Hybrid graphics (简体中文)
笔记本生产商在同一个计算机上使用两个显卡，以同时实现高性能和低功耗两个目标。在 Windows 系统上支持很好，在 Linux 系统上的支持只是实验性质。
We call hybrid graphics a set of two graphic cards with different abilities and power consumptions. There are a variety of technologies and each manufacturer developed its own solution to this problem. Here we try to explain a little about each approach and models and some community solutions to the lack of GNU/Linux systems support.
First Generation Hybrid Model (Basic Switching)
The first generation of notebooks with hybrid graphics follow an approach that involves a two graphic card setup with a hardware multiplexer (MUX). It allows power save and low-end 3D rendering by using an Integrated Graphics Processor (IGP); or a major power consumption with 3D rendering performance using a Dedicated/Discrete Graphics Processor (DGP). This model makes the user choose (at boot time or at login time) within the two power/graphics profiles and is almost fixed through all the user session. The switch is done by a similar workflow:
- Turn off the display
- Turn on the DGP
- Switch the multiplexer
- Turn off the IGP
- Turn on again the display
This switch is somewhat rough and adds some blinks and black screens in laptops that could do it "on the fly". Later approaches made the transition a little more user-friendly.
Dynamic Switching Model
Most of the new Hybrid-graphics technologies involve two graphic cards as the basic switching but now the DGP and IGP are plugged to a framebuffer and there is no hardware multiplexer. The IGP is always on and the DGP is switched on/off when there is a need in power-save or performance-rendering. In most cases there is no way to use only the DGP and all the switching and rendering is controlled by software. At startup, the Linux kernel starts using a video mode and setting up low-level graphic drivers which will be used by the applications. Most of the Linux distributions then use X.org to create a graphical environment. Finally, a few other softwares are launched, first a login manager and then a window manager, and so on. This hierarchical system has been designed to be used in most of cases on a single graphic card.
Read NVIDIA Optimus and Bumblebee for details about NVidia using hybrid graphics with NVidia’s proprietary driver.
Read PRIME basically everything else (like AMD Radeon and NVidia GPUs with Nouveau driver).
Fully Power Down Discrete GPU
You may want to turn off the high-performance graphics processor to save battery power, this can be done by installing thepackage.
Once installed load the kernel module:
# modprobe acpi_call
With the kernel module loaded run the following:
This script will go through all the known data buses and attempt to turn them off. You will get an output similar to the following:
Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P1.VGA._OFF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P2.VGA._OFF: failed Trying \_SB_.PCI0.OVGA.ATPX: failed Trying \_SB_.PCI0.OVGA.XTPX: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P3.PEGP._OFF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P2.PEGP._OFF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P1.PEGP._OFF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.MXR0.MXM0._OFF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.PEG1.GFX0._OFF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.PEG0.GFX0.DOFF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.PEG1.GFX0.DOFF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP._OFF: works! Trying \_SB.PCI0.XVR0.Z01I.DGOF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.PEGR.GFX0._OFF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.PEG.VID._OFF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.PEG0.VID._OFF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P2.DGPU._OFF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P4.DGPU.DOFF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.IXVE.IGPU.DGOF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.RP00.VGA._PS3: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.RP00.VGA.P3MO: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.GFX0.DSM._T_0: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.LPC.EC.PUBS._OFF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P2.NVID._OFF: failed Trying \_SB.PCI0.P0P2.VGA.PX02: failed Trying \_SB_.PCI0.PEGP.DGFX._OFF: failed Trying \_SB_.PCI0.VGA.PX02: failed
See the "works"? This means the script found a bus which your GPU sits on and it has now turned off the chip. To confirm this, your battery time remaining should have increased. Currently, the chip will turn back on with the next reboot to get around this we do the following:
Add the kernel module to the array of modules to load at boot:
#Load 'acpi_call.ko' at boot. acpi_call
To turn off the GPU at boot we could just run the above script but honestly that is not very elegant so instead lets make use of systemd's tmpfiles.
w /proc/acpi/call - - - - \\_SB.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP._OFF
The above config will be loaded at boot by systemd. What it does is write the specific OFF signal to the
/proc/acpi/call file. Obviously, replace the
\_SB.PCI0.PEG0.PEGP._OFF with the one which works on your system (please note that you need to escape the backslash).