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GpsDrive is a car (bike, ship, plane) navigation system. GpsDrive displays your position provided from your GPS receiver on a zoomable map. The maps are autoselected for best resolution depending of your position and can be downloaded from the Internet. Speech output is supported via the "speech dispatcher" software. All GPS receivers supported by gpsd should be usable.

GpsDrive is written in C with use of the GTK+ toolkit under the GPL license, and runs with Linux, Mac OSX, and FreeBSD.

GpsDrive 2.11 features OpenStreetMap/Mapnik vector/offline rendering support, which is time-consuming to setup. This article describes step-by-step how to setup PostgreSQL with PostGIS support, import an OpenStreetMap database, and configure the GpsDrive<->Mapnik<->PostgreSQL connection.

Installing Packages

Install the following packages and dependencies:

   sudo pacman -S gpsdrive mapnik openstreetmap-map-icons-svn

From AUR:

   osm2pgsql-svn osm2poidb-svn

The PostgreSQL installation/setup is described below.

Installing PostgreSQL

First postgresql needs to be installed:

   sudo pacman -S postgresql

Upon startup, the /etc/rc.d/postgresql script will check for and create the postgres user and group, and call the postgresql initdb process if the "/var/lib/postgres/" directory does not exist. The initdb process, among other things, checks the permissions on "/var/lib/postgres/", initializes the template database encoding according to the current user's locale, and sets a default authentication method.

Note: If the default database encoding was not set to UTF8 or needs to be in a specific unicode encoding, see: PostgreSQL#Change Default Encoding of New Databases To UTF-8 (Optional)

   sudo /etc/rc.d/postgresql start

To verify that the postgres user and group have been created and linked, run:

   egrep -i postgres /etc/{passwd,group}
   groups postgres

(Optional) Add postgresql to the list of startup daemons in /etc/rc.conf. Just keep in mind that postgresql locks a fixed amount of memory.

Starting from Scratch

If you want to remove the current database and start from scratch, stop postgresql and archive "/var/lib/postgres/", perhaps as "/var/lib/postgres-archive/". Calling "/etc/rc.d/postgresql start" will create a pristine database. When you are confident that the new database is up to par, "/var/lib/postgres-archive" can be deleted.

Hardening PostgreSQL

For ease of installation postgresql uses the trust authentication method, which will allow any user to connect without a password. Before changing the default however, the postgres user (initial superuser) must set a password to avoid becoming locked out.

   psql -U postgres

This should create an md5-hashed password, prefixed with 'md5...'. To verify:

   select * from pg_shadow;

Now the host-based authentication methods can be modified from "/var/lib/postgres/data/pg_hba.conf". I recommend changing all the "trust" entries to "md5". Alternatively the ident authentication method can be used for local access. While the ident authentication method over TCP/IP is only as trustworth as the local ident server (also, making a local ident server publicly available is a security risk), using ident with unix-domain sockets incurs no additional security risk, and obviates the need to provide passwords. If using ident, change the method of local access to "ident" and provide a unixuser -> postgres user mapping in "/var/lib/postgres/data/pg_ident.conf". The only drawback is lack of syntax to map a specific linux user to all postgres databases.

After modifying any of the configuration files, postgresql needs to be reloaded or restarted, either of:

   sudo su - postgres -c 'pg_ctl reload -D "/var/lib/postgres/data"'
   sudo /etc/rc.d/postgresql restart

When an object is created, it is assigned an owner; normally the role (user) that created the object. Since by default only the owner (or a superuser) can modify an object, there should be no need to modify database roles and privileges in this article.

Creating the PostgreSQL GIS user

It is now time to create the postgresql user that will access all the GIS databases. A good default is:

   -S  The new user will not be a superuser
   -d  The new user will be allowed to create databases
       You'll most likely want to create other GIS databases
       This option is also necessary for the next several steps
   -R  The new user will not be allowed to create new roles
   -P  issue a prompt for the password of the new user

The password will be encrypted corresponding to "/var/lib/postgres/data/pg_hba.conf". So (in the following example the username is "gis"):

   createuser -S -d -R -P -U postgres gis

Creating a PostGIS template database

GpsDrive and OpenStreetMap/Mapnik require postGIS-enabled postgres database. Creating a PostGIS template avoids the need to PostGIS-enable each and every OpenStreetMap database, and some ownership issues.

   createdb -E UTF8 template_postgis -U gis
   createlang -d template_postgis -U gis plpgsql
   psql -d postgres -c "UPDATE pg_database SET datistemplate='true' WHERE datname='template_postgis';" -U postgres
   psql -d template_postgis -f "/usr/share/postgresql/contrib/postgis-1.5/postgis.sql" -U postgres
   psql -d template_postgis -f "/usr/share/postgresql/contrib/postgis-1.5/spatial_ref_sys.sql" -U postgres
   psql -d template_postgis -c "ALTER TABLE spatial_ref_sys OWNER TO gis;" -U postgres
   psql -d template_postgis -c "ALTER TABLE geometry_columns OWNER TO gis;" -U postgres
   psql -d template_postgis -c "ALTER VIEW geography_columns OWNER TO gis;" -U postgres
   psql -d template_postgis -c "VACUUM FREEZE" -U postgres

Wrapping Up the PostgreSQL setup

Next instantiate the GIS database. Since GpsDrive and OpenStreetMap/Mapnik can access different databases, it makes sense to name the database after the region to be imported. For example, "New_Mexico" or "Vienna" "Great_Britain"

   createdb -E UTF8 -T template_postgis -U gis "location"

Importing an OSM File into the PostgreSQL database

To download a snapshot of the entire OpenStreetMap database (planet.osm), visit OpenStreetMap Planet.osm. The webpage also offers extracts of the database mainly from Europe. For greater variety, CloudMade Maps offers extracts from regions all around the globe. Once the *.osm file has been downloaded, it needs to be imported into PostgreSQL in order to be queried by Mapnik. The tool osm2pgsql (currently from AUR) accomplishes this. First though, the working directory needs to be setup:

   mkdir -p ~/gis/osm/
   cd ~/gis/osm
   wget ...
   osm2pgsql --database "location" --username "gis" --password --multi-geometry "file.osm"

Two important notes. First, osm2pgsql has two operating modes, full and slim. Full uses RAM for intermediate storage, and therefore operates relatively fast. Slim-mode, on the other hand, uses the PostgreSQL database for storage of intermediate information. While this is slower, often the *.osm databases contain too many nodes to be cached in RAM. If this happens, osm2pgsql will abort with an error. 32-bit systems do not address enough ram for a planet.osm import, much less a full Europe import, and while 64-bit systems theoretically could have enough RAM, as of 2010 32GB is not enough for Europe.osm. In any case, since slim-mode offers additional features including incremental updates and proper evaluation of mutipolygons, the osm2pgsql wiki recommends always operating in slim-mode, even with small files.

Secondly, the information that osm2pgsql imports into the PostgreSQL database is selected by the file, usually located at "/usr/share/osm2pgsql/". Mapnik uses the osm.xml file to extract information from the same database. If either of the two files are out of sync, it is possible that mapnik will fail to fetch some columns from the database, and thus fail to draw some layers. Since osm2pgsql from AUR is currently packaged from SVN, and the following steps build a customized osm.xml file also from SVN, this should not be a problem. On the upside, to add more geographical features to the database, simple edit the file. For a full overview see the OpenStreetMap osm2pgsql Wiki.

Testing the PostgreSQL connection with QuantumGIS

  • Fire up "/usr/bin/qgis".
  • Menu -> Layer -> Add PostGIS Layer...
    • Create a LocalHost connection:
      • Host:
      • Database: "location"
      • Port: 5432
      • Username: gis
    • Connect
    • Select all four layers and add:
      • planet_osm_line
      • planet_osm_point
      • planet_osm_polygon
      • planet_osm_roads

Depending on the size of the database, the map could take a while to draw. If the map has been satisfactorily drawn, then most likely the osm2pgsql import was successful.

World Boundaries

The world boundaries from OpenStreetMap are not currently (2010) in the database, but provided as external shapefiles. As of 2010 these files consume ~1.2GB of disk-space post-extraction. After setting up the working directory, these files need to be acquired:

   mkdir -p ~/"gis/osm/world_boundaries [$(date '+%Y-%m-%d')]"
   cd ~/"gis/osm/world_boundaries [$(date '+%Y-%m-%d')]"
   mkdir "world_boundaries"
   tar xvzf world_boundaries-spherical.tgz
   tar xvjf processed_p.tar.bz2 -C world_boundaries
   tar xvjf shoreline_300.tar.bz2 -C world_boundaries
   unzip -d world_boundaries
   unzip -d world_boundaries

Creating a customized osm.xml

The final step is to create the osm.xml file GpsDrive/Mapnik needs to extract information from the PostgreSQL database. The latest Mapnik XML scripts can be exported from SVN.

   cd ~/gis/osm/
   svn checkout
   cd mapnik
   #./ -h
   # in the following, replace "$(date '+%Y-%m-%d')" with the correct date
   # also replace "location" in location_osm.xml with the correct location
   python2 osm.xml location_osm.xml --symbols ./symbols/ --world_boundaries ~/"gis/osm/world_boundaries [$(date '+%Y-%m-%d')]/world_boundaries/" --host localhost --user "gis" --dbname "location" --port 5432 --password "..."

The script combines the xml templates from "./inc/" and "./osm.xml" with the symbols (images) from "./symbols/" to create a customized non-template xml file. To update the template files and scripts, simply run:

   cd ~/gis/osm/mapnik/
   svn update

The customized location_osm.xml file will not be modified during the update process.

Using GpsdDrive

Gpsdrive requires an osm.xml file in ~/.gpsdrive/ in order to correctly initialize mapnik. Simple copy over the location_osm.xml file generated in the previous step:

   cp ~/gis/osm/mapnik/location_osm.xml ~/.gpsdrive/osm.xml

Afterwards start GpsDrive. Assuming everything went correctly, there should be a "Mapnik Mode" checkbox in the "_Map Control" options box (vertical menu, left hand side). Checking it enables OpenStreetMap support with the Mapnik renderer. To speed up the display, GpsDrive caches the the rendered Mapnik PNG images in "~/.gpsdrive/map/mapnik_cache/".

To switch PostgreSQL PostGIS/OSM databases, simply generate new osm.xml files and swap them out with "~/.gpsdrive/osm.xml".

Displaying OpenStreetMap POIs

GpsDrive does not read POI (Point of Interest) information from the PostGIS Mapnik database. Instead it uses a custom SQLite database derived by cross-referencing the geoinfo.db file from the OSM map-icons set with an OSM xml map file. By default GpsDrive expects to find this SQLite database at /usr/share/gpsdrive/osm.db, but this can be easily changed in ~/.gpsdrive/gpsdriverc. Edit away:

   osmdbfile = /full/path/to/~/.gpsdrive/osm.db

To create ~/.gpsdrive/osm.db from an *.osm xml map file, use osm2poidb. One limitation is that osm2poidb is unable to update existing SQLite databases for additional *.osm xml map files:

   cd ~/.gpsdrive/
   osm2poidb --db-file /usr/share/icons/map-icons/geoinfo.db --osm-file location_osm.db ~/gis/osm/location.osm
   ln -s location_osm.db osm.db

GpsDrive should now report "DB: Using waypoints from OpenStreetMap database." and display an extra "OSM DB" checkbox under the "Points" information box (vertical menu, left hand side). The "Find" capability of GpsDrive should also now be operational.


GpsDrive cannot find world boundaries

   Missing '/usr/share/mapnik/world_boundaries' please install mapnik world boundaries, if error occurs!

For some strange reason, GpsDrive does not send mapnik the world_boundaries directory specified in ~/.gpsdrive/osm.xml, but a standardized directory of "/usr/share/mapnik/world_boundaries/". Until this is fixed, a quick workaround using symlinks:

   # in the following, replace "$(date '+%Y-%m-%d')" with the correct date
   sudo ln -s ~/"gis/osm/world_boundaries [$(date '+%Y-%m-%d')]/world_boundaries/" /usr/lib/mapnik/world_boundaries
   sudo ln -s /usr/lib/mapnik/ /usr/share/mapnik


You may want to add

 geoinfofile = /usr/share/icons/map-icons/geoinfo.db
 mapnik_font_path = /usr/share/fonts/TTF

into ~/.gpsdrive/gpsdriverc

Other Information

Managing windows in XMonad

The following ManageHook setup requires the XMonad.Hooks.ManageHelpers module in addition to XMonad.ManageHook

   , className =? "Gpsdrive"       <&&>
       fmap (not . isInfixOf "GpsDrive") title             -?> doFloat

Kismet Integration

src/gpskismet.c was just ported (July 2010) to the newcore kismet protocol, see the GpsDrive mailing list, subject "Kismet Integration".

Optimizing PostgreSQL for OSM data

Merging SQLite databases of waypoints schema

Scripts packaged with GpsDrive

Script Details Status Retrieves POI data from different sources and imports them into a mySQL database. (Deprecated) GpsDrive now uses an SQLite database located at ~/.gpsdrive/waypoints.db instead of MySQL to manage user points. Stores GpsDrive-compatible POI information inside the 'poi' column of the PostGIS/Mapnik database. (Deprecated) GpsDrive now uses an SQLite database located at /usr/share/gpsdrive/osm.db to store OpenStreetMap POI data.

Links/References GpsDrive Wiki OSM Extraction Service Planet.osm OSM Mapnik Directions OSM Mapnik/PostGIS Directions OSM Map Icon Information OSM osm2pgsql Page Archwiki PostgreSQL Page PostgreSQL Auth Methods PostgreSQL User Administration
file:///usr/share/doc/postgresql/html/xplang-install.html PostgreSQL Installing Languages