Difference between revisions of "Systemd-boot"

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{{lowercase title}}
 
[[Category:Boot loaders]]
 
[[Category:Boot loaders]]
[http://freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/gummiboot Gummiboot] is a UEFI boot loader written by Kay Sievers and Harald Hoyer. It is simple to configure, but can only start EFI executables, the Linux kernel (with CONFIG_EFI_STUB enabled), grub.efi, and such.
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[[de:Gummiboot]]
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[[es:Gummiboot]]
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[[ja:Systemd-boot]]
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[[ru:Systemd-boot]]
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[[zh-cn:Systemd-boot]]
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{{Related articles start}}
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{{Related|Arch boot process}}
 +
{{Related|Boot loaders}}
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{{Related|Secure Boot}}
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{{Related|Unified Extensible Firmware Interface}}
 +
{{Related articles end}}
  
== Installing ==
+
'''systemd-boot''', previously called '''gummiboot''', is a simple UEFI boot manager which executes configured EFI images. The default entry is selected by a configured pattern (glob) or an on-screen menu. It is included with the {{pkg|systemd}}, which is installed on an Arch system by default.
  
{{Note|{{ic|/usr/bin/gummiboot}} requires {{ic|efivarfs}} support in the kernel and requires it to be mounted at {{ic|/sys/firmware/efi/efivars}}. Mounting of efivarfs at this path is done automatically by systemd if the kernel supports efivarfs. LTS kernels do not support efivarfs. In such cases, the user needs to use {{ic|efibootmgr}} to create a boot entry for gummiboot.}}
+
It is simple to configure, but can only start EFI executables, such as the Linux kernel [[EFISTUB]], UEFI Shell, GRUB, the Windows Boot Manager, and such.
  
{{Note|If {{ic|gummiboot}} fails to create a boot entry, check for existence of {{ic|/sys/firmware/efi/efivars/dump-*}} files. If they exist, delete them, reboot and retry {{ic|gummiboot}} again. If even this fails, retry {{ic|gummiboot}} after booting with {{ic|efi_no_storage_paranoia}} kernel parameter. If all these fail, try creating the boot entry using {{ic|efibootmgr}} or UEFI Shell v2 {{ic|bcfg}} command.}}
+
{{Warning|''systemd-boot'' simply provides a boot menu for EFISTUB kernels. In case you have issues booting EFISTUB kernels like in {{Bug|33745}}, you should use a boot loader which does not use EFISTUB, like [[GRUB]], [[Syslinux]] or any other [[Boot loader]] which does not solely rely on [[UEFI]].}}
  
Install {{Pkg|gummiboot}} from [extra] and run the following to install gummiboot:
+
== Installation ==
+
# umount /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
+
# modprobe -r efivars
+
# modprobe efivarfs
+
# mount -t efivarfs efivarfs /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
+
# gummiboot install
+
  
{{Note|The gummiboot command assumes that your EFI System Partition is mounted on {{ic|/boot}}. If your ESP is mounted on {{ic|/boot/efi}} you have to call the following gummiboot install command with the additional {{ic|--path}} switch. This also means that gummiboot will not be able to update itself automatically and you will have to call {{ic|1=gummiboot --path=/boot/efi update}} after every package update. Additionally you will have to make sure that the kernel and initramfs are copied onto the ESP as gummiboot can't load EFI binaries from other partitions. It is therefore strongly recommended to mount your ESP to {{ic|/boot}} if you use gummiboot. The rest of this article will assume that your ESP is mounted on {{ic|/boot}}.}}
+
=== EFI boot ===
  
This will automatically copy the gummiboot binary to your EFI System Partition and create a boot entry in the EFI Boot Manager. You should however still be able to boot gummiboot as it copies the binary to the default EFI binary location on your ESP ({{ic|/boot/EFI/BOOT/BOOTX64.EFI}} on x64 systems). Note that the installation process has to be done only once, updating will happen automatically by the post_install script of {{Pkg|gummiboot}} during package updates.
+
# Make sure you are booted in UEFI mode.
 +
# Verify [[Unified_Extensible_Firmware_Interface#Requirements_for_UEFI_variable_support|your EFI variables are accessible]].
 +
# Mount your [[EFI System Partition]](ESP) properly. {{ic|''esp''}} is used to denote the mountpoint in this article. {{Note|''systemd-boot'' cannot load EFI binaries from other partitions. It is therefore recommended to mount your ESP to {{ic|/boot}}. See [[#Updating]] for more information and work-around, in case you want to separate {{ic|/boot}} from the ESP.}}
 +
# If the ESP will '''not''' be used as the /boot partition then copy your kernel and initramfs onto that ESP. {{Note|For a way to automatically keep the kernel updated on the ESP, have a look at the [[EFISTUB#Using_systemd|EFISTUB article]] for some systemd units that can be adapted. If your efi partition is using automount, you may need to add {{ic|vfat}} to a file in {{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/}} to ensure the current running kernel has the {{ic|vfat}} module loaded at boot, before any kernel update happens that could replace the module for the currently running version making the mounting of {{ic|/boot/efi}} impossible until reboot.}}
 +
# Type the following command to install ''systemd-boot'': {{bc|1=# bootctl --path=''esp'' install}} It will copy the ''systemd-boot'' binary to your EFI System Partition ({{ic|''esp''/EFI/systemd/systemd-bootx64.efi}} and {{ic|''esp''/EFI/Boot/BOOTX64.EFI}} - both of which are identical - on x64 systems) and add ''systemd-boot'' itself as the default EFI application (default boot entry) loaded by the EFI Boot Manager.
 +
# Finally you must [[#Configuration|configure]] the boot loader to function properly.
  
== Configuring ==
+
=== Legacy boot ===
  
The basic configuration is kept in {{ic|/boot/loader/loader.conf}}, with just two possible configuration options:
+
{{Warning|This is not the recommended process.}}
 +
You can also successfully install ''systemd-boot'' if booted with a legacy OS. However, this requires that you later on tell your firmware to launch ''systemd-boot'''s EFI file on boot:
 +
* you either have a working EFI shell somewhere;
 +
* or your firmware interface provides you with a way of properly setting the EFI file that will be loaded at boot time.
 +
{{Note|E.g. on Dell's Latitude series, the firmware interface provides everything you need to setup EFI boot, and the EFI Shell won't be able to write to the computer's ROM.}}
 +
If you can do so, the installation is easier: go into your EFI shell or your firmware configuration interface, and change your machine's default EFI file to {{ic|''esp''/EFI/systemd/systemd-bootx64.efi}} ({{ic|systemd-bootia32.efi}} on i686 systems).
 +
 
 +
=== Updating ===
 +
 
 +
''systemd-boot'' ({{ic|man bootctl}}, {{ic|man systemd-efi-boot-generator}}) assumes that your EFI System Partition is mounted on {{ic|/boot}}. Unlike the previous separate ''gummiboot'' package, which updated automatically on a new package release with a {{ic|post_install}} script, updates of new ''systemd-boot'' versions are now handled manually by the user:
 +
 
 +
# bootctl update
 +
 
 +
If the ESP is not mounted on {{ic|/boot}}, the {{ic|1=--path=}} option can pass it. For example:
 +
 
 +
# bootctl --path=''esp'' update
 +
 
 +
{{Note|This is also the command to use when migrating from ''gummiboot'', before removing that package. If that package has already been removed, however, run {{ic|1=bootctl --path=''esp'' install}}.}}
 +
 
 +
== Configuration ==
 +
 
 +
=== Basic configuration ===
 +
 
 +
The basic configuration is kept in {{ic|''esp''/loader/loader.conf}}, with three possible configuration options:
  
 
* {{ic|default}} – default entry to select (without the {{ic|.conf}} suffix); can be a wildcard like {{ic|arch-*}}
 
* {{ic|default}} – default entry to select (without the {{ic|.conf}} suffix); can be a wildcard like {{ic|arch-*}}
  
* {{ic|timeout}} – menu timeout in seconds. If this is not set, the menu will only be shown when you hold the space key while booting.
+
* {{ic|timeout}} – menu timeout in seconds. If this is not set, the menu will only be shown on key press during boot.
 +
 
 +
* {{ic|editor}} - whether to enable the kernel parameters editor or not. {{ic|1}} (default) is to enable, {{ic|0}} is to disable. Since the user can add {{ic|1=init=/bin/bash}} to bypass root password and gain root access, it's strongly recommended to set this option to {{ic|0}}.
  
 
Example:
 
Example:
  
{{hc|/boot/loader/loader.conf|
+
{{hc|''esp''/loader/loader.conf|
 
default  arch
 
default  arch
 
timeout  4
 
timeout  4
 +
editor  0
 
}}
 
}}
  
Note that both options can be changed in the boot menu itself, which will store them as EFI variables.
+
{{Note|The first 2 options can be changed in the boot menu itself, which will store them as EFI variables.}}
  
== Adding boot entries ==
+
{{Tip|A basic configuration file example is located at {{ic|/usr/share/systemd/bootctl}}.}}
Gummiboot searches for boot menu items in {{ic|/boot/loader/entries/*.conf}} – each file found must contain exactly one boot entry. The possible options are:
+
 
 +
=== Adding boot entries ===
 +
 
 +
{{Note|
 +
* ''bootctl'' will automatically check for "'''Windows Boot Manager'''" ({{ic|\EFI\Microsoft\Boot\Bootmgfw.efi}}), "'''EFI Shell'''" ({{ic|\shellx64.efi}}) and "'''EFI Default Loader'''" ({{ic|\EFI\Boot\bootx64.efi}}). Where detected, entries will also automatically be generated for them as well. However, it does not auto-detect other EFI applications (unlike [[rEFInd]]), so for booting the kernel, manual configuration entries must be created.
 +
* If you dual-boot Windows, it is strongly recommended to disable its default [[Dual boot with Windows#Fast_Start-Up|Fast Start-Up]] option.
 +
* Remember to load the intel [[microcode]] with {{ic|initrd}} if applicable.
 +
* You can find the {{ic|PARTUUID}} for your root partition with the command {{ic|1=blkid -s PARTUUID -o value /dev/sd''xY''}}, where {{ic|''x''}} is the device letter and {{ic|''Y''}} is the partition number. This is required only for your root partition, not {{ic|''esp''}}.}}
 +
 
 +
''bootctl'' searches for boot menu items in {{ic|''esp''/loader/entries/*.conf}} – each file found must contain exactly one boot entry. The possible options are:
  
 
* {{ic|title}} – operating system name. '''Required.'''
 
* {{ic|title}} – operating system name. '''Required.'''
Line 46: Line 91:
 
* {{ic|machine-id}} – machine identifier from {{ic|/etc/machine-id}}, shown only when multiple entries with same title and version exist. Optional.
 
* {{ic|machine-id}} – machine identifier from {{ic|/etc/machine-id}}, shown only when multiple entries with same title and version exist. Optional.
  
* {{ic|efi}} – EFI program to start, relative to your ESP ({{ic|/boot}}); e.g. {{ic|/vmlinuz-linux}}. Either this or {{ic|linux}} (see below) is '''required.'''
+
* {{ic|efi}} – EFI program to start, relative to your ESP ({{ic|''esp''}}); e.g. {{ic|/vmlinuz-linux}}. Either this or {{ic|linux}} (see below) is '''required.'''
  
* {{ic|options}} – Command-line options to pass to the EFI program. Optional, but you will need at least {{ic|1=initrd=''efipath''}} and {{ic|1=root=''dev''}} if booting Linux.
+
* {{ic|options}} – command line options to pass to the EFI program or kernel boot parameters. Optional, but you will need at least {{ic|1=initrd=''efipath''}} and {{ic|1=root=''dev''}} if booting Linux.
  
For Linux, you can specify {{ic|linux ''path-to-vmlinuz''}} and {{ic|initrd ''path-to-initramfs''}}; this will be automatically translated to {{ic|efi ''path''}} and {{ic|1=options initrd=''path''}} – this syntax is only supported for convenience and has no differences in function.
+
For Linux, you can specify {{ic|linux ''path-to-vmlinuz''}} and {{ic|initrd ''path-to-initramfs''}}; this will be automatically translated to {{ic|efi ''path''}} and {{ic|1=options initrd=''path''}} – this syntax is only supported for convenience and has no differences in function.  
  
An example entry for Arch Linux:
+
==== Standard root installations ====
  
{{hc|/boot/loader/entries/arch.conf|2=
+
Here is an example entry for a root partition without LVM or LUKS:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|''esp''/loader/entries/arch.conf|2=
 
title          Arch Linux
 
title          Arch Linux
 
linux          /vmlinuz-linux
 
linux          /vmlinuz-linux
Line 61: Line 108:
 
}}
 
}}
  
You can also add other EFI programs such as {{ic|\EFI\arch\grub.efi}}.  
+
Please note in the example above that {{ic|PARTUUID}}/{{ic|PARTLABEL}} identifies a GPT partition, and differs from {{ic|UUID}}/{{ic|LABEL}}, which identifies a filesystem. Using the {{ic|PARTUUID}}/{{ic|PARTLABEL}} is advantageous because it is invariant (i.e. unchanging) if you reformat the partition with another filesystem, or if the {{ic|/dev/sd* }}mapping changed for some reason. It is also useful if you do not have a filesystem on the partition (or use LUKS, which does not support {{ic|LABEL}}s).
  
{{Note|Gummiboot will automatically check for binaries of a Windows Installation ({{ic|\EFI\Microsoft\Boot\Bootmgfw.efi}}) or an UEFI Shell ({{ic|\shellx64.efi}}) and display entries for them, so you don't have to create these manually.}}
+
{{Tip|An example entry file is located at {{ic|/usr/share/systemd/bootctl}}.}}
  
== Inside the boot menu ==
+
==== LVM root installations ====
  
TODO: document keybindings from http://freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/gummiboot
+
{{Warning|''systemd-boot'' cannot be used without a separate {{ic|/boot}} filesystem outside of LVM.}}
 +
 
 +
Here is an example for a root partition using [[LVM|Logical Volume Management]]:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|''esp''/loader/entries/arch-lvm.conf|2=
 +
title          Arch Linux (LVM)
 +
linux          /vmlinuz-linux
 +
initrd        /initramfs-linux.img
 +
options        root=/dev/mapper/<VolumeGroup-LogicalVolume> rw
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Replace {{ic|<VolumeGroup-LogicalVolume>}} with the actual VG and LV names (e.g. {{ic|1=root=/dev/mapper/volgroup00-lvolroot}}). Alternatively, it is also possible to use a UUID instead:
 +
....
 +
options  root=UUID=<UUID identifier> rw
 +
 
 +
Note that {{ic|1=root='''UUID'''=}} is used instead of {{ic|1=root='''PARTUUID'''=}}, which is used for Root partitions without LVM or LUKS.
 +
 
 +
==== Encrypted Root Installations ====
 +
 
 +
Here is an example configuration file for an encrypted root partition ([[Dm-crypt|DM-Crypt / LUKS]]):
 +
 
 +
{{hc|''esp''/loader/entries/arch-encrypted.conf|2=
 +
title Arch Linux Encrypted
 +
linux /vmlinuz-linux
 +
initrd /initramfs-linux.img
 +
options cryptdevice=UUID=<UUID>:<mapped-name> root=/dev/mapper/<mapped-name> quiet rw
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
UUID is used in this example; {{ic|PARTUUID}} should be able to replace the UUID, if so desired. You may also replace the {{ic|/dev}} path with a regular UUID. {{ic|mapped-name}} is whatever you want it to be called. See [[Dm-crypt/System configuration#Boot loader]].
 +
 
 +
If you are using LVM, your cryptdevice line will look like this:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|''esp''/loader/entries/arch-encrypted-lvm.conf|2=
 +
title Arch Linux Encrypted LVM
 +
linux /vmlinuz-linux
 +
initrd /initramfs-linux.img
 +
options cryptdevice=UUID=<UUID>:MyVolGroup root=/dev/mapper/MyVolGroup-MyVolRoot quiet rw
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
You can also add other EFI programs such as {{ic|\EFI\arch\grub.efi}}.
 +
 
 +
==== btrfs subvolume root installations ====
 +
 
 +
If booting a [[btrfs]] subvolume as root, amend the {{ic|options}} line with {{ic|rootflags<nowiki>=</nowiki>subvol<nowiki>=</nowiki><root subvolume>}}. In the example below, root has been mounted as a btrfs subvolume called 'ROOT' (e.g. {{ic|mount -o subvol<nowiki>=</nowiki>ROOT /dev/sdxY /mnt}}):
 +
 
 +
{{hc|''esp''/loader/entries/arch-btrfs-subvol.conf|2=
 +
title          Arch Linux
 +
linux          /vmlinuz-linux
 +
initrd        /initramfs-linux.img
 +
options        root=PARTUUID=14420948-2cea-4de7-b042-40f67c618660 rw rootflags<nowiki>=</nowiki>subvol<nowiki>=</nowiki>ROOT
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
A failure to do so will otherwise result in the following error message: {{ic|ERROR: Root device mounted successfully, but /sbin/init does not exist.}}
 +
 
 +
==== EFI Shells or other EFI apps ====
 +
 
 +
In case you installed EFI shells and other EFI application into the ESP, you can use the following snippets:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|''esp''/loader/entries/uefi-shell-v1-x86_64.conf|2=
 +
title  UEFI Shell x86_64 v1
 +
efi    /EFI/shellx64_v1.efi
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{{hc|''esp''/loader/entries/uefi-shell-v2-x86_64.conf|2=
 +
title  UEFI Shell x86_64 v2
 +
efi    /EFI/shellx64_v2.efi
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{{Expansion|Add example on how to boot into EFI firmware setup.}}
 +
 
 +
=== Support hibernation ===
 +
 
 +
See [[Suspend and hibernate]].
 +
 
 +
== Keys inside the boot menu ==
 +
 
 +
The following keys are used inside the menu:
 +
* {{ic|Up/Down}} - select entry
 +
* {{ic|Enter}} - boot the selected entry
 +
* {{ic|d}} - select the default entry to boot (stored in a non-volatile EFI variable)
 +
* {{ic|-/T}} - decrease the timeout (stored in a non-volatile EFI variable)
 +
* {{ic|+/t}} - increase the timeout (stored in a non-volatile EFI variable)
 +
* {{ic|e}} - edit the kernel command line. It has no effect if the {{ic|editor}} config option is set to {{ic|0}}.
 +
* {{ic|v}} - show the gummiboot and UEFI version
 +
* {{ic|Q}} - quit
 +
* {{ic|P}} - print the current configuration
 +
* {{ic|h/?}} - help
 +
 
 +
These hotkeys will, when pressed inside the menu or during bootup, directly boot
 +
a specific entry:
 +
 
 +
* {{ic|l}} - Linux
 +
* {{ic|w}} - Windows
 +
* {{ic|a}} - OS X
 +
* {{ic|s}} - EFI Shell
 +
* {{ic|1-9}} - number of entry
  
 
== Troubleshooting ==
 
== Troubleshooting ==
  
==== Manual entry using efibootmgr ====
+
=== Manual entry using efibootmgr ===
 +
 
 +
If {{ic|bootctl install}} command failed, you can create a EFI boot entry manually using {{Pkg|efibootmgr}}:
 +
 
 +
# efibootmgr -c -d /dev/sdX -p Y -l /EFI/systemd/systemd-bootx64.efi -L "Linux Boot Manager"
 +
 
 +
where {{ic|/dev/sdXY}} is the [[EFI System Partition]].
 +
 
 +
=== Menu does not appear after Windows upgrade ===
 +
 
 +
See [[UEFI#Windows changes boot order]].
  
If {{ic|gummiboot install}} command failed you can create a EFI boot entry manually with {{ic|efibootmgr}} utility:
+
== See also ==
  
# efibootmgr -c -w -d /dev/sdX -p Y -l '\EFI\gummiboot\gummibootx64.efi' -L "Gummiboot"
+
* http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/systemd-boot/

Latest revision as of 23:07, 27 August 2016

systemd-boot, previously called gummiboot, is a simple UEFI boot manager which executes configured EFI images. The default entry is selected by a configured pattern (glob) or an on-screen menu. It is included with the systemd, which is installed on an Arch system by default.

It is simple to configure, but can only start EFI executables, such as the Linux kernel EFISTUB, UEFI Shell, GRUB, the Windows Boot Manager, and such.

Warning: systemd-boot simply provides a boot menu for EFISTUB kernels. In case you have issues booting EFISTUB kernels like in FS#33745, you should use a boot loader which does not use EFISTUB, like GRUB, Syslinux or any other Boot loader which does not solely rely on UEFI.

Installation

EFI boot

  1. Make sure you are booted in UEFI mode.
  2. Verify your EFI variables are accessible.
  3. Mount your EFI System Partition(ESP) properly. esp is used to denote the mountpoint in this article.
    Note: systemd-boot cannot load EFI binaries from other partitions. It is therefore recommended to mount your ESP to /boot. See #Updating for more information and work-around, in case you want to separate /boot from the ESP.
  4. If the ESP will not be used as the /boot partition then copy your kernel and initramfs onto that ESP.
    Note: For a way to automatically keep the kernel updated on the ESP, have a look at the EFISTUB article for some systemd units that can be adapted. If your efi partition is using automount, you may need to add vfat to a file in /etc/modules-load.d/ to ensure the current running kernel has the vfat module loaded at boot, before any kernel update happens that could replace the module for the currently running version making the mounting of /boot/efi impossible until reboot.
  5. Type the following command to install systemd-boot:
    # bootctl --path=esp install
    It will copy the systemd-boot binary to your EFI System Partition (esp/EFI/systemd/systemd-bootx64.efi and esp/EFI/Boot/BOOTX64.EFI - both of which are identical - on x64 systems) and add systemd-boot itself as the default EFI application (default boot entry) loaded by the EFI Boot Manager.
  6. Finally you must configure the boot loader to function properly.

Legacy boot

Warning: This is not the recommended process.

You can also successfully install systemd-boot if booted with a legacy OS. However, this requires that you later on tell your firmware to launch systemd-boot's EFI file on boot:

  • you either have a working EFI shell somewhere;
  • or your firmware interface provides you with a way of properly setting the EFI file that will be loaded at boot time.
Note: E.g. on Dell's Latitude series, the firmware interface provides everything you need to setup EFI boot, and the EFI Shell won't be able to write to the computer's ROM.

If you can do so, the installation is easier: go into your EFI shell or your firmware configuration interface, and change your machine's default EFI file to esp/EFI/systemd/systemd-bootx64.efi (systemd-bootia32.efi on i686 systems).

Updating

systemd-boot (man bootctl, man systemd-efi-boot-generator) assumes that your EFI System Partition is mounted on /boot. Unlike the previous separate gummiboot package, which updated automatically on a new package release with a post_install script, updates of new systemd-boot versions are now handled manually by the user:

# bootctl update

If the ESP is not mounted on /boot, the --path= option can pass it. For example:

# bootctl --path=esp update
Note: This is also the command to use when migrating from gummiboot, before removing that package. If that package has already been removed, however, run bootctl --path=esp install.

Configuration

Basic configuration

The basic configuration is kept in esp/loader/loader.conf, with three possible configuration options:

  • default – default entry to select (without the .conf suffix); can be a wildcard like arch-*
  • timeout – menu timeout in seconds. If this is not set, the menu will only be shown on key press during boot.
  • editor - whether to enable the kernel parameters editor or not. 1 (default) is to enable, 0 is to disable. Since the user can add init=/bin/bash to bypass root password and gain root access, it's strongly recommended to set this option to 0.

Example:

esp/loader/loader.conf
default  arch
timeout  4
editor   0
Note: The first 2 options can be changed in the boot menu itself, which will store them as EFI variables.
Tip: A basic configuration file example is located at /usr/share/systemd/bootctl.

Adding boot entries

Note:
  • bootctl will automatically check for "Windows Boot Manager" (\EFI\Microsoft\Boot\Bootmgfw.efi), "EFI Shell" (\shellx64.efi) and "EFI Default Loader" (\EFI\Boot\bootx64.efi). Where detected, entries will also automatically be generated for them as well. However, it does not auto-detect other EFI applications (unlike rEFInd), so for booting the kernel, manual configuration entries must be created.
  • If you dual-boot Windows, it is strongly recommended to disable its default Fast Start-Up option.
  • Remember to load the intel microcode with initrd if applicable.
  • You can find the PARTUUID for your root partition with the command blkid -s PARTUUID -o value /dev/sdxY, where x is the device letter and Y is the partition number. This is required only for your root partition, not esp.

bootctl searches for boot menu items in esp/loader/entries/*.conf – each file found must contain exactly one boot entry. The possible options are:

  • title – operating system name. Required.
  • version – kernel version, shown only when multiple entries with same title exist. Optional.
  • machine-id – machine identifier from /etc/machine-id, shown only when multiple entries with same title and version exist. Optional.
  • efi – EFI program to start, relative to your ESP (esp); e.g. /vmlinuz-linux. Either this or linux (see below) is required.
  • options – command line options to pass to the EFI program or kernel boot parameters. Optional, but you will need at least initrd=efipath and root=dev if booting Linux.

For Linux, you can specify linux path-to-vmlinuz and initrd path-to-initramfs; this will be automatically translated to efi path and options initrd=path – this syntax is only supported for convenience and has no differences in function.

Standard root installations

Here is an example entry for a root partition without LVM or LUKS:

esp/loader/entries/arch.conf
title          Arch Linux
linux          /vmlinuz-linux
initrd         /initramfs-linux.img
options        root=PARTUUID=14420948-2cea-4de7-b042-40f67c618660 rw

Please note in the example above that PARTUUID/PARTLABEL identifies a GPT partition, and differs from UUID/LABEL, which identifies a filesystem. Using the PARTUUID/PARTLABEL is advantageous because it is invariant (i.e. unchanging) if you reformat the partition with another filesystem, or if the /dev/sd* mapping changed for some reason. It is also useful if you do not have a filesystem on the partition (or use LUKS, which does not support LABELs).

Tip: An example entry file is located at /usr/share/systemd/bootctl.

LVM root installations

Warning: systemd-boot cannot be used without a separate /boot filesystem outside of LVM.

Here is an example for a root partition using Logical Volume Management:

esp/loader/entries/arch-lvm.conf
title          Arch Linux (LVM)
linux          /vmlinuz-linux
initrd         /initramfs-linux.img
options        root=/dev/mapper/<VolumeGroup-LogicalVolume> rw

Replace <VolumeGroup-LogicalVolume> with the actual VG and LV names (e.g. root=/dev/mapper/volgroup00-lvolroot). Alternatively, it is also possible to use a UUID instead:

....
options  root=UUID=<UUID identifier> rw

Note that root=UUID= is used instead of root=PARTUUID=, which is used for Root partitions without LVM or LUKS.

Encrypted Root Installations

Here is an example configuration file for an encrypted root partition (DM-Crypt / LUKS):

esp/loader/entries/arch-encrypted.conf
title Arch Linux Encrypted
linux /vmlinuz-linux
initrd /initramfs-linux.img
options cryptdevice=UUID=<UUID>:<mapped-name> root=/dev/mapper/<mapped-name> quiet rw

UUID is used in this example; PARTUUID should be able to replace the UUID, if so desired. You may also replace the /dev path with a regular UUID. mapped-name is whatever you want it to be called. See Dm-crypt/System configuration#Boot loader.

If you are using LVM, your cryptdevice line will look like this:

esp/loader/entries/arch-encrypted-lvm.conf
title Arch Linux Encrypted LVM
linux /vmlinuz-linux
initrd /initramfs-linux.img
options cryptdevice=UUID=<UUID>:MyVolGroup root=/dev/mapper/MyVolGroup-MyVolRoot quiet rw

You can also add other EFI programs such as \EFI\arch\grub.efi.

btrfs subvolume root installations

If booting a btrfs subvolume as root, amend the options line with rootflags=subvol=<root subvolume>. In the example below, root has been mounted as a btrfs subvolume called 'ROOT' (e.g. mount -o subvol=ROOT /dev/sdxY /mnt):

esp/loader/entries/arch-btrfs-subvol.conf
title          Arch Linux
linux          /vmlinuz-linux
initrd         /initramfs-linux.img
options        root=PARTUUID=14420948-2cea-4de7-b042-40f67c618660 rw rootflags=subvol=ROOT

A failure to do so will otherwise result in the following error message: ERROR: Root device mounted successfully, but /sbin/init does not exist.

EFI Shells or other EFI apps

In case you installed EFI shells and other EFI application into the ESP, you can use the following snippets:

esp/loader/entries/uefi-shell-v1-x86_64.conf
title  UEFI Shell x86_64 v1
efi    /EFI/shellx64_v1.efi
esp/loader/entries/uefi-shell-v2-x86_64.conf
title  UEFI Shell x86_64 v2
efi    /EFI/shellx64_v2.efi

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: Add example on how to boot into EFI firmware setup. (Discuss in Talk:Systemd-boot#)

Support hibernation

See Suspend and hibernate.

Keys inside the boot menu

The following keys are used inside the menu:

  • Up/Down - select entry
  • Enter - boot the selected entry
  • d - select the default entry to boot (stored in a non-volatile EFI variable)
  • -/T - decrease the timeout (stored in a non-volatile EFI variable)
  • +/t - increase the timeout (stored in a non-volatile EFI variable)
  • e - edit the kernel command line. It has no effect if the editor config option is set to 0.
  • v - show the gummiboot and UEFI version
  • Q - quit
  • P - print the current configuration
  • h/? - help

These hotkeys will, when pressed inside the menu or during bootup, directly boot a specific entry:

  • l - Linux
  • w - Windows
  • a - OS X
  • s - EFI Shell
  • 1-9 - number of entry

Troubleshooting

Manual entry using efibootmgr

If bootctl install command failed, you can create a EFI boot entry manually using efibootmgr:

# efibootmgr -c -d /dev/sdX -p Y -l /EFI/systemd/systemd-bootx64.efi -L "Linux Boot Manager"

where /dev/sdXY is the EFI System Partition.

Menu does not appear after Windows upgrade

See UEFI#Windows changes boot order.

See also