Difference between revisions of "Systemd-boot"

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= Gummiboot =
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[[Category:Boot loaders]]
 
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[http://freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/gummiboot Gummiboot] is a UEFI boot manager written by Kay Sievers and Harald Hoyer. It is simple to configure, but can only start EFI executables, the Linux kernel (with CONFIG_EFI_STUB enabled), grub.efi, and such.
[http://freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/gummiboot Gummiboot] is a new UEFI bootloader written by Kay Sievers. It is simple to configure, but can only start EFI executables, such Linux (with CONFIG_EFI_STUB enabled), grub.efi, and such.
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{{Note|
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In the following steps, replace {{ic|$esp}} with your EFI System Partition. Some users have it on {{ic|/boot/efi}}, others on {{ic|/boot}} directly.
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}}
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== Building ==
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Download gummiboot source:
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{{bc|
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$ git clone git://anongit.freedesktop.org/gummiboot
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$ cd gummiboot
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}}
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Compile:
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{{bc|
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$ make
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}}
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This should be quick, as there is only one file and no configuration options.
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== Installing ==
 
== Installing ==
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{{Note|gummiboot assumes that your EFI System Partition is mounted on {{ic|/boot}}. If your ESP is mounted on {{ic|/boot/efi}} you have to call the following gummiboot install command with the additional {{ic|--path}} switch. This also means that gummiboot will not be able to update itself automatically and you will have to call {{ic|gummiboot --path /boot/efi update}} after every package update. Additionally you will have to make sure that the kernel and initramfs are copied onto the ESP as gummiboot can't load EFI binaries from other partitions. It is therefore strongly recommended to mount your ESP to {{ic|/boot}} if you use gummiboot. The rest of this article will assume that your ESP is mounted on {{ic|/boot}}.}}
  
Copy Gummiboot to the EFI partition:
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Install {{Pkg|gummiboot}} from [extra] and run the following to install gummiboot:
 
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# gummiboot install
{{bc|
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This will automatically copy the gummiboot binary to your EFI System Partition and create a boot entry in the EFI Boot Manager. However, creating the boot entry requires that you are already running in EFI mode and are running kernel 3.8. If you are still running kernel 3.7 or have not booted in EFI mode, creating the boot entry will fail. You should however still be able to boot gummiboot as it copies the binary to the default EFI binary location on your ESP ({{ic|/boot/EFI/BOOT/BOOTX64.EFI}} on x64 systems). Note that the installing process only has to be done once, updating will happen automatically.
# install -Dm0644 gummiboot.efi $esp/EFI/gummiboot/gummiboot.efi
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}}
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Add it to the boot configuration: (only needs to be done once; skip this when upgrading)
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{{bc|
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# efibootmgr -c -L "Gummiboot" -l '\EFI\gummiboot\gummiboot.efi'
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}}
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{{note|
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This can be done only when already booted in UEFI mode. If you do not have another UEFI bootloader set up, you can either run {{ic|gummiboot.efi}} from the UEFI Shell, or copy it to the "default" location {{ic|$esp/EFI/BOOT/BOOTX64.EFI}} for x86_64 systems.
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}}
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== Configuring ==
 
== Configuring ==
  
The basic configuration is kept in {{ic|$esp/loader/default.conf}}, with just two possible configuration options:
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The basic configuration is kept in {{ic|/boot/loader/loader.conf}}, with just two possible configuration options:
  
* {{ic|default ''pattern''}} – default entry to select (without the {{ic|.conf}} suffix); can be a wildcard like {{ic|arch-*}}
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* {{ic|default}} – default entry to select (without the {{ic|.conf}} suffix); can be a wildcard like {{ic|arch-*}}
  
* {{ic|timeout ''seconds''}} – menu timeout in seconds
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* {{ic|timeout}} – menu timeout in seconds. If this is not set, the menu will only be shown when you hold the space key while booting.
  
 
Example:
 
Example:
  
{{hc|$esp/loader/default.conf|
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{{hc|/boot/loader/loader.conf|
default arch
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default arch
timeout 4
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timeout 4
 
}}
 
}}
  
Line 60: Line 27:
  
 
== Adding boot entries ==
 
== Adding boot entries ==
 
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Gummiboot searches for boot menu items in {{ic|/boot/loader/entries/*.conf}} – each file found must contain exactly one boot entry. The possible options are:
{{note|
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If you have separate partitions for {{ic|/boot}} and {{ic|/boot/efi}}, you '''must''' copy the kernel and initramfs to the EFI partition. Gummiboot does not support loading kernels from other partitions than itself. See the section below on how to automate this.
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}}
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Gummiboot searches for boot menu items in {{ic|$esp/loader/entries/*.conf}} – each file found must contain exactly one boot entry. The possible options are:
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* {{ic|title}} – operating system name. '''Required.'''
 
* {{ic|title}} – operating system name. '''Required.'''
  
* {{ic|title-version}} – kernel version, shown only when multiple entries with same title exist. Optional.
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* {{ic|version}} – kernel version, shown only when multiple entries with same title exist. Optional.
  
* {{ic|title-machine}} – machine identifier (usually first few letters from {{ic|/etc/machine-id}}, shown only when multiple entries with same title+version exist. Optional.
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* {{ic|machine-id}} – machine identifier from {{ic|/etc/machine-id}}, shown only when multiple entries with same title and version exist. Optional.
  
* {{ic|efi}} – EFI program to start; e.g. {{ic|\EFI\arch\vmlinuz-linux.efi}}. '''Required.'''
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* {{ic|efi}} – EFI program to start, relative to your ESP ({{ic|/boot}}); e.g. {{ic|/vmlinuz-linux}}. Either this or {{ic|linux}} (see below) is '''required.'''
  
 
* {{ic|options}} – Command-line options to pass to the EFI program. Optional, but you will need at least {{ic|1=initrd=''efipath''}} and {{ic|1=root=''dev''}} if booting Linux.
 
* {{ic|options}} – Command-line options to pass to the EFI program. Optional, but you will need at least {{ic|1=initrd=''efipath''}} and {{ic|1=root=''dev''}} if booting Linux.
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For Linux, you can specify {{ic|linux ''path-to-vmlinuz''}} and {{ic|initrd ''path-to-initramfs''}}; this will be automatically translated to {{ic|efi ''path''}} and {{ic|1=options initrd=''path''}} – this syntax is only supported for convenience and has no differences in function.
  
 
An example entry for Arch Linux:
 
An example entry for Arch Linux:
  
{{hc|$esp/loader/entries/arch.conf|2=
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{{hc|/boot/loader/entries/arch.conf|2=
 
title          Arch Linux
 
title          Arch Linux
title-version  3.5-1
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linux          /vmlinuz-linux
title-machine  067d8bfe
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initrd         /initramfs-linux.img
efi            \EFI\arch\vmlinuz-linux.efi
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options        root=PARTUUID=14420948-2cea-4de7-b042-40f67c618660 ro
options        initrd=\EFI\arch\initramfs-linux.img root=PARTUUID=14420948-2cea-4de7-b042-40f67c618660 ro
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}}
 
}}
  
For Linux, you can specify {{ic|linux ''path-to-vmlinuz''}} and {{ic|initrd ''path-to-initramfs''}}; this will be automatically translated to {{ic|efi ''path''}} and {{ic|1=options initrd=''path''}} – this syntax is only supported for convenience and has no differences in function.
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You can also add other EFI programs such as {{ic|\EFI\arch\grub.efi}}.  
  
You can also add other EFI programs such as {{ic|\EFI\arch\grub.efi}} or {{ic|\EFI\Microsoft\Boot\Bootmgfw.efi}} (the Windows 7 boot manager). The EFI Shell, if installed, will be shown automatically.
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{{Note|Gummiboot will automatically check for binaries of a Windows Installation ({{ic|\EFI\Microsoft\Boot\Bootmgfw.efi}}) or an UEFI Shell ({{ic|\shellx64.efi}}) and display entries for them, so you don't have to create these manually.}}
  
{{hc|$esp/loader/entries/grub.conf|2=
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== Inside the boot menu ==
title          GRUB
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efi            \EFI\arch\grub.efi
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}}
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== Separate boot and EFI partitions ==
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TODO: document keybindings from http://freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/gummiboot
  
TODO: link my kernel-post-upgrade stuff, https://github.com/grawity/code/tree/master/os/arch
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==Troubleshooting==
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====Transferring to new HDD causes breakage====
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Twice now I have transferred my installation from one disk to another, ESP included, and both times this broke my gummiboot setup.  With a lot of trial and error, I have discovered that gummiboot does not like configuration files that have been tranfserred from one disk to another (I used rsync).  
  
== Inside the boot menu ==
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To solve this, delete the $ESP/loader directory and all of its contents, and recreate the necessary configuration files.
  
TODO: document keybindings from http://freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/gummiboot
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Though it has no additional info, here is my [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1193147#p1193147 relevent forum thread].
 +
 
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====Manual installation bootloader====
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If {{ic|gummiboot install}} command failed you can install EFI boot entry manually with efibootmgr utility:
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# efibootmgr -c -g -d /dev/sdX -p Y -w -L "Gummiboot" -l '\EFI\gummiboot\gummibootx64.efi'

Revision as of 11:41, 19 April 2013

Gummiboot is a UEFI boot manager written by Kay Sievers and Harald Hoyer. It is simple to configure, but can only start EFI executables, the Linux kernel (with CONFIG_EFI_STUB enabled), grub.efi, and such.

Installing

Note: gummiboot assumes that your EFI System Partition is mounted on /boot. If your ESP is mounted on /boot/efi you have to call the following gummiboot install command with the additional --path switch. This also means that gummiboot will not be able to update itself automatically and you will have to call gummiboot --path /boot/efi update after every package update. Additionally you will have to make sure that the kernel and initramfs are copied onto the ESP as gummiboot can't load EFI binaries from other partitions. It is therefore strongly recommended to mount your ESP to /boot if you use gummiboot. The rest of this article will assume that your ESP is mounted on /boot.

Install gummiboot from [extra] and run the following to install gummiboot:

# gummiboot install

This will automatically copy the gummiboot binary to your EFI System Partition and create a boot entry in the EFI Boot Manager. However, creating the boot entry requires that you are already running in EFI mode and are running kernel 3.8. If you are still running kernel 3.7 or have not booted in EFI mode, creating the boot entry will fail. You should however still be able to boot gummiboot as it copies the binary to the default EFI binary location on your ESP (/boot/EFI/BOOT/BOOTX64.EFI on x64 systems). Note that the installing process only has to be done once, updating will happen automatically.

Configuring

The basic configuration is kept in /boot/loader/loader.conf, with just two possible configuration options:

  • default – default entry to select (without the .conf suffix); can be a wildcard like arch-*
  • timeout – menu timeout in seconds. If this is not set, the menu will only be shown when you hold the space key while booting.

Example:

/boot/loader/loader.conf
default  arch
timeout  4

Note that both options can be changed in the boot menu itself, which will store them as EFI variables.

Adding boot entries

Gummiboot searches for boot menu items in /boot/loader/entries/*.conf – each file found must contain exactly one boot entry. The possible options are:

  • title – operating system name. Required.
  • version – kernel version, shown only when multiple entries with same title exist. Optional.
  • machine-id – machine identifier from /etc/machine-id, shown only when multiple entries with same title and version exist. Optional.
  • efi – EFI program to start, relative to your ESP (/boot); e.g. /vmlinuz-linux. Either this or linux (see below) is required.
  • options – Command-line options to pass to the EFI program. Optional, but you will need at least initrd=efipath and root=dev if booting Linux.

For Linux, you can specify linux path-to-vmlinuz and initrd path-to-initramfs; this will be automatically translated to efi path and options initrd=path – this syntax is only supported for convenience and has no differences in function.

An example entry for Arch Linux:

/boot/loader/entries/arch.conf
title          Arch Linux
linux          /vmlinuz-linux
initrd         /initramfs-linux.img
options        root=PARTUUID=14420948-2cea-4de7-b042-40f67c618660 ro

You can also add other EFI programs such as \EFI\arch\grub.efi.

Note: Gummiboot will automatically check for binaries of a Windows Installation (\EFI\Microsoft\Boot\Bootmgfw.efi) or an UEFI Shell (\shellx64.efi) and display entries for them, so you don't have to create these manually.

Inside the boot menu

TODO: document keybindings from http://freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/gummiboot

Troubleshooting

Transferring to new HDD causes breakage

Twice now I have transferred my installation from one disk to another, ESP included, and both times this broke my gummiboot setup. With a lot of trial and error, I have discovered that gummiboot does not like configuration files that have been tranfserred from one disk to another (I used rsync).

To solve this, delete the $ESP/loader directory and all of its contents, and recreate the necessary configuration files.

Though it has no additional info, here is my relevent forum thread.

Manual installation bootloader

If gummiboot install command failed you can install EFI boot entry manually with efibootmgr utility:

# efibootmgr -c -g -d /dev/sdX -p Y -w -L "Gummiboot" -l '\EFI\gummiboot\gummibootx64.efi'