers differ in their handling of window placement.