High Performance Firewall
High Performance Firewall/Nat with iptables and VLANs and iproute2
There is an Spanish version of this Wiki Doc in : High Performance Firewall/Nat with iptables and VLANs and iproute2 (Español)
And another here : www.archlinux.com.ar
Imagine this, you have more than two networks separated by Virtual Lans protocols (IEEE 802.1q) or VLANs, carried to you by a intelligent/manageable switch on one troncal line 10/100/1000 MB HD/FD (naturally the best is 1000 MB FD).
You have to share internet to a really BIG numbers of hosts, and maintain a good performance. The firs choice is separate the networks into a equal numbers of ports and maybe a more numbers of firewalls machines. This is not really cost effective, but works.
The second one is what I did. the history of how this begin is related to a some emergency/burn/crash/out of a group of Cisco PIXs. I will don't deep in that.
- I have about 4 networks mask 21 i.e a 8 class C each!!! This is a lots of MACs addresses and even more dangerous a really lots of BROADCAST. This is insane but this is the way that my company works.
- They gave me 30 publics IPs addresses in 3 groups.
- And a machine, a little one, not big deal.... just for testing. Later (about 8 months) we change the PC. We put a real monster.
- Later we add a class C network with a routed lot of increasing subnets.... PLUS!!!!
The first thing we have to do is give to the kernel the capacity of work with Jumbo Frames. This is done by adding the 8021q module to the kernel
# modprobe 8021q
and/or put in modules in /etc/rc.conf
Next we have to create the virtuals NICs with this command vconfig. Let's suppose we have vlans 20,30,40 and 50 working in our core network.
# vconfig add ethX 20 # vconfig add ethX 30 ... # vconfig add ethX 50
Where ethX is the troncal NIC Now if we want to see the interfaces just put ifconfig -a and we will get a list.
So .... next just put the private address as you want. For example (using eth1 like a troncal)
# ifconfig eth1.20 192.168.0.1 netmask 255.255.248.0 # ifconfig eth1.30 192.168.8.1 netmask 255.255.248.0 ... etc.
I will not explain the number of host neither the mask.... I do a kind of daemon with this, a vlan.conf file in /etc and a vland in /etc/rc.d... I can share if you want
It is really easy make a firewall/nat with iptables there is a lot of information around there...
Just take in mind that you will work with a lot of traffic, this mean, a lot of CPU usage, so, keep your rules tiny, just the necessary. Accept all by default just want to make NAT, no more.... Maybe is good accelerate some ports, (80,443,25,110,21,20,53 etc) remember, every packet running trough our firewall will past trough every rule until it match to one or fall in the pool (default policy).
The round robin NAT
Let's suppose we have a one ip: 200.aaa.bbb.6 and our gateway is 200.aaa.bbb.1. we can safely put this parameters by default in our configuration. It will not get participation at all in our firewall.
I say I have 3 groups of 10 IPs each to play...... we'll define the NEXT in our firewall script:
Gr1='200.AAA.CCC.10-200.AAA.CCC.20' Gr2='200.AAA.DDD.10-200.AAA.DDD.20' Gr3='200.AAA.EEE.10-200.AAA.EEE.20'
And the next important line is:
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.0.0/21 -j SNAT --to $Gr1 #ACCESS VLAN 10 iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.8.0/21 -j SNAT --to $Gr2 #ACCESS VLAN 20 iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.15.0/21 -j SNAT --to $Gr1 #ACCESS VLAN 30 .... etc
You can repeat the groups for access, subdivide the networks ETC, iptables make a round robin over the Gr1, Gr2 and Gr3 by default, no modification is needed.
It's not necessary create a virtual card (alias) to every IP in the group.
It's important that every real router know every group and publish its via BGP (or similar) to the neighbors.
To accelerate some ports you can put this in the top of FORWARD chain
iptables -A FORWARD -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -p icmp -o eth0 -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -m multiport --dports 80,443,110,53 -j ACCEPT # FAST FAST FAST iptables -A FORWARD -p udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT
- the packets incoming will pass only 1 rule if it is a establish connection
- the packet incoming will pass 2 rules if is a ping o similar
- the packet will pass 3 rules if is http, mail or similar
- and the DNS request will pass 3 o 4 rules until go out
The outgoing virus will KILL our machine, and we not need to share "windows" conversations so, kill them!!!!
#VIRUS iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp --dport 135:139 -j DROP iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp --dport 445 -j DROP iptables -A FORWARD -p udp --dport 135:139 -j DROP iptables -A FORWARD -p udp --dport 445 -j DROP
If you can, before they reach our machine.
The High Performance
We get to the real important part of this howto.
In our run to get a really big numbers of host running trough our machine we miss some things
- We forget that is just one NICs to potentially more than 8000 Mac Addresses. The card shared memory is not prepare to this!!!!!
- By default iptables is not prepare to make this numbers of connections simultaneously !!!!!!
To the first issue... I get some error messages in the logs relative to this.... I'm really sorry, I lost this logs and don't remember what they say. But the answer is this... increase the threshold memory to the neighbors. Type this and read:
# cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/neigh/default/gc_thresh1 128 # cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/neigh/default/gc_thresh2 512 # cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/neigh/default/gc_thresh3 1024
Next you can put this in the /etc/sysctrl.conf
net.ipv4.neigh.default.gc_thresh1 = 512 net.ipv4.neigh.default.gc_thresh2 = 1024 net.ipv4.neigh.default.gc_thresh3 = 2048
and make sysctl -p to increase to the double!!! (no reboot needed) with this I get no errors!!!!!
The next will need some comprehension about buckets and conntracks and hashsize (the way how iptables manage the nat connections). There is a very good document about this in here. Read it!!!! Some thing are change since IPtables is know as Netfiler.
In resume!!! Put this in your modules section:
MODULES=(8021q 'nf_conntrack hashsize=1048576' nf_conntrack_ftp ...and other nf_stuff .......)
The last ones is just to avoid some problems tha we have with ftp connections (I thing this is no necessary anymore). The 'nf_conntrack hashsize=1048576' increase the numbers of the hashsize (increase the kernel memory designated to NAT connections) (need reboot or reload module :-) see with dmesg | grep conntrack)
And the next is put some similar to the /etc/sysctrl.conf file
... net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_max = 1048576 ...
And do the sysctl -p command
In my case is the same number, thats mean that I have 1 connection for bucket!!!! I don't need more!!!! by default NetFilter put rate of 1:8. I.E. 8 conections per bucket!! (I think, not remember well)..
In our case we get about 600.000 simultaneous connections in 2 1Giga NICs cards, You can see this with the next command
# cat /proc/sys/net/netfilter/nf_conntrack_count
And put this in a snmpd agent to get and graph it in a MRTG/cacti server ..... uuuuuuu homework
A sample here. (Not actualized, not ever here, but I'll try.)
We have 3 big access to Internet!!! this is because we manage 3 class C groups of IPs (some restrictions of BGP) in this firewall. So, we have 3 incoming traffics that we can manage, but only one outgoing!!! our default gateway. This can easily full our outgoing quote, so we have to spare it
First we have to put some new tables to /etc/iproute2/rt_tables file
# echo 200 PRO_1 >> /etc/iproute2/rt_tables # echo 205 PRO_2 >> /etc/iproute2/rt_tables # echo 210 PRO_3 >> /etc/iproute2/rt_tables
Can be more, can be less, depends on traffic
Second we have to give a default gateway to this tables
# ip route add default via 200.aaa.bbb.2 table PRO_1 # ip route add default via 200.aaa.bbb.3 table PRO_2 # ip route add default via 200.aaa.bbb.4 table PRO_3
It's recommended but not necessary put the local interfaces to each table. If you don't put the next lines you will get not answer of ping in the local network, but you will be able to pass trough.
# ip route add 192.168.0.0/21 via 192.168.0.1 table PRO_1 # ip route add 192.168.8.0/21 via 192.168.8.1 table PRO_1 # ip route add 192.168.15.0/21 via 192.168.15.1 table PRO_1 ..... same PRO_2, same PRO_3
The last thing is give the order to the incoming packages
# ip rule add from 192.168.0.0/21 table PRO_1 .... ....
Again, you can play with the PRO_X and even you can play with the mask and submask For example we want to give only a one class C to outgoing to PRO_3
# ip rule add from 192.168.1.0/24 table PRO_3
Put this before the <NET>/21
and then TEST IT!!!!
pick a WinPC in one of the private networks and make a tracert to somewhere!!!
Before this, you can browse to a some MYIPsite like www.whatismyip.com and get your "RightNow" address, test it later and get some other address ETC...
Actually we are using a PC with 2G ram , Intel Pentium 4 2.8GHz Dual and 2 NICs 1Gb (one integrated one PCI-E), the top CPU usage don't get the 80% pic...
Out traffics is about 180 MB IN/OUT.
We get some lost in the cards, about 1 packets per second, it's really low compared with the traffic, so we just don't care..
Nevertheless we get a big problem, the MAIL/SPAM outgoing, provoked by VIRUS/MAD_GUYs, can block all the publics IP in a really short time. (in the public Black Lists).
The answer to this may be not really ethic, but we have to do it.
We put a similar machine before this one with a bridge configuration blocking every port 25 traffic and sending to another anti SPAM/VIRUS/MAIL machine.
To do this is necessary give to the bridge the capacity of VLANs and one virtual card (in bridge mode i.e.'br0.30') in every net to answer to the sender...
It works and the costumer don't note the difference .... Just if you do a telnet anywhere.net 25 you get a Hi I'm a scanner hello answer!!!.. It's really good!!! and works, the mail outgoing is sender from another IP, so we get our 3 groups safe!!!.
Thats all folks, I hope this can help anyone, and it's the only thing I can do to give you something back..
Be strong, be free, 4 ever
- CarLost 11:51, 12 October 2007 (EDT) from Chile