Difference between revisions of "Hybrid graphics"

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[[Category:Graphics]]
 
[[Category:Graphics]]
[[tr:Hibrit_Grafik_Teknolojileri]]
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[[ja:ハイブリッドグラフィック]]
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[[tr:Hibrit Grafik Teknolojileri]]
 
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''Hybrid-graphics is a concept involving two graphics cards on same computer, it was first designed to control power consumption in laptops and is extending to desktop computers as well''.
''Hybrid-graphics is a concept involving two graphics cards on same computer, it was first designed to control power consumption in laptops and is extending to desktop computers as well''
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== About Hybrid-graphics Technologies ==
 
== About Hybrid-graphics Technologies ==
Line 13: Line 12:
 
== The "Old" Hybrid Model (Basic Switching) ==
 
== The "Old" Hybrid Model (Basic Switching) ==
  
This approach involves a two graphic card setup with a hardware multiplexer ([[Wikipedia:Multiplexer|MUX]]). It allows power save and low-end 3D rendering by using an Integrated Graphics Processor (IGP); or a major power consumption with 3D rendering performance using a Dedicated Graphics Processor (DGP). This model makes the user choose (at boot time or at login time) within the two power/graphics profiles and is almost fixed through all the user session. The switch is done by a similar workflow:
+
This approach involves a two graphic card setup with a hardware multiplexer ([[Wikipedia:Multiplexer|MUX]]). It allows power save and low-end 3D rendering by using an Integrated Graphics Processor (IGP); or a major power consumption with 3D rendering performance using a Dedicated/Discrete Graphics Processor (DGP). This model makes the user choose (at boot time or at login time) within the two power/graphics profiles and is almost fixed through all the user session. The switch is done by a similar workflow:
 +
 
 
* Turn off the display
 
* Turn off the display
 
* Turn on the DGP
 
* Turn on the DGP
Line 19: Line 19:
 
* Turn off the IGP
 
* Turn off the IGP
 
* Turn on again the display
 
* Turn on again the display
This switch is somewhat rough and adds some blinks and black screens in laptops that could do it "on the fly". Later approaches made the transition a little more user-friendly.
+
 
 +
This switch is somewhat rough and adds some blinks and black screens in laptops that could do it "on the fly". Later approaches made the transition a little more user-friendly.
  
 
== The New Dynamic Switching Model ==
 
== The New Dynamic Switching Model ==
Line 39: Line 40:
 
==== Software Solutions So Far ====
 
==== Software Solutions So Far ====
  
* [[asus_switcheroo]] -- a solution for Intel/Nvidia switching on ASUS and other laptops with a similar hardware mux -- by Alex Williamson
+
{{expansion|missing links}}
* [[byo_switcheroo]] -- a solution to build your own handler (like acpi_call) to switch between cards with vga_switcheroo -- by Alex Williamson
+
 
* [http://en.gentoo-wiki.com/wiki/Vga_switcheroo vga_switcheroo] -- the original GPU switching solution primarily for Intel/ATI notebooks -- by David Airlie
+
* asus_switcheroo -- a solution for Intel/Nvidia switching on ASUS and other laptops with a similar hardware mux -- by Alex Williamson
* [[acpi_call]] -- allows you to switch off discrete graphics card to improve battery life -- by Michal Kottman
+
* byo_switcheroo -- a solution to build your own handler (like acpi_call) to switch between cards with vga_switcheroo -- by Alex Williamson
 +
* [https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Hprofile#VGA vga_switcheroo] -- the original GPU switching solution primarily for Intel/ATI notebooks -- by David Airlie
 +
* acpi_call -- allows you to switch off discrete graphics card to improve battery life -- by Michal Kottman
 
* [[PRIME]] -- long-term Optimus solution in progress -- by David Airlie  
 
* [[PRIME]] -- long-term Optimus solution in progress -- by David Airlie  
 
* [[Bumblebee]] -- allows you to run specific programs on the discrete graphic card, inside of an X session using the integrated graphic card. Works on Nvidia Optimus cards -- by Martin Juhl
 
* [[Bumblebee]] -- allows you to run specific programs on the discrete graphic card, inside of an X session using the integrated graphic card. Works on Nvidia Optimus cards -- by Martin Juhl
* [[hybrid-windump]] -- dump window using Nvidia onto Intel display -- by Florian Berger and Joakim Gebart
+
* hybrid-windump -- dump window using Nvidia onto Intel display -- by Florian Berger and Joakim Gebart
 +
* {{AUR|gpu-switch}} -- gpu-switch is an application to switch between the integrated and dedicated GPU of dual-GPU MacBook Pro models for the next reboot
 +
* {{AUR|systemd-vgaswitcheroo-units}} -- Disable discrete GPU at boot for AMD/NVIDIA & Intel dual GPU setups.
  
 
=== ATI Dynamic Switchable Graphics ===
 
=== ATI Dynamic Switchable Graphics ===
  
This is a new technology similar to the one of Nvidia. There is no hardware multiplexer and gone into the market a few weeks/months ago.  
+
This is a new technology similar to the one of Nvidia as it uses no hardware multiplexer.
  
 
==== Current Problems ====
 
==== Current Problems ====
  
The Dynamic Switch needs Xorg support for the discrete videocard assigned to rendering [http://www.x.org/wiki/RadeonFeature#fnref-e188f8b793017f6c1c15025dc3d042a1e560915e].
+
The Dynamic Switch needs Xorg support for the discrete videocard assigned for rendering to work [http://www.x.org/wiki/RadeonFeature#fnref-e188f8b793017f6c1c15025dc3d042a1e560915e].
 +
So, rendering on the discrete gpu will not work until the Xorg team adds support for it.
  
So, the method listed [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Hybrid_graphics#Solutions_So_Far here] (and the AUR package related) '''will not work''' until Xorg team add support for the redering on a second card not attached to video. See [https://blueprints.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+spec/desktop-p-hybrid-graphics here] for more info.
+
This means that with a muxless intel+ati design, you cannot use your discrete card by simply modprobing the radeon module.
  
This means that with a muxless intel+ati design, you can't use your discrete card simply modprobing the module as listed down here.
+
As of now, there are 2 choices:
 
+
As of now, there are 3 choices:
+
 
+
- Disable the discrete card and use only the intel one. In this case you can folow the instructions below to disable the radeon card.
+
  
 
- Test and improve some virtualGL based program to make the switch, like the common-amd branch of bumblebee project. Check the [https://github.com/Bumblebee-Project/Bumblebee/issues/52 project repository] and [http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-909802.html this] useful post.
 
- Test and improve some virtualGL based program to make the switch, like the common-amd branch of bumblebee project. Check the [https://github.com/Bumblebee-Project/Bumblebee/issues/52 project repository] and [http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-909802.html this] useful post.
  
- Use the proprietary driver with powerxpress (a.k.a. pxp) support maintained by [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/AMD_Catalyst#Installing_from_the_AUR Vi0l0] (remember to check for xorg compatibility).
+
- Use the proprietary driver with powerxpress (a.k.a. pxp) support maintained by [[AMD_Catalyst#Installing_from_the_AUR|Vi0l0]] (remember to check for xorg compatibility).
 
+
==== Solutions So Far ====
+
 
+
{{Warning| This method, on a mux-less system, works only to shutdown the radeon card. This will not enable rendering on the radeon. See [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Hybrid_graphics#Current_Problems_2 Current Problems] section above for detail.
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+
}}
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+
Right now, the best solution is vga_switcheroo with a combination of opensource drivers for your ATi and Intel graphics.
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+
* '''Preliminaries'''
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+
Make sure you have installed the drivers. Run in terminal:
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$ pacman -Q | grep -E "xf86-video-ati|xf86-video-intel"
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+
In case you get output similar to this:
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xf86-video-ati 6.14.1-1
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xf86-video-intel 2.15.0-2
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+
you're good to go. In other case install drivers:
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# pacman -S xf86-video-ati xf86-video-intel
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+
In order to be able to access vgaswitcheroo add this line to your fstab:
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+
none            /sys/kernel/debug debugfs defaults 0 0
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{{Note|{{ic|KMS}} must be activated for both cards, otherwise there will be no vgaswitcheroo in /sys/kernel/debug/ }}
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* '''Automatic radeon shutdown'''
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+
Systemd can use tmpfiles to shutdown the discrete gpu at boot.
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+
Important: Make sure the video drivers are loaded in initramfs before systemd calls vga_switcheroo, otherwise a kernel oops/panic may occur.
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+
First add the drivers to MODULES array in {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}}. Adding radeon and i915 yields
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{{hc|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf|
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MODULES="radeon i915"}}
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Next rebuild initramfs (details at [[initramfs]])
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# mkinitcpio -p linux
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Then create the systemd tmpfile at {{ic|/usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/vgaswitcheroo.conf}}
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{{hc|/usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/vgaswitcheroo.conf|
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w /sys/kernel/debug/vgaswitcheroo/switch - - - - OFF}}
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+
Reboot and the discrete gpu should be off by default. It can be powered back on using the manual method described below.
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+
* '''Manual method'''
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+
To verify the state of the dgpu
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# cat /sys/kernel/debug/vgaswitcheroo/switch
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Power off the dgpu
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# echo OFF > /sys/kernel/debug/vgaswitcheroo/switch
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Power on
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# echo ON > /sys/kernel/debug/vgaswitcheroo/switch
+
  
 
=== Fully Power Down Discrete GPU ===
 
=== Fully Power Down Discrete GPU ===
  
You may want to turn off the high-performance graphics processor to save battery power, this can be done by installing the the [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages/acpi_call-git/ acpi_call-git] package from the AUR.
+
You may want to turn off the high-performance graphics processor to save battery power, this can be done by installing the {{pkg|acpi_call}} package.
  
 
Once installed load the kernel module:
 
Once installed load the kernel module:
Line 140: Line 77:
  
 
With the kernel module loaded run the following (requires root):
 
With the kernel module loaded run the following (requires root):
  turn_off_gpu.sh
+
  /usr/share/acpi_call/examples/turn_off_gpu.sh
  
 
This script will go through all the known data buses and attempt to turn them off. You will get an output similar to the following:  
 
This script will go through all the known data buses and attempt to turn them off. You will get an output similar to the following:  
Line 186: Line 123:
 
{{hc|/etc/tmpfiles.d/acpi_call.conf|
 
{{hc|/etc/tmpfiles.d/acpi_call.conf|
  
w /proc/acpi/call - - - - \_SB.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP._OFF}}
+
w /proc/acpi/call - - - - \\_SB.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP._OFF}}
  
The above config will be loaded at boot by systemd. What it does is write the specific OFF signal to the {{ic|/proc/acpi/call}} file. Obviously, replace the {{ic|\_SB.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP._OFF}} with the one which works on your system.  
+
The above config will be loaded at boot by systemd. What it does is write the specific OFF signal to the {{ic|/proc/acpi/call}} file. Obviously, replace the {{ic|\_SB.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP._OFF}} with the one which works on your system (please note that you need to escape the backslash).
  
{{Note| After every kernel upgrade acpi_call-git will need to be reinstalled.}}
+
{{Tip| To prevent manual reinstalling the {{AUR|acpi_call-git}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|acpi_call-git}}}} package after each kernel upgrade, you can use the {{AUR|acpi_call-git-dkms}} package.}}
  
 
== See Also ==
 
== See Also ==

Latest revision as of 17:40, 29 April 2016

Hybrid-graphics is a concept involving two graphics cards on same computer, it was first designed to control power consumption in laptops and is extending to desktop computers as well.

About Hybrid-graphics Technologies

The laptop manufacturers developed new technologies involving two graphic cards in an single computer, enabling both high performance and power saving usages. This technology is well supported on Windows but it's still quite experimental with Linux distributions.

We call hybrid graphics a set of two graphic cards with different abilities and power consumptions. There are a variety of technologies and each manufacturer developed its own solution to this problem. Here we try to explain a little about each approach and models and some community solutions to the lack of GNU/Linux systems support.

The "Old" Hybrid Model (Basic Switching)

This approach involves a two graphic card setup with a hardware multiplexer (MUX). It allows power save and low-end 3D rendering by using an Integrated Graphics Processor (IGP); or a major power consumption with 3D rendering performance using a Dedicated/Discrete Graphics Processor (DGP). This model makes the user choose (at boot time or at login time) within the two power/graphics profiles and is almost fixed through all the user session. The switch is done by a similar workflow:

  • Turn off the display
  • Turn on the DGP
  • Switch the multiplexer
  • Turn off the IGP
  • Turn on again the display

This switch is somewhat rough and adds some blinks and black screens in laptops that could do it "on the fly". Later approaches made the transition a little more user-friendly.

The New Dynamic Switching Model

Most of the new Hybrid-graphics technologies involves two graphic cards as the basic switching but now the DGP and IGP are plugged to a framebuffer and there is no hardware multiplexer. The IGP is always on and the DGP is switched on/off when there is a need in power-save or performance-rendering. In most cases there is no way to use only the DGP and all the switching and rendering is controlled by software. At startup, the Linux kernel starts using a video mode and setting up low-level graphic drivers which will be used by the applications. Most of the Linux distributions then use X.org to create a graphical environment. Finally, a few other softwares are launched, first a login manager and then a window manager, and so on. This hierarchical system has been designed to be used in most of cases on a single graphic card.

Nvidia Optimus

Nvidia Optimus Whitepaper

Current Problems

  • Switching between cards when possible.
  • Switching on/off the discrete card.
  • Be able to use the discrete card for 3D render.
  • Be able to use both cards for 3D render (problem arised in this post).

Software Solutions So Far

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: missing links (Discuss in Talk:Hybrid graphics#)
  • asus_switcheroo -- a solution for Intel/Nvidia switching on ASUS and other laptops with a similar hardware mux -- by Alex Williamson
  • byo_switcheroo -- a solution to build your own handler (like acpi_call) to switch between cards with vga_switcheroo -- by Alex Williamson
  • vga_switcheroo -- the original GPU switching solution primarily for Intel/ATI notebooks -- by David Airlie
  • acpi_call -- allows you to switch off discrete graphics card to improve battery life -- by Michal Kottman
  • PRIME -- long-term Optimus solution in progress -- by David Airlie
  • Bumblebee -- allows you to run specific programs on the discrete graphic card, inside of an X session using the integrated graphic card. Works on Nvidia Optimus cards -- by Martin Juhl
  • hybrid-windump -- dump window using Nvidia onto Intel display -- by Florian Berger and Joakim Gebart
  • gpu-switchAUR -- gpu-switch is an application to switch between the integrated and dedicated GPU of dual-GPU MacBook Pro models for the next reboot
  • systemd-vgaswitcheroo-unitsAUR -- Disable discrete GPU at boot for AMD/NVIDIA & Intel dual GPU setups.

ATI Dynamic Switchable Graphics

This is a new technology similar to the one of Nvidia as it uses no hardware multiplexer.

Current Problems

The Dynamic Switch needs Xorg support for the discrete videocard assigned for rendering to work [1]. So, rendering on the discrete gpu will not work until the Xorg team adds support for it.

This means that with a muxless intel+ati design, you cannot use your discrete card by simply modprobing the radeon module.

As of now, there are 2 choices:

- Test and improve some virtualGL based program to make the switch, like the common-amd branch of bumblebee project. Check the project repository and this useful post.

- Use the proprietary driver with powerxpress (a.k.a. pxp) support maintained by Vi0l0 (remember to check for xorg compatibility).

Fully Power Down Discrete GPU

You may want to turn off the high-performance graphics processor to save battery power, this can be done by installing the acpi_call package.

Once installed load the kernel module:

modprobe acpi_call

With the kernel module loaded run the following (requires root):

/usr/share/acpi_call/examples/turn_off_gpu.sh

This script will go through all the known data buses and attempt to turn them off. You will get an output similar to the following:

Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P1.VGA._OFF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P2.VGA._OFF: failed
Trying \_SB_.PCI0.OVGA.ATPX: failed
Trying \_SB_.PCI0.OVGA.XTPX: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P3.PEGP._OFF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P2.PEGP._OFF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P1.PEGP._OFF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.MXR0.MXM0._OFF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.PEG1.GFX0._OFF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.PEG0.GFX0.DOFF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.PEG1.GFX0.DOFF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP._OFF: works!
Trying \_SB.PCI0.XVR0.Z01I.DGOF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.PEGR.GFX0._OFF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.PEG.VID._OFF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.PEG0.VID._OFF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P2.DGPU._OFF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P4.DGPU.DOFF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.IXVE.IGPU.DGOF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.RP00.VGA._PS3: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.RP00.VGA.P3MO: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.GFX0.DSM._T_0: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.LPC.EC.PUBS._OFF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P2.NVID._OFF: failed
Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P2.VGA.PX02: failed
Trying \_SB_.PCI0.PEGP.DGFX._OFF: failed
Trying \_SB_.PCI0.VGA.PX02: failed

See the "works"? This means the script found a bus which your GPU sits on and it has now turned off the chip. To confirm this, your battery time remaining should have increased. Currently, the chip will turn back on with the next reboot to get around this we do the following:

Note: To turn the GPU back on just reboot.

Add the kernel module to the array of modules to load at boot:

/etc/modules-load.d/acpi_call.conf
#Load 'acpi_call.ko' at boot.

acpi_call

To turn off the GPU at boot we could just run the above script but honestly that is not very elegant so instead lets make use of systemd's tmpfiles.

/etc/tmpfiles.d/acpi_call.conf

w /proc/acpi/call - - - - \\_SB.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP._OFF

The above config will be loaded at boot by systemd. What it does is write the specific OFF signal to the /proc/acpi/call file. Obviously, replace the \_SB.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP._OFF with the one which works on your system (please note that you need to escape the backslash).

Tip: To prevent manual reinstalling the acpi_call-gitAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror] package after each kernel upgrade, you can use the acpi_call-git-dkmsAUR package.

See Also