Difference between revisions of "HiDPI"

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[[Category:Graphics]]
 
[[Category:Graphics]]
 
[[ja:HiDPI]]
 
[[ja:HiDPI]]
 +
[[zh-hans:HiDPI]]
 
{{Related articles start}}
 
{{Related articles start}}
 
{{Related|Font configuration}}
 
{{Related|Font configuration}}
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=== GNOME ===
 
=== GNOME ===
 +
To enable HiDPI, ''Settings > Devices > Displays'',or use gsettings:
  
To enable HiDPI, use gsettings:
+
$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.xsettings overrides "[{'Gdk/WindowScalingFactor', <2>}]"
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface scaling-factor 2
  
gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface scaling-factor 2
+
{{Note|1=GNOME only allows integer scaling numbers to be set. 1 = 100%, 2 = 200%, etc.}}
  
{{Note|1={{ic|scaling-factor}} only allows whole numbers to be set. 1 = 100%, 2 = 200%, etc...}}
+
==== Fractional Scaling ====
  
==== How to use non-whole numbers ====
+
A setting of {{ic|2, 3, etc}}, which is all you can do with {{ic|scaling-factor}}, may not be ideal for certain HiDPI displays and smaller screens (e.g. small tablets). 
 +
 
 +
* Wayland
 +
 
 +
Enable fractional Scaling experimental-feature:
 +
 
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.mutter experimental-features "['scale-monitor-framebuffer']"
 +
 
 +
then open ''Settings > Devices > Displays'' (the new options may only appear after a restart)
 +
 
 +
* Xorg
 +
 
 +
You can achieve any non-integer scale factor by using a combination of GNOME's {{ic|scaling-factor}} and [[xrandr]]. This combination keeps the TTF fonts properly scaled so that they do not become blurry if using {{ic|xrandr}} alone. You specify zoom-in factor with {{ic|gsettings}} and zoom-out factor with [[xrandr]].
 +
 
 +
First scale GNOME up to the minimum size which is too big. Usually "2" is already too big, otherwise try "3" etc. Then start scaling down by setting zoom-out factor with [[xrandr]]. First get the relevant output name, the examples below use {{ic|eDP1}}. Start e.g. with zoom-out 1.25 times. If the UI is still too big, increase the scale factor; if it is too small decrease the scale factor.
 +
 
 +
$ xrandr --output eDP1 --scale 1.25x1.25
 +
 
 +
{{Note|To allow the mouse to reach the whole screen, you may need to use the {{ic|--panning}} option as explained in [[#Side display]].}}
 +
 
 +
{{Accuracy|The following was initially added under [[#X Resources]]. Clarify how it integrates with the info there or that above for GNOME.|section=GNOME ignores X settings}}
 +
 
 +
GNOME ignores X settings due to its xsettings Plugin in Gnome Settings Daemon, where DPI setting is hard coded.
 +
There is blog entry for [http://blog.drtebi.com/2012/12/changing-dpi-setting-on-gnome-34.html recompiling Gnome Settings Daemon].
 +
In the source documentation there is another way mentioned to set X settings DPI:
 +
 
 +
You can use the dconf Editor and navigate to key
 +
 
 +
/org/gnome/settings-daemon/plugins/xsettings/overrides
 +
 
 +
and complement the entry with the value
 +
 
 +
'Xft/DPI': <153600>
 +
 
 +
From README.xsettings
  
A setting of {{ic|2, 3, etc}}, which is all you can do with {{ic|scaling-factor}}, may not be ideal for certain HiDPI displays and smaller screens (e.g. small tablets).
+
Noting that variants must be specified in the usual way (wrapped in <>).
  
Alternatively, you can achieve scales of 1.25, 1.5, 1.75 and more by using a combination of {{ic|scaling-factor}} and {{ic|xrandr}}.  This combination keeps the TTF fonts properly scaled so that they do not become blurry if using {{ic|xrandr}} alone.
+
Note also that DPI in the above example is expressed in 1024ths of an inch.
  
For example, to set a scale of 1.5 (which is 150%):
+
==== Text Scaling ====
  
# First get the native display size for the screen.
+
Alternatively or additionally to above solution, you can scale only text by factor not limited by whole numbers, for example:
xrandr
 
Screen 0: minimum 1 x 1, current 1920 x 1080, maximum 16384 x 16384
 
eDP1 connected 1920x1080+0+0 (normal left inverted right x axis y axis) 256mm x 144mm
 
  1920x1080    60.00*+  50.00
 
 
# This 11.5" display on output eDP1 has a native resolution of 1920x1080.
 
# Multiple these numbers by your desired scale.  For 150%, multiple by 1.5
 
# and use this numbers to set a --scale-from and --panning
 
xrandr --output eDP1 --scale-from 2880x1620 --panning 2880x1620
 
 
# Now use <code>org.gnome.desktop.interface scaling-factor</code> to get 1.5 scale.
 
gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface scaling-factor 2
 
  
This will be approximately a 1.5x scale factor using the native resolution of the display.
+
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface text-scaling-factor 1.5
  
 
=== KDE ===
 
=== KDE ===
  
Though some issues still prevail , KDE plasma 5 provides a decent  support for HiDPI screens . To view development activities of KDE regarding HiDPI support please visit
+
You can use KDE's settings to fine tune font, icon, and widget scaling. This solution affects both Qt and Gtk+ applications.
https://community.kde.org/KDE/High-dpi_issues
 
  
Please follow these guidelines for HiDPI support in KDE plasma 5
+
To adjust font, widget, and icon scaling together:
  
# Increase font dpi (System Settings →  Font → Force font dpi, enter a number such as 125, 144 or 150 etc)
+
# ''System Settings > Display and Monitor > Display Configuration > Scale Display''
# Change Scale ( System Settings Display and Monitor → Display Configuration → Scale Display , scroll to value 2 )
+
# Drag the slider to the desired size
 +
# Restart for the settings to take effect
 +
 
 +
To adjust only font scaling:
 +
 
 +
# ''System Settings > Fonts''
 +
# Check "Force fonts DPI" and adjust the DPI level to the desired value. This setting should take effect immediately for newly started applications. You will have to logout and login for it to take effect on Plasma desktop.
 +
 
 +
To adjust only icon scaling:
 +
 
 +
# ''System Settings > Icons > Advanced''
 +
# Choose the desired icon size for each category listed. This should take effect immediately.
 +
 
 +
'''Display Scale not integer bug :'''
 +
 +
When you use not integer values for Display Scale it causes font render issue in some QT application ( ex. Okular ).
 +
 
 +
A workaround for this is to:
 +
 
 +
# Set the scale value to {{ic|1}}
 +
# Adjust your font and icons and use the "Force fonts DPI" ( this affects all apps, also GTK but not create issue with the fonts )
 +
# Restart KDE
 +
# If required tune the GTK apps using the variables {{ic|GDK_SCALE}}/{{ic|GDK_DPI_SCALE}} (as described above)
 +
 
 +
==== Tray icons with fixed size ====
 +
 
 +
The tray icons are not scaled with the rest of the desktop, since Plasma ignores the Qt scaling settings by default. To make Plasma respect the Qt settings, set {{ic|PLASMA_USE_QT_SCALING}} to {{ic|1}}.
  
 
=== Xfce ===
 
=== Xfce ===
  
Go to Settings Manager Appearance Fonts, and change the DPI parameter. The value of 180 or 192 seems to work well on Retina screens. To get a more precise number, you can use <code>xdpyinfo | grep resolution</code>, and then double it.
+
Xfce uses the DPI given by the X server. There is an option to override Font DPI (''Settings Manager > Appearance > Fonts > DPI > Custom DPI setting'') but it's better to adjust X server DPI instead. See [[Xorg#Display size and DPI]] for how to fix it.
 +
 
 +
To enlarge icons in system tray, ''right-click on it (aim for empty space / top pixels / bottom pixels, so that you will not activate icons themselves) > Properties'', set “Maximum icon size” to 32, 48 or 64.
 +
 
 +
Xfwm comes with two hidpi themes: Default-hdpi and Default-xhdpi. You can set them under ''Settings Manager > Window Manager > Style > Theme''.
  
To enlarge icons in system tray, right-click on it (aim for empty space / top pixels / bottom pixels, so that you will not activate icons themselves) → “Properties” → set “Maximum icon size” to 32, 48 or 64.
+
You can set the default icon sizes of gtk2 menus, buttons and so on under ''Settings Manager > Settings Editor > xsettings > Gtk > IconSizes'', with a line like this: {{ic|1=gtk-large-toolbar=96,96:gtk-small-toolbar=64,64:gtk-menu=64,64:gtk-dialog=96,96:gtk-button=64,64:gtk-dnd=64,64}}. "gtk-dnd" is for the icons during drag'n'drop, the others are quite self-explanatory. You can use any value your icon theme supports.
  
 
=== Cinnamon ===
 
=== Cinnamon ===
  
Supports HiDPI since 2.2. Even without rebuilding GTK3, the support is pretty good (e.g. window borders are correctly sized, which is not the case under Xfce).
+
Has good support out of the box.
  
 
=== Enlightenment ===
 
=== Enlightenment ===
  
For E18, go to the E Setting panel. In Look Scaling, you can control the UI scaling ratios. A ratio of 1.2 seems to work well for the native resolution of the MBPr 15" screen.
+
For E18, go to the E Setting panel. In ''Look > Scaling'', you can control the UI scaling ratios. A ratio of 1.2 seems to work well for the native resolution of the MBPr 15" screen.
  
 
== X Server ==
 
== X Server ==
Line 72: Line 126:
 
To verify that the X Server has properly detected the physical dimensions of your monitor, use the ''xdpyinfo'' utility from the {{Pkg|xorg-xdpyinfo}} package:
 
To verify that the X Server has properly detected the physical dimensions of your monitor, use the ''xdpyinfo'' utility from the {{Pkg|xorg-xdpyinfo}} package:
  
$ xdpyinfo | grep -B 2 resolution
+
{{hc|$ xdpyinfo {{!}} grep -B 2 resolution|
screen #0:
+
screen #0:
  dimensions:    3200x1800 pixels (423x238 millimeters)
+
  dimensions:    3200x1800 pixels (423x238 millimeters)
  resolution:    192x192 dots per inch
+
  resolution:    192x192 dots per inch
 +
}}
  
This examples uses inaccurate dimensions (423mm x 328mm, even though the Dell XPS 9530 has 346mm x 194mm) to have a clean multiple of 96 dpi, in this case 192 dpi. This tends to work better than using the correct DPI — Pango renders fonts crisper in i3 for example.
+
This example uses inaccurate dimensions (423mm x 328mm, even though the Dell XPS 9530 has 346mm x 194mm) to have a clean multiple of 96 dpi, in this case 192 dpi. This tends to work better than using the correct DPI — Pango renders fonts crisper in i3 for example.
  
 
If the DPI displayed by xdpyinfo is not correct, see [[Xorg#Display size and DPI]] for how to fix it.
 
If the DPI displayed by xdpyinfo is not correct, see [[Xorg#Display size and DPI]] for how to fix it.
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== X Resources ==
 
== X Resources ==
  
If you are not using a desktop environment such as GNOME, KDE, Xfce, or other that manipulates the X settings for you, you can set the desired DPI setting manually via the {{ic|Xft.dpi}} variable in {{ic|~/.Xresources}}:
+
If you are not using a desktop environment such as KDE, Xfce, or other that manipulates the X settings for you, you can set the desired DPI setting manually via the {{ic|Xft.dpi}} variable in [[Xresources]]:
  
{{hc|~/.Xresources|<nowiki>
+
{{hc|~/.Xresources|2=
 
Xft.dpi: 180
 
Xft.dpi: 180
 
Xft.autohint: 0
 
Xft.autohint: 0
Line 93: Line 148:
 
Xft.antialias: 1
 
Xft.antialias: 1
 
Xft.rgba: rgb
 
Xft.rgba: rgb
</nowiki>}}
+
}}
  
Make sure the settings are loaded properly when X starts, for instance in your {{ic|~/.xinitrc`}} with {{ic|xrdb -merge ~/.Xresources}} (see [[Xresources]] for more information).
+
Make sure the settings are loaded properly when X starts, for instance in your {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} with {{ic|xrdb -merge ~/.Xresources}} (see [[Xresources]] for more information).
  
 
This will make the font render properly in most toolkits and applications, it will however not affect things such as icon size!
 
This will make the font render properly in most toolkits and applications, it will however not affect things such as icon size!
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=== Qt 5 ===
 
=== Qt 5 ===
  
Qt5 applications can often be run at higher dpi by setting the QT_DEVICE_PIXEL_RATIO environment variable. Note that the variable has to be set to a whole integer, so setting it to 1.5 will not work.
+
Since Qt 5.6, Qt 5 applications can be instructed to honor screen DPI by setting the {{ic|QT_AUTO_SCREEN_SCALE_FACTOR}} environment variable:
 +
 
 +
export QT_AUTO_SCREEN_SCALE_FACTOR=1
 +
 
 +
If automatic detection of DPI does not produce the desired effect, scaling can be set manually per-screen ({{ic|QT_SCREEN_SCALE_FACTORS}}) or globally ({{ic|QT_SCALE_FACTOR}}). For more details see the [https://blog.qt.io/blog/2016/01/26/high-dpi-support-in-qt-5-6/ Qt blog post].
  
This can for instance be enabled by creating a file {{ic|/etc/profile.d/qt-hidpi.sh}}
+
{{Note|
 +
* If you manually set the screen factor, it is important to set {{ic|1=QT_AUTO_SCREEN_SCALE_FACTOR=0}} otherwise some applications which explicitly force high DPI enabling get scaled twice.
 +
* {{ic|QT_SCALE_FACTOR}} scales fonts, but {{ic|QT_SCREEN_SCALE_FACTORS}} does not scale fonts.
 +
* If you also set the font DPI manually in ''xrdb'' to support other toolkits, {{ic|QT_SCALE_FACTORS}} will give you huge fonts.
 +
* If you have multiple screens of differing DPI ie: [[#Side display]] you may need to do {{ic|1=QT_SCREEN_SCALE_FACTORS="2;2"}}
 +
}}
  
export QT_DEVICE_PIXEL_RATIO=2
+
An [https://bugreports.qt.io/browse/QTBUG-53022 alternative] is e.g.:
  
And set the executable bit on it.
+
QT_FONT_DPI=96 vym
  
 
=== GDK 3 (GTK+ 3) ===
 
=== GDK 3 (GTK+ 3) ===
 +
 +
If you are using a window manager other than Gnome and have scaled the fonts using Xft.dpi, you must tell GDK to scale the UI as well. This will result in a further increase of the font-size for GDK apps, so you must undo the scaling of the text only.
  
 
To scale UI elements by a factor of two:
 
To scale UI elements by a factor of two:
Line 121: Line 187:
  
 
  export GDK_DPI_SCALE=0.5
 
  export GDK_DPI_SCALE=0.5
 +
 +
=== GTK+ 2 ===
 +
 +
Scaling of UI elements is not supported by the toolkit itself, however it's possible to generate a theme with elements pre-scaled for HiDPI display using {{AUR|oomox-git}}.
 +
 +
=== Elementary (EFL) ===
 +
 +
To scale UI elements by a factor of 1.5:
 +
 +
  export ELM_SCALE=1.5
 +
 +
For more details see https://phab.enlightenment.org/w/elementary/
 +
 +
== Boot managers ==
 +
 +
=== GRUB ===
 +
 +
==== Lower the framebuffer resolution ====
 +
 +
Set a lower resolution for the framebuffer as explained in [[GRUB/Tips and tricks#Setting the framebuffer resolution]].
 +
 +
==== Change GRUB font size ====
 +
 +
Find a ttf font that you like in {{ic|/usr/share/fonts/}}.
 +
 +
Convert the font to a format that GRUB can utilize:
 +
 +
# grub-mkfont -s 30 -o /boot/grubfont.pf2 /usr/share/fonts/FontFamily/FontName.ttf
 +
 +
{{Note|Change the {{ic|-s 30}} parameter to modify the font size}}
 +
 +
Edit {{ic|/etc/default/grub}} to set the new font as shown in [[GRUB/Tips and tricks#Background image and bitmap fonts]]:
 +
 +
GRUB_FONT="/boot/grubfont.pf2"
 +
 +
Update GRUB configuration by running {{ic|grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg}}
 +
 +
=== systemd-boot ===
 +
 +
Adding the following line and running {{ic|bootctl update}} increases font-size in the systemd-boot menu:
 +
 +
{{hc|/boot/loader/loader.conf|2=
 +
console-mode 1
 +
}}
  
 
== Applications ==
 
== Applications ==
 +
 +
{{Accuracy|{{ic|--force-device-scale-factor}} only works on Chromium based (including Electron) applications.}}
 +
 +
As a general rule, applications can be launched with a custom scaling value, e.g. {{ic|1=$ atom --force-device-scale-factor=2}}. A more permanent solution is to add this scaling factor as a flag to the relevant .conf or .desktop file (normally located at {{ic|/usr/share/applications/}}). In the latter instance, the flag should be added to the line beginning with "Exec=", e.g. {{ic|1=Exec=/usr/bin/atom --force-device-scale-factor=2 %F}}. The next section provides more details on implementing this for specific applications.
 +
 +
=== Atom ===
 +
 +
Add {{ic|1=--force-device-scale-factor=2}} as a flag to the atom.desktop file:
 +
 +
{{hc|/usr/share/applications/atom.desktop|2=
 +
Exec=/usr/bin/atom --force-device-scale-factor=2 %F
 +
}}
  
 
=== Browsers ===
 
=== Browsers ===
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==== Firefox ====
 
==== Firefox ====
  
Open Firefox advanced preferences page ({{ic|about:config}}) and set parameter {{ic|layout.css.devPixelsPerPx}} to {{ic|2}} (or find the one that suits you better; {{ic|2}} is a good choice for Retina screens).
+
Firefox should use the [[#GDK 3 (GTK+ 3)]] settings. However, the suggested {{ic|GDK_SCALE}} suggestion does not consistently scale the entirety of Firefox, and does not work for fractional values (e.g., a factor of 158DPI/96DPI = 1.65 for a 1080p 14" laptop). You may want to use {{ic|GDK_DPI_SCALE}} instead. Another option, which will avoid Firefox-specific settings in many setups is to use the settings in [[#X Resources]] as Firefox should respect the  {{ic|Xft.dpi}} value defined there.
 +
 
 +
To override those, open Firefox advanced preferences page ({{ic|about:config}}) and set parameter {{ic|layout.css.devPixelsPerPx}} to {{ic|2}} (or find the one that suits you better; {{ic|2}} is a good choice for Retina screens), but it also does not consistently scale the entirety of Firefox. If Firefox is not scaling fonts, you may want to create {{ic|userChrome.css}} and add appropriate styles to it. More information about {{ic|userChrome.css}} at [http://kb.mozillazine.org/index.php?title=UserChrome.css mozillaZine].
 +
 
 +
{{hc|~/.mozilla/firefox/<em><profile></em>/chrome/userChrome.css|
 +
@namespace url("http://www.mozilla.org/keymaster/gatekeeper/there.is.only.xul");
 +
 
 +
/* #tabbrowser-tabs, #navigator-toolbox, menuitem, menu, ... */
 +
* {
 +
    font-size: 15px !important;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
/* exception for badge on adblocker */
 +
.toolbarbutton-badge {
 +
    font-size: 8px !important;
 +
}
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{{Warning|The following extension is not compatible with Firefox Quantum (version 57 and above).}}
  
If you use a HiDPI monitor such as Retina display together with another monitor, you can use [https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/autohidpi/ AutoHiDPI] add-on in order to automatically adjust {{ic|layout.css.devPixelsPerPx}} setting for the active screen.
+
If you use a HiDPI monitor such as Retina display together with another monitor, you can use [https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/autohidpi/ AutoHiDPI] add-on in order to automatically adjust {{ic|layout.css.devPixelsPerPx}} setting for the active screen. Also, since Firefox version 49, it auto-scales based on your screen resolution, making it easier to deal with 2 or more screens.
  
From Firefox version 38 onwards, your system (GTK+ 3.10) settings should be taken into account.[https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=975919]
+
If you use Wayland, you can also use the Wayland-enabled packages of Firefox from the AUR: {{AUR|firefox-wayland}} (compiles from source) or {{AUR|fedora-firefox-wayland-bin}} (binary from Fedora). You might experience some minor visual glitches with these packages.
  
 
==== Chromium / Google Chrome ====
 
==== Chromium / Google Chrome ====
  
Full out of the box HiDPI support is available in {{Pkg|chromium}} and {{AUR|google-chrome}} as tested (with google-chrome) on Gnome and Cinnamon. Additionally, for environments where out of the box support does not work, the browser can be launched with the command line flag {{ic|--force-device-scale-factor}} and a scaling value. This will scale all content and ui, including tab and font size. For example:
+
Chromium should use the [[#GDK 3 (GTK+ 3)]] settings.
 +
 
 +
To override those, use the {{ic|1=--force-device-scale-factor}} flag with a scaling value. This will scale all content and ui, including tab and font size. For example {{ic|1=chromium --force-device-scale-factor=2}}.
 +
 
 +
Using this option, a scaling factor of 1 would be normal scaling. Floating point values can be used. To make the change permanent, for Chromium, you can add it to {{ic|~/.config/chromium-flags.conf}}:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|~/.config/chromium-flags.conf|2=
 +
--force-device-scale-factor=2
 +
}}
  
{{bc|1=chromium --force-device-scale-factor=2}}
+
To make this work for Chrome, add the same option to {{ic|~/.config/chrome-flags.conf}} instead.
  
Using this option, a scaling factor of 1 would be normal scaling. Floating point values can be used.
+
If you use a HiDPI monitor such as Retina display together with another monitor, you can use the [https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/resolution-zoom/enjjhajnmggdgofagbokhmifgnaophmh reszoom] extension in order to automatically adjust the zoom level for the active screen.
  
 
==== Opera ====
 
==== Opera ====
  
Since version 24 one can alter Opera's DPI by starting it with the {{ic|1=--alt-high-dpi-setting=X}} command line option, where X is the desired DPI. For example, with {{ic|1=--alt-high-dpi-setting=144}} Opera will assume that DPI is 144.  Newer versions of opera will auto detect the DPI using the font DPI setting (in KDE: the force font DPI setting.)
+
Opera should use the [[#GDK 3 (GTK+ 3)]] settings.
 +
 
 +
To override those, use the {{ic|1=--alt-high-dpi-setting=X}} command line option, where X is the desired DPI. For example, with {{ic|1=--alt-high-dpi-setting=144}} Opera will assume that DPI is 144.  Newer versions of opera will auto detect the DPI using the font DPI setting (in KDE: the force font DPI setting.)
 +
 
 +
=== Gimp 2.8 ===
 +
 
 +
Use a high DPI theme, or adjust {{ic|1=gtkrc}} of an existing theme. (Change all occurrences of the size {{ic|1=button}} to {{ic|1=dialog}}, for example {{ic|1=GimpToolPalette::tool-icon-size}}.)
 +
 
 +
There is also the [https://github.com/jedireza/gimp-hidpi gimp-hidpi].
 +
 
 +
=== IntelliJ IDEA ===
 +
 
 +
IntelliJ IDEA 15 and above should include HiDPI support.[http://blog.jetbrains.com/idea/2015/07/intellij-idea-15-eap-comes-with-true-hidpi-support-for-windows-and-linux/] If it does not work, the most convenient way to fix the problem in this case seems to be changing the Override Default Fonts setting:
 +
 
 +
:''File > Settings > Behaviour & Appearance > Appearance''
 +
 
 +
The addition of {{ic|1=-Dhidpi=true}} to the vmoptions file in either {{ic|$HOME/.IdeaC14/}} or {{ic|/usr/share/intelligj-idea-ultimate-edition/bin/}} of [https://youtrack.jetbrains.com/issue/IDEA-114944 release 14] should not be required anymore.
 +
 
 +
=== Java applications ===
 +
 
 +
Java applications using the AWT/Swing framework can be scaled by defining the sun.java2d.uiScale variable when invoking java. For example,
 +
 
 +
java -Dsun.java2d.uiScale=2 -jar some_application.jar
 +
 
 +
Since Java 9 the GDK_SCALE environment variable is used to scale Swing applications accordingly.
 +
 
 +
=== MATLAB ===
 +
 
 +
Recent versions (R2017b) of [[MATLAB]] allow to set the scale factor[https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/answers/406956-does-matlab-support-high-dpi-screens-on-linux]:
 +
 
 +
>> s = settings;s.matlab.desktop.DisplayScaleFactor
 +
>> s.matlab.desktop.DisplayScaleFactor.PersonalValue = 2
  
Generally speaking, Opera's HiDPI support is excellent.  Since it is also built using Chromium's blink renderer, and has an extension which runs most Chrome extensions, it is a very viable alternative to Chromium/Chrome.
+
The settings take effect after MATLAB is restarted.
  
=== Thunderbird ===
+
=== Mono applications ===
  
See [[#Firefox]]. To access {{ic|about:config}}, go to Edit → Preferences → Advanced → Config editor.
+
According to [https://bugzilla.xamarin.com/show_bug.cgi?id=35870], Mono applications should be scalable like [[#GDK 3 (GTK+ 3)|GTK3]] applications.
  
=== Wine applications ===
+
=== NetBeans ===
 +
 
 +
NetBeans allows the font size of its interface to be controlled using the {{ic|1=--fontsize}} parameter during startup. To make this change permanent edit the {{ic|1=/usr/share/netbeans/etc/netbeans.conf}} file and append the {{ic|1=--fontsize}} parameter to the {{ic|1=netbeans_default_options}} property.[http://wiki.netbeans.org/FaqFontSize]
 +
 
 +
The editor fontsize can be controlled from ''Tools > Option > Fonts & Colors''.
  
Run
+
The output window fontsize can be controlled from ''Tools > Options > Miscelaneous > Output''
$ winecfg
 
and change the "dpi" setting found in the "Graphics" tab. This only affects the font size.
 
  
 
=== Skype ===
 
=== Skype ===
  
Skype is a Qt program, and needs to be configured separately. You cannot change the DPI setting for it, but at least you can change font size. Install {{Pkg|qt4}} and run {{ic|qtconfig-qt4}} to do it.
+
Skype for Linux ({{AUR|skypeforlinux-stable-bin}} package) uses [[#GDK 3 (GTK+ 3)]].
 +
 
 +
=== Slack ===
 +
 
 +
Slack ({{AUR|slack-desktop}}), like all [https://electronjs.org/ Electron] apps, can be configured to use a custom scaling value by adding a {{ic|1=--force-device-scale-factor}} flag to the .desktop file. This is normally located at {{ic|/usr/share/applications/}}. The flag should be added to the line beginning with "Exec=". For example:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/usr/share/applications/slack.desktop|2=
 +
Exec=env LD_PRELOAD=/usr/lib/libcurl.so.3 /usr/bin/slack --force-device-scale-factor=1.5 %U
 +
}}
  
 
=== Spotify ===
 
=== Spotify ===
  
Spotify can be launched with a custom scaling factor, for example
+
You can change scale factor by simple {{ic|Ctrl++}} for zoom in, {{ic|Ctrl+-}} for zoom out and {{ic|Ctrl+0}} for default scale. Scaling setting will be saved in {{ic|~/.config/spotify/Users/YOUR-SPOTIFY-USER-NAME/prefs}}:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|~/.config/spotify/Users/YOUR-SPOTIFY-USER-NAME/prefs|2=
 +
app.browser.zoom-level=100
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Also Spotify can be launched with a custom scaling factor which will be multiplied with setting specified in {{ic|~/.config/spotify/Users/YOUR-SPOTIFY-USER-NAME/prefs}}, for example
 +
 
 
  $ spotify --force-device-scale-factor=1.5
 
  $ spotify --force-device-scale-factor=1.5
  
=== IntelliJ IDEA ===
+
=== Steam ===
 +
 
 +
==== Official HiDPI support ====
 +
 
 +
* Starting on 25 of January 2018 in the beta program there is actual support for HiDPI and it should be automatically detected.
 +
* ''Steam > Settings > Interface'', check "Enlarge text and icons based on monitor size" (restart required)
 +
* If it not automatically detected use {{ic|1=GDK_SCALE=2}} to set the desired scale factor.
 +
 
 +
==== Unofficial ====
 +
 
 +
The [https://github.com/MoriTanosuke/HiDPI-Steam-Skin HiDPI-Steam-Skin] can be installed to increase the font size of the interface. While not perfect, it does improve usability.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|The README for the HiDPI skin lists several possible locations for where to place the skin. The correct folder out of these can be identified by the presence of a file named {{ic|1=skins_readme.txt}}.}}
 +
 
 +
[http://steamcommunity.com/groups/metroskin/discussions/0/517142253861033946/ MetroSkin Unofficial Patch] also helps with HiDPI on Steam with Linux.
 +
 
 +
=== Sublime Text 3 ===
 +
 
 +
Sublime Text 3 has full support for display scaling. Go to ''Preferences > Settings > User Settings'' and add {{ic|"ui_scale": 2.0}} to your settings.
 +
 
 +
=== Thunderbird ===
 +
 
 +
See [[#Firefox]]. To access {{ic|about:config}}, go to ''Edit > Preferences > Advanced >Config editor''.
 +
 
 +
=== VirtualBox ===
 +
 
 +
{{Note|This only applies to KDE with scaling enabled.}}
 +
 
 +
VirtualBox also applies the system-wide scaling to the virtual monitor, which reduces the maximum resolution inside VMs by your scaling factor (see [https://www.virtualbox.org/ticket/16604]).
 +
 
 +
This can be worked around by calculating the inverse of your scaling factor and manually setting this new scaling factor for the VirtualBox execution, e.g.
 +
 
 +
$ QT_SCALE_FACTOR=0.5 VirtualBox --startvm vm-name
  
If HiDPI support does not work, you have to add {{ic|1=-Dhidpi=true}} to your vmoptions file.[https://youtrack.jetbrains.com/issue/IDEA-114944]
+
=== Wine applications ===
/usr/share/intellij-idea-ultimate-edition/bin/idea.vmoptions
 
/usr/share/intellij-idea-ultimate-edition/bin/idea64.vmoptions
 
  
Alternatively, you can add them to your {{ic|.vmoptions}} file under your {{ic|$HOME}} directory.
+
Run
  
  echo -Dhidpi=true >> $HOME/.IdeaIC14/idea64.vmoptions
+
  $ winecfg
  
=== NetBeans ===
+
and change the "dpi" setting found in the "Graphics" tab. This only affects the font size.
  
NetBeans allows the font size of its interface to be controlled using the {{ic|1=--fontsize}} parameter during startup. To make this change permanent edit the {{ic|1=/usr/share/netbeans/etc/netbeans.conf}} file and append the {{ic|1=--fontsize}} parameter to the {{ic|1=netbeans_default_options}} property.[http://wiki.netbeans.org/FaqFontSize]
+
=== Zathura document viewer ===
  
The editor fontsize can be controlled from Tools → Option → Fonts & Colors.
+
No modifications required for document viewing.
  
The output window fontsize can be controlled from Tools → Options → Miscelaneous → Output
+
UI text scaling is specified via [https://pwmt.org/projects/zathura/documentation/ configuration file] (note that "font" is a [https://pwmt.org/projects/girara/options/ girara option]):
  
=== Gimp 2.8 ===
+
set font "monospace normal 20"
  
Use a high DPI theme, or [http://gimpforums.com/thread-increase-all-icons-on-hidpi-screen?pid=39113#pid39113 adjust] {{ic|1=gtkrc}} of an existing theme. For example set {{ic|1=GimpToolPalette::tool-icon-size}} to {{ic|1=dialog}}.
+
=== Zoom ===
  
=== VLC ===
+
Zoom can be started with a proper scaling by overriding the {{ic|1=QT_SCALE_FACTOR}} environment variable.
  
As of May 2015, the git version {{AUR|vlc-git}} seems to solve some of the problems.
+
$ QT_SCALE_FACTOR=2 zoom
  
 
=== Unsupported applications ===
 
=== Unsupported applications ===
  
One approach is to run the application full screen and without decoration in its own VNC desktop. Then scale the viewer. With Vncdesk ({{AUR|vncdesk-git}} from the [[AUR]]) you can set up a desktop per application, then start server and client with a simple command such as {{ic|vncdesk 2}}.
+
{{AUR|run_scaled-git}} can be used to scale applications (which uses {{Pkg|xpra}} internally).
 +
 
 +
Another approach is to run the application full screen and without decoration in its own VNC desktop. Then scale the viewer. With Vncdesk ({{AUR|vncdesk-git}} from the [[AUR]]) you can set up a desktop per application, then start server and client with a simple command such as {{ic|vncdesk 2}}.
  
 
[[x11vnc]] has an experimental option {{ic|-appshare}}, which opens one viewer per application window. Perhaps something could be hacked up with that.
 
[[x11vnc]] has an experimental option {{ic|-appshare}}, which opens one viewer per application window. Perhaps something could be hacked up with that.
  
 
== Multiple displays ==
 
== Multiple displays ==
The HiDPI setting applies to the whole desktop, so non-HiDPI external displays show everything too large. One workaround is to using [[xrandr]]'s scale option. To have a non-HiDPI monitor (on DP1) right of an internal HiDPI display (eDP1), one could run:
 
  
xrandr --output eDP1 --auto --output DP1 --auto --scale 2x2 --right-of eDP1
+
The HiDPI setting applies to the whole desktop, so non-HiDPI external displays show everything too large. However, note that setting different scaling factors for different monitors is already supported in [[Wayland]].
 +
 
 +
=== Side display ===
  
When extending above the internal display, you may see part of the internal display on the external monitor. In that case, specify the position manually, e.g. using [https://gist.github.com/wvengen/178642bbc8236c1bdb67 this script].
+
One workaround is to use [[xrandr]]'s scale option. To have a non-HiDPI monitor (on DP1) right of an internal HiDPI display (eDP1), one could run:
  
You may run into problems with your mouse not being able to reach the whole screen. That is a [https://bugs.freedesktop.org/show_bug.cgi?id=39949 known bug] with an xserver-org patch (or try the panning option, but that might cause other problems).
+
$ xrandr --output eDP-1 --auto --output DP-1 --auto --scale 2x2 --right-of eDP-1
  
An example of the panning syntax for a 4k laptop with an external 1920x1080 monitor to the right:
+
When extending above the internal display, you may see part of the internal display on the external monitor. In that case, specify the position manually.
  
xrandr --output eDP1 --auto --output HDMI1 --auto --panning 3840x2160+3840+0 --scale 2x2 --right-of eDP1
+
You may adjust the "sharpness" parameter on your monitor settings to adjust the blur level introduced with scaling.
  
Generically if your hidpi monitor is AxB pixels and your regular monitor is CxD and you are scaling by [ExF], the commandline for right-of is:
+
{{Note|1=Above solution with {{ic|--scale 2x2}} does not work on some Nvidia cards. No solution is currently available. [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1670840] A potential workaround exists with configuring {{ic|1=ForceFullCompositionPipeline=On}} on the {{ic|CurrentMetaMode}} via {{ic|nvidia-settings}}. For more info see [https://askubuntu.com/a/979551/763549].}}
  
xrandr --output eDP1 --auto --output HDMI1 --auto --panning [C*E]x[D*F]+[A]+0 --scale [E]x[F] --right-of eDP1
+
{{Note|If you are using the {{ic|modesetting}} driver you will get mouse flickering. This can be solved by scaling your non-scaled screen by 0.9999x0.9999.}}
  
 +
=== Multiple external monitors ===
  
If panning is not a solution for you it may be better to set position of monitors and fix manually the total display screen.
+
There might be some problems in scaling more than one external monitors which have lower dpi than the built-in HiDPI display. In that case, you may want to try downscaling the HiDPI display instead, with e.g.
  
An example of the syntax for a 2560x1440 WQHD 210 DPI laptop monitor (eDP1) using native resolution placed below a 1920x1080 FHD 96 DPI external monitor (HDMI) scaled to match global DPI settings:
+
$ xrandr --output eDP1 --scale 0.5x0.5 --output DP2 --right-of eDP1 --output HDMI1 --right-of DP2
  
xrandr --output eDP1 --auto --pos 0x1458 --output HDMI --scale 1.35x1.35 --auto --pos 0x0 --fb 2592x2898
+
In addition, when you downscale the HiDPI display, the font on the HiDPI display will be slightly blurry, but it's a different kind of bluriness compared with the one introduced by upscaling the external displays. You may compare and see which kind of bluriness is less problematic for you.
  
The total screen size (--fb) and positioning (--pos) are to be calculated taking into account the scaling factor.
+
=== Mirroring ===
  
In this case laptop monitor (eDP1) has no scaling and uses native mode for resolution so it will total 2560x1440, but external monitor (HDMI) is scaled and it has to be considered a larger screen so (1920*1.35)x(1080*1.35) from where the eDP1 Y position came 1080*1.35=1458 and the total screen size: since one on top of the other X=(greater between eDP1 and HDMI, so 1920*1.35=2592) and Y=(sum of the calculated heights of eDP1 and HDMI, so 1440+(1080*1.35)=2898).
+
If all you want is to mirror ("unify") displays, this is easy as well:
  
Generically if your hidpi monitor is AxB pixels and your regular monitor is CxD and you are scaling by [ExF] and hidpi is placed below regular one, the commandline for right-of is:
+
With AxB your native HiDPI resolution (for ex 3200x1800) and CxD your external screen resolution (e.g. 1920x1200)
  
  xrandr --output eDP1 --auto --pos 0x(DxF) --output HDMI --auto --scale [E]x[F] --pos 0x0 --fb [greater between A and (C*E)]x[B+(D*F)]
+
  $ xrandr --output HDMI --scale [A/C]x[B/D]
 +
 
 +
In this example which is QHD (3200/1920 = 1.66 and 1800/1200 = 1.5)
 +
 
 +
$ xrandr --output HDMI --scale 1.66x1.5
 +
 
 +
For UHD to 1080p (3840/1920=2 2160/1080=2)
 +
 
 +
$ xrandr --output HDMI --scale 2x2
  
 
You may adjust the "sharpness" parameter on your monitor settings to adjust the blur level introduced with scaling.
 
You may adjust the "sharpness" parameter on your monitor settings to adjust the blur level introduced with scaling.
  
== Console ==
+
=== Tools ===
 +
 
 +
There are several tools which automate the commands described above.
 +
 
 +
* [https://gist.github.com/wvengen/178642bbc8236c1bdb67 This script] extend a non-HiDPI external display above a HiDPI internal display.
 +
* [https://github.com/ashwinvis/xrandr-extend xrandr-extend].
 +
* {{AUR|xlayoutdisplay}} is a CLI front end for xrandr which detects and sets correct DPI: [https://github.com/alex-courtis/xlayoutdisplay README]
 +
 
 +
== Linux console ==
 +
 
 +
The default [[w:Linux console|Linux console]] font will be very small on hidpi displays, the largest font present in the {{Pkg|kbd}} package is {{ic|latarcyrheb-sun32}} and other packages like {{Pkg|terminus-font}} contain further alternatives, such as {{ic|ter-132n}}(normal) and {{ic|ter-132b}}(bold). See [[Linux console#Fonts]] for configuration details. Also see [[Linux console#Persistent configuration]] in particular for applying the font setting during the early userspace boot sequence.
  
The default console font will be very small on hidpi displays, the largest font present in the {{Pkg|kbd}} package is {{ic|sun12x22}} and other packages like {{Pkg|terminus-font}} contain further alternatives. See [[Fonts#Console fonts]] for configuration details.
+
After changing the font, it is often garbled and unreadable when changing to other virtual consoles ({{ic|tty2-6}}). To fix this you can [[Kernel_mode_setting#Forcing_modes_and_EDID|force specific mode]] for KMS, such as {{ic|1=video=2560x1600@60}} (substitute in the native resolution of your HiDPI display), and reboot.
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
Line 241: Line 489:
 
* [http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=article&item=linux_uhd4k_gpus Ultra HD 4K Linux Graphics Card Testing] (Nov 2013)
 
* [http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=article&item=linux_uhd4k_gpus Ultra HD 4K Linux Graphics Card Testing] (Nov 2013)
 
* [http://www.eizo.com/library/basics/pixel_density_4k/ Understanding pixel density]
 
* [http://www.eizo.com/library/basics/pixel_density_4k/ Understanding pixel density]
 +
* [http://wok.oblomov.eu/tecnologia/mixed-dpi-x11/ Mixed DPI and the X Window System]

Latest revision as of 09:50, 6 June 2019

HiDPI (High Dots Per Inch) displays, also known by Apple's "Retina Display" marketing name, are screens with a high resolution in a relatively small format. They are mostly found in high-end laptops and monitors.

Not all software behaves well in high-resolution mode yet. Here are listed most common tweaks which make work on a HiDPI screen more pleasant.

Desktop environments

GNOME

To enable HiDPI, Settings > Devices > Displays,or use gsettings:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.xsettings overrides "[{'Gdk/WindowScalingFactor', <2>}]"
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface scaling-factor 2
Note: GNOME only allows integer scaling numbers to be set. 1 = 100%, 2 = 200%, etc.

Fractional Scaling

A setting of 2, 3, etc, which is all you can do with scaling-factor, may not be ideal for certain HiDPI displays and smaller screens (e.g. small tablets).

  • Wayland

Enable fractional Scaling experimental-feature:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.mutter experimental-features "['scale-monitor-framebuffer']"

then open Settings > Devices > Displays (the new options may only appear after a restart)

  • Xorg

You can achieve any non-integer scale factor by using a combination of GNOME's scaling-factor and xrandr. This combination keeps the TTF fonts properly scaled so that they do not become blurry if using xrandr alone. You specify zoom-in factor with gsettings and zoom-out factor with xrandr.

First scale GNOME up to the minimum size which is too big. Usually "2" is already too big, otherwise try "3" etc. Then start scaling down by setting zoom-out factor with xrandr. First get the relevant output name, the examples below use eDP1. Start e.g. with zoom-out 1.25 times. If the UI is still too big, increase the scale factor; if it is too small decrease the scale factor.

$ xrandr --output eDP1 --scale 1.25x1.25
Note: To allow the mouse to reach the whole screen, you may need to use the --panning option as explained in #Side display.

Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

Reason: The following was initially added under #X Resources. Clarify how it integrates with the info there or that above for GNOME. (Discuss in Talk:HiDPI#GNOME ignores X settings)

GNOME ignores X settings due to its xsettings Plugin in Gnome Settings Daemon, where DPI setting is hard coded. There is blog entry for recompiling Gnome Settings Daemon. In the source documentation there is another way mentioned to set X settings DPI:

You can use the dconf Editor and navigate to key

/org/gnome/settings-daemon/plugins/xsettings/overrides

and complement the entry with the value

'Xft/DPI': <153600>

From README.xsettings

Noting that variants must be specified in the usual way (wrapped in <>).

Note also that DPI in the above example is expressed in 1024ths of an inch.

Text Scaling

Alternatively or additionally to above solution, you can scale only text by factor not limited by whole numbers, for example:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface text-scaling-factor 1.5

KDE

You can use KDE's settings to fine tune font, icon, and widget scaling. This solution affects both Qt and Gtk+ applications.

To adjust font, widget, and icon scaling together:

  1. System Settings > Display and Monitor > Display Configuration > Scale Display
  2. Drag the slider to the desired size
  3. Restart for the settings to take effect

To adjust only font scaling:

  1. System Settings > Fonts
  2. Check "Force fonts DPI" and adjust the DPI level to the desired value. This setting should take effect immediately for newly started applications. You will have to logout and login for it to take effect on Plasma desktop.

To adjust only icon scaling:

  1. System Settings > Icons > Advanced
  2. Choose the desired icon size for each category listed. This should take effect immediately.

Display Scale not integer bug :

When you use not integer values for Display Scale it causes font render issue in some QT application ( ex. Okular ).

A workaround for this is to:

  1. Set the scale value to 1
  2. Adjust your font and icons and use the "Force fonts DPI" ( this affects all apps, also GTK but not create issue with the fonts )
  3. Restart KDE
  4. If required tune the GTK apps using the variables GDK_SCALE/GDK_DPI_SCALE (as described above)

Tray icons with fixed size

The tray icons are not scaled with the rest of the desktop, since Plasma ignores the Qt scaling settings by default. To make Plasma respect the Qt settings, set PLASMA_USE_QT_SCALING to 1.

Xfce

Xfce uses the DPI given by the X server. There is an option to override Font DPI (Settings Manager > Appearance > Fonts > DPI > Custom DPI setting) but it's better to adjust X server DPI instead. See Xorg#Display size and DPI for how to fix it.

To enlarge icons in system tray, right-click on it (aim for empty space / top pixels / bottom pixels, so that you will not activate icons themselves) > Properties, set “Maximum icon size” to 32, 48 or 64.

Xfwm comes with two hidpi themes: Default-hdpi and Default-xhdpi. You can set them under Settings Manager > Window Manager > Style > Theme.

You can set the default icon sizes of gtk2 menus, buttons and so on under Settings Manager > Settings Editor > xsettings > Gtk > IconSizes, with a line like this: gtk-large-toolbar=96,96:gtk-small-toolbar=64,64:gtk-menu=64,64:gtk-dialog=96,96:gtk-button=64,64:gtk-dnd=64,64. "gtk-dnd" is for the icons during drag'n'drop, the others are quite self-explanatory. You can use any value your icon theme supports.

Cinnamon

Has good support out of the box.

Enlightenment

For E18, go to the E Setting panel. In Look > Scaling, you can control the UI scaling ratios. A ratio of 1.2 seems to work well for the native resolution of the MBPr 15" screen.

X Server

Some programs use the DPI given by the X server. Examples are i3 (source) and Chromium (source).

To verify that the X Server has properly detected the physical dimensions of your monitor, use the xdpyinfo utility from the xorg-xdpyinfo package:

$ xdpyinfo | grep -B 2 resolution
screen #0:
  dimensions:    3200x1800 pixels (423x238 millimeters)
  resolution:    192x192 dots per inch

This example uses inaccurate dimensions (423mm x 328mm, even though the Dell XPS 9530 has 346mm x 194mm) to have a clean multiple of 96 dpi, in this case 192 dpi. This tends to work better than using the correct DPI — Pango renders fonts crisper in i3 for example.

If the DPI displayed by xdpyinfo is not correct, see Xorg#Display size and DPI for how to fix it.

X Resources

If you are not using a desktop environment such as KDE, Xfce, or other that manipulates the X settings for you, you can set the desired DPI setting manually via the Xft.dpi variable in Xresources:

~/.Xresources
Xft.dpi: 180
Xft.autohint: 0
Xft.lcdfilter:  lcddefault
Xft.hintstyle:  hintfull
Xft.hinting: 1
Xft.antialias: 1
Xft.rgba: rgb

Make sure the settings are loaded properly when X starts, for instance in your ~/.xinitrc with xrdb -merge ~/.Xresources (see Xresources for more information).

This will make the font render properly in most toolkits and applications, it will however not affect things such as icon size! Setting Xft.dpi at the same time as toolkit scale (e.g. GDK_SCALE) may cause interface elements to be much larger than intended in some programs like firefox.

GUI toolkits

Qt 5

Since Qt 5.6, Qt 5 applications can be instructed to honor screen DPI by setting the QT_AUTO_SCREEN_SCALE_FACTOR environment variable:

export QT_AUTO_SCREEN_SCALE_FACTOR=1

If automatic detection of DPI does not produce the desired effect, scaling can be set manually per-screen (QT_SCREEN_SCALE_FACTORS) or globally (QT_SCALE_FACTOR). For more details see the Qt blog post.

Note:
  • If you manually set the screen factor, it is important to set QT_AUTO_SCREEN_SCALE_FACTOR=0 otherwise some applications which explicitly force high DPI enabling get scaled twice.
  • QT_SCALE_FACTOR scales fonts, but QT_SCREEN_SCALE_FACTORS does not scale fonts.
  • If you also set the font DPI manually in xrdb to support other toolkits, QT_SCALE_FACTORS will give you huge fonts.
  • If you have multiple screens of differing DPI ie: #Side display you may need to do QT_SCREEN_SCALE_FACTORS="2;2"

An alternative is e.g.:

QT_FONT_DPI=96 vym

GDK 3 (GTK+ 3)

If you are using a window manager other than Gnome and have scaled the fonts using Xft.dpi, you must tell GDK to scale the UI as well. This will result in a further increase of the font-size for GDK apps, so you must undo the scaling of the text only.

To scale UI elements by a factor of two:

export GDK_SCALE=2

To undo scaling of text:

export GDK_DPI_SCALE=0.5

GTK+ 2

Scaling of UI elements is not supported by the toolkit itself, however it's possible to generate a theme with elements pre-scaled for HiDPI display using oomox-gitAUR.

Elementary (EFL)

To scale UI elements by a factor of 1.5:

 export ELM_SCALE=1.5

For more details see https://phab.enlightenment.org/w/elementary/

Boot managers

GRUB

Lower the framebuffer resolution

Set a lower resolution for the framebuffer as explained in GRUB/Tips and tricks#Setting the framebuffer resolution.

Change GRUB font size

Find a ttf font that you like in /usr/share/fonts/.

Convert the font to a format that GRUB can utilize:

# grub-mkfont -s 30 -o /boot/grubfont.pf2 /usr/share/fonts/FontFamily/FontName.ttf
Note: Change the -s 30 parameter to modify the font size

Edit /etc/default/grub to set the new font as shown in GRUB/Tips and tricks#Background image and bitmap fonts:

GRUB_FONT="/boot/grubfont.pf2"

Update GRUB configuration by running grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

systemd-boot

Adding the following line and running bootctl update increases font-size in the systemd-boot menu:

/boot/loader/loader.conf
console-mode 1

Applications

Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

Reason: --force-device-scale-factor only works on Chromium based (including Electron) applications. (Discuss in Talk:HiDPI#)

As a general rule, applications can be launched with a custom scaling value, e.g. $ atom --force-device-scale-factor=2. A more permanent solution is to add this scaling factor as a flag to the relevant .conf or .desktop file (normally located at /usr/share/applications/). In the latter instance, the flag should be added to the line beginning with "Exec=", e.g. Exec=/usr/bin/atom --force-device-scale-factor=2 %F. The next section provides more details on implementing this for specific applications.

Atom

Add --force-device-scale-factor=2 as a flag to the atom.desktop file:

/usr/share/applications/atom.desktop
Exec=/usr/bin/atom --force-device-scale-factor=2 %F

Browsers

Firefox

Firefox should use the #GDK 3 (GTK+ 3) settings. However, the suggested GDK_SCALE suggestion does not consistently scale the entirety of Firefox, and does not work for fractional values (e.g., a factor of 158DPI/96DPI = 1.65 for a 1080p 14" laptop). You may want to use GDK_DPI_SCALE instead. Another option, which will avoid Firefox-specific settings in many setups is to use the settings in #X Resources as Firefox should respect the Xft.dpi value defined there.

To override those, open Firefox advanced preferences page (about:config) and set parameter layout.css.devPixelsPerPx to 2 (or find the one that suits you better; 2 is a good choice for Retina screens), but it also does not consistently scale the entirety of Firefox. If Firefox is not scaling fonts, you may want to create userChrome.css and add appropriate styles to it. More information about userChrome.css at mozillaZine.

~/.mozilla/firefox/<profile>/chrome/userChrome.css
@namespace url("http://www.mozilla.org/keymaster/gatekeeper/there.is.only.xul");

/* #tabbrowser-tabs, #navigator-toolbox, menuitem, menu, ... */
* {
    font-size: 15px !important;
}

/* exception for badge on adblocker */
.toolbarbutton-badge {
    font-size: 8px !important;
}
Warning: The following extension is not compatible with Firefox Quantum (version 57 and above).

If you use a HiDPI monitor such as Retina display together with another monitor, you can use AutoHiDPI add-on in order to automatically adjust layout.css.devPixelsPerPx setting for the active screen. Also, since Firefox version 49, it auto-scales based on your screen resolution, making it easier to deal with 2 or more screens.

If you use Wayland, you can also use the Wayland-enabled packages of Firefox from the AUR: firefox-waylandAUR (compiles from source) or fedora-firefox-wayland-binAUR (binary from Fedora). You might experience some minor visual glitches with these packages.

Chromium / Google Chrome

Chromium should use the #GDK 3 (GTK+ 3) settings.

To override those, use the --force-device-scale-factor flag with a scaling value. This will scale all content and ui, including tab and font size. For example chromium --force-device-scale-factor=2.

Using this option, a scaling factor of 1 would be normal scaling. Floating point values can be used. To make the change permanent, for Chromium, you can add it to ~/.config/chromium-flags.conf:

~/.config/chromium-flags.conf
--force-device-scale-factor=2

To make this work for Chrome, add the same option to ~/.config/chrome-flags.conf instead.

If you use a HiDPI monitor such as Retina display together with another monitor, you can use the reszoom extension in order to automatically adjust the zoom level for the active screen.

Opera

Opera should use the #GDK 3 (GTK+ 3) settings.

To override those, use the --alt-high-dpi-setting=X command line option, where X is the desired DPI. For example, with --alt-high-dpi-setting=144 Opera will assume that DPI is 144. Newer versions of opera will auto detect the DPI using the font DPI setting (in KDE: the force font DPI setting.)

Gimp 2.8

Use a high DPI theme, or adjust gtkrc of an existing theme. (Change all occurrences of the size button to dialog, for example GimpToolPalette::tool-icon-size.)

There is also the gimp-hidpi.

IntelliJ IDEA

IntelliJ IDEA 15 and above should include HiDPI support.[1] If it does not work, the most convenient way to fix the problem in this case seems to be changing the Override Default Fonts setting:

File > Settings > Behaviour & Appearance > Appearance

The addition of -Dhidpi=true to the vmoptions file in either $HOME/.IdeaC14/ or /usr/share/intelligj-idea-ultimate-edition/bin/ of release 14 should not be required anymore.

Java applications

Java applications using the AWT/Swing framework can be scaled by defining the sun.java2d.uiScale variable when invoking java. For example,

java -Dsun.java2d.uiScale=2 -jar some_application.jar

Since Java 9 the GDK_SCALE environment variable is used to scale Swing applications accordingly.

MATLAB

Recent versions (R2017b) of MATLAB allow to set the scale factor[2]:

>> s = settings;s.matlab.desktop.DisplayScaleFactor
>> s.matlab.desktop.DisplayScaleFactor.PersonalValue = 2

The settings take effect after MATLAB is restarted.

Mono applications

According to [3], Mono applications should be scalable like GTK3 applications.

NetBeans

NetBeans allows the font size of its interface to be controlled using the --fontsize parameter during startup. To make this change permanent edit the /usr/share/netbeans/etc/netbeans.conf file and append the --fontsize parameter to the netbeans_default_options property.[4]

The editor fontsize can be controlled from Tools > Option > Fonts & Colors.

The output window fontsize can be controlled from Tools > Options > Miscelaneous > Output

Skype

Skype for Linux (skypeforlinux-stable-binAUR package) uses #GDK 3 (GTK+ 3).

Slack

Slack (slack-desktopAUR), like all Electron apps, can be configured to use a custom scaling value by adding a --force-device-scale-factor flag to the .desktop file. This is normally located at /usr/share/applications/. The flag should be added to the line beginning with "Exec=". For example:

/usr/share/applications/slack.desktop
Exec=env LD_PRELOAD=/usr/lib/libcurl.so.3 /usr/bin/slack --force-device-scale-factor=1.5 %U

Spotify

You can change scale factor by simple Ctrl++ for zoom in, Ctrl+- for zoom out and Ctrl+0 for default scale. Scaling setting will be saved in ~/.config/spotify/Users/YOUR-SPOTIFY-USER-NAME/prefs:

~/.config/spotify/Users/YOUR-SPOTIFY-USER-NAME/prefs
app.browser.zoom-level=100

Also Spotify can be launched with a custom scaling factor which will be multiplied with setting specified in ~/.config/spotify/Users/YOUR-SPOTIFY-USER-NAME/prefs, for example

$ spotify --force-device-scale-factor=1.5

Steam

Official HiDPI support

  • Starting on 25 of January 2018 in the beta program there is actual support for HiDPI and it should be automatically detected.
  • Steam > Settings > Interface, check "Enlarge text and icons based on monitor size" (restart required)
  • If it not automatically detected use GDK_SCALE=2 to set the desired scale factor.

Unofficial

The HiDPI-Steam-Skin can be installed to increase the font size of the interface. While not perfect, it does improve usability.

Note: The README for the HiDPI skin lists several possible locations for where to place the skin. The correct folder out of these can be identified by the presence of a file named skins_readme.txt.

MetroSkin Unofficial Patch also helps with HiDPI on Steam with Linux.

Sublime Text 3

Sublime Text 3 has full support for display scaling. Go to Preferences > Settings > User Settings and add "ui_scale": 2.0 to your settings.

Thunderbird

See #Firefox. To access about:config, go to Edit > Preferences > Advanced >Config editor.

VirtualBox

Note: This only applies to KDE with scaling enabled.

VirtualBox also applies the system-wide scaling to the virtual monitor, which reduces the maximum resolution inside VMs by your scaling factor (see [5]).

This can be worked around by calculating the inverse of your scaling factor and manually setting this new scaling factor for the VirtualBox execution, e.g.

$ QT_SCALE_FACTOR=0.5 VirtualBox --startvm vm-name

Wine applications

Run

$ winecfg

and change the "dpi" setting found in the "Graphics" tab. This only affects the font size.

Zathura document viewer

No modifications required for document viewing.

UI text scaling is specified via configuration file (note that "font" is a girara option):

set font "monospace normal 20"

Zoom

Zoom can be started with a proper scaling by overriding the QT_SCALE_FACTOR environment variable.

$ QT_SCALE_FACTOR=2 zoom

Unsupported applications

run_scaled-gitAUR can be used to scale applications (which uses xpra internally).

Another approach is to run the application full screen and without decoration in its own VNC desktop. Then scale the viewer. With Vncdesk (vncdesk-gitAUR from the AUR) you can set up a desktop per application, then start server and client with a simple command such as vncdesk 2.

x11vnc has an experimental option -appshare, which opens one viewer per application window. Perhaps something could be hacked up with that.

Multiple displays

The HiDPI setting applies to the whole desktop, so non-HiDPI external displays show everything too large. However, note that setting different scaling factors for different monitors is already supported in Wayland.

Side display

One workaround is to use xrandr's scale option. To have a non-HiDPI monitor (on DP1) right of an internal HiDPI display (eDP1), one could run:

$ xrandr --output eDP-1 --auto --output DP-1 --auto --scale 2x2 --right-of eDP-1

When extending above the internal display, you may see part of the internal display on the external monitor. In that case, specify the position manually.

You may adjust the "sharpness" parameter on your monitor settings to adjust the blur level introduced with scaling.

Note: Above solution with --scale 2x2 does not work on some Nvidia cards. No solution is currently available. [6] A potential workaround exists with configuring ForceFullCompositionPipeline=On on the CurrentMetaMode via nvidia-settings. For more info see [7].
Note: If you are using the modesetting driver you will get mouse flickering. This can be solved by scaling your non-scaled screen by 0.9999x0.9999.

Multiple external monitors

There might be some problems in scaling more than one external monitors which have lower dpi than the built-in HiDPI display. In that case, you may want to try downscaling the HiDPI display instead, with e.g.

$ xrandr --output eDP1 --scale 0.5x0.5 --output DP2 --right-of eDP1 --output HDMI1 --right-of DP2

In addition, when you downscale the HiDPI display, the font on the HiDPI display will be slightly blurry, but it's a different kind of bluriness compared with the one introduced by upscaling the external displays. You may compare and see which kind of bluriness is less problematic for you.

Mirroring

If all you want is to mirror ("unify") displays, this is easy as well:

With AxB your native HiDPI resolution (for ex 3200x1800) and CxD your external screen resolution (e.g. 1920x1200)

$ xrandr --output HDMI --scale [A/C]x[B/D]

In this example which is QHD (3200/1920 = 1.66 and 1800/1200 = 1.5)

$ xrandr --output HDMI --scale 1.66x1.5

For UHD to 1080p (3840/1920=2 2160/1080=2)

$ xrandr --output HDMI --scale 2x2

You may adjust the "sharpness" parameter on your monitor settings to adjust the blur level introduced with scaling.

Tools

There are several tools which automate the commands described above.

Linux console

The default Linux console font will be very small on hidpi displays, the largest font present in the kbd package is latarcyrheb-sun32 and other packages like terminus-font contain further alternatives, such as ter-132n(normal) and ter-132b(bold). See Linux console#Fonts for configuration details. Also see Linux console#Persistent configuration in particular for applying the font setting during the early userspace boot sequence.

After changing the font, it is often garbled and unreadable when changing to other virtual consoles (tty2-6). To fix this you can force specific mode for KMS, such as video=2560x1600@60 (substitute in the native resolution of your HiDPI display), and reboot.

See also