Difference between revisions of "I3"

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(update Pkg/AUR templates (https://github.com/lahwaacz/wiki-scripts/blob/master/update-package-templates.py))
(i3bar replacements: remove useless acronym "DE" and rename back to "alternatives" (e.g. xfce4-panel does not replace anything))
 
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[[Category:Tiling WMs]]
 
[[Category:Tiling WMs]]
 
[[Category:Dynamic WMs]]
 
[[Category:Dynamic WMs]]
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[[fr:i3]]
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[[hu:I3]]
 
[[ja:i3]]
 
[[ja:i3]]
 
[[ko:I3]]
 
[[ko:I3]]
 
[[ru:I3]]
 
[[ru:I3]]
[[zh-CN:I3]]
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[[zh-hans:I3]]
 
{{Related articles start}}
 
{{Related articles start}}
{{Related|Desktop environment}}
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{{Related|Comparison of tiling window managers}}
{{Related|Display manager}}
 
{{Related|File manager functionality}}
 
 
{{Related|Window manager}}
 
{{Related|Window manager}}
{{Related|Comparison of tiling window managers}}
 
{{Related|Clipboard}}
 
{{Related|Autostarting#Graphical}}
 
 
{{Related articles end}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
 
[http://i3wm.org/ i3] is a dynamic [[Wikipedia:Tiling window manager|tiling window manager]] inspired by [[wmii]] that is primarily targeted at developers and advanced users.
 
[http://i3wm.org/ i3] is a dynamic [[Wikipedia:Tiling window manager|tiling window manager]] inspired by [[wmii]] that is primarily targeted at developers and advanced users.
  
The stated goals for i3 include clear documentation, proper multi-monitor support, a tree structure for windows, and different modes like in [[vim]].
+
The stated goals for ''i3'' include clear documentation, proper multi-monitor support, a tree structure for windows, and different modes like in [[vim]].
  
 
== Installation ==
 
== Installation ==
  
[[Install]] the {{Grp|i3}} [[Pacman#Installing package groups|package group]]. It includes the window manager {{Pkg|i3-wm}}, {{Pkg|i3status}} which writes a status line to i3bar through [[Wikipedia:Standard streams#Standard output (stdout)|stdout]], and {{Pkg|i3lock}}, a screen locker.
+
''i3'' can be installed with the {{Pkg|i3-wm}} package.
 +
 
 +
An {{Grp|i3}} package group is also available. It includes the window manager, a screen locker and two programs which write a status line to i3bar through [[Wikipedia:Standard streams#Standard output (stdout)|stdout]].
 +
 
 +
{{Note|{{Pkg|i3-wm}} conflicts with {{Pkg|i3-gaps}} and by default {{Pkg|i3-gaps}} (a fork of ''i3'' with gaps and other features) will be installed.}}
 +
 
 +
Additional packages are available in the [[Arch User Repository]]. See [[#Patches]] for examples.
 +
 
 +
== Starting ==
 +
 
 +
=== From tty ===
  
Additional packages are available in the [[Arch User Repository]]. See the section [[#Patches]] for examples.
+
Run {{ic|i3}} with [[xinit]].
  
 
=== Display manager ===
 
=== Display manager ===
  
{{Pkg|i3-wm}} includes {{ic|i3.desktop}} as [[Xsession]] which starts the window manager. {{ic|i3-with-shmlog.desktop}} enables logs (useful for debugging). {{AUR|i3-gnome}} integrates {{ic|i3}} into [[GNOME]].
+
{{Pkg|i3-wm}} includes {{ic|i3.desktop}} as [[Xsession]] which starts the window manager. {{ic|i3-with-shmlog.desktop}} enables logs (useful for debugging). {{AUR|i3-gnome}}/{{AUR|i3-gnome-git}} integrates ''i3'' into [[GNOME]].
 +
 
 +
== Usage ==
 +
 
 +
See the [http://i3wm.org/docs official documentation] for more information, namely the [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html i3 User’s Guide].
 +
 
 +
=== Keybindings ===
  
=== xinitrc ===
+
In ''i3'', commands are invoked with a modifier key, referred to as {{ic|$mod}}. This is {{ic|Alt}} (Mod1) by default, with {{ic|Super}} (Mod4) being a popular alternative. Super is the key usually represented on a keyboard as a Windows icon, or on an Apple keyboard as a Command key.
  
Edit [[Xinitrc]], and add:
+
See the [http://i3wm.org/docs/refcard.html i3 reference card] and [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#_using_i3 Using i3] for the defaults. See [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#keybindings Keyboard bindings] to add new shortcuts.
  
exec i3
+
Users of non-Qwerty keyboard layouts may wish to circumvent the "configuration wizard" as [[#Configuration wizard and alternative keyboard layouts|described below]].
  
To log the output from i3, add this line instead:
+
=== Containers and layouts ===
  
exec i3 -V >> ~/i3log-$(date +'%F-%k-%M-%S') 2>&1
+
''i3'' manages windows in a tree structure, with containers as building blocks. This structure branches with horizontal or vertical splits. Containers are tiled by default, but can be set to [https://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#_layout_mode_for_new_containers tabbed or stacking] layouts, as well as made floating (such as for dialog windows). Floating windows are always on top.
  
Nvidia binary drivers before version '''302.17''' need the {{ic|--force-xinerama}} flag. A detailed explanation can be found at [http://i3wm.org/docs/multi-monitor.html i3wm.org].
+
See [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#_tree i3 Tree] and [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AWA8Pl57UBY Containers and the tree data structure] for details.
  
exec i3 --force-xinerama
+
=== Application launcher ===
  
If you have trouble mapping keys (e.g. {{ic|;}} as semicolon), use {{Pkg|xorg-xev}} or see [[Extra keyboard keys]].
+
''i3'' uses [[dmenu]] as an application launcher, which is bound by default to {{ic|$mod+d}}. As it is an optional dependency {{Pkg|dmenu}} must first be installed before this functionality can be used.
  
$ xev | grep -A2 --line-buffered '^KeyRelease' | sed -n '/keycode /s/^.*keycode \([0-9]*\).* (.*, \(.*\)).*$/\1 \2/p'
+
{{Pkg|i3-wm}} contains ''i3-dmenu-desktop'', a [[Wikipedia:Perl|Perl]] wrapper for ''dmenu'' which uses [[desktop entries]] to create a list of all installed applications. Alternatively, the package {{AUR|j4-dmenu-desktop-git}} can be used.
  
== Usage ==
+
==== KRunner as application launcher in KDE Plasma/i3 ====
 +
 
 +
When running the KDE [[Plasma]] DE with KDEWM=/usr/bin/i3, one can set [[KRunner]] as alternative application launcher with {{ic|$mod+d}} by adding the following to the ''i3'' config:
  
See the [http://i3wm.org/docs official documentation] for more information, namely the [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html i3 User’s Guide].
+
{{hc|~/.config/i3/config|2=
 +
set $menu --no-startup-id qdbus org.kde.krunner /App display
 +
bindsym $mod+d exec $menu
 +
}}
  
=== Application launcher ===
+
== Configuration ==
  
i3 uses [[dmenu]] as an application launcher, which is bound by default to {{ic|$mod+d}}. As an alternative, one can use {{AUR|dmenu2}} from the AUR which has many more features including transparency and support for xft fonts.
+
See [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#configuring Configuring i3] for details. The rest of this article assumes the ''i3'' configuration file to be in the folder {{ic|~/.config/}}.
  
{{Pkg|i3-wm}} contains ''i3-dmenu-desktop'', a [[Wikipedia:Perl|Perl]] wrapper for ''dmenu'' which uses [[desktop entries]] to create a list of all installed applications. Alternatively, the package {{AUR|j4-dmenu-desktop-git}} can be used; it is a near-drop-in replacement for ''i3-dmenu-desktop'', but much faster[[https://github.com/enkore/j4-dmenu-desktop/blob/master/README.md 1]].
+
=== Configuration wizard and alternative keyboard layouts ===
  
=== Keybindings ===
+
When ''i3'' is first started, it offers to run the configuration wizard ''i3-config-wizard''. This tool creates {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}} by rewriting a template configuration file in {{ic|/etc/i3/config.keycodes}}. It makes two modifications to the default template:
  
In i3, commands are invoked with a modifier key, referred to as {{ic|$mod}}. This is {{ic|Alt}} (Mod1) by default, with {{ic|Super}} (Mod4) being a popular alternative.
+
# It asks the user to choose a default modifier key, which it adds to the template as a single line, like {{ic|set $mod Mod1}}; and
 +
# it replaces all ''bindcode'' lines with ''bindsym'' lines corresponding to the user's current keyboard layout.
  
See the [http://i3wm.org/docs/refcard.html i3 reference card] and [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#_using_i3 Using i3] for the defaults. See [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#keybindings Keyboard bindings] to add new shortcuts.
+
Step 2 is designed to ensure that the four navigation shortcuts, {{ic|j}}, {{ic|k}}, {{ic|l}} and "semicolon" on a Qwerty keyboard, will be mapped to keysyms which have the same location, e.g. {{ic|h}}, {{ic|t}}, {{ic|n}}, {{ic|s}} on a [[Dvorak]] keyboard. The side-effect of this magic is that up to fifteen other keysyms may be remapped in ways which break the mnemonics - so that, for a Dvorak user, "restart" is bound to {{ic|$mod1+p}} instead of {{ic|$mod1+r}}, "split horizontally" is bound to {{ic|$mod1+d}} instead of {{ic|$mod1+h}}, and so on.
  
=== Containers ===
+
Therefore, users of alternate keyboard layouts who want straightforward key bindings, which match the bindings given in tutorials, may prefer to circumvent the "config wizard". This can be done by just copying {{ic|/etc/i3/config}} into {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}} (or {{ic|~/.i3/config}}), and editing that file.
  
{{Expansion|The User's guide explains basic use of containers, yet is not sufficiently clear to allow more advanced use cases. It also does not mention ''focus child'' as it does ''focus parent''. See also: [https://faq.i3wm.org/question/222/how-to-get-rid-of-another-container/], [https://github.com/i3/i3/issues/1326]}}
+
Note that a keycode-based configuration is also possible, e.g. for users who often switch between keyboard layouts, but want the ''i3'' bindings to stay the same.
  
i3 manages windows in a tree structure, with containers as building blocks. This structure branches with horizontal or vertical splits. Containers are tiled by default, but can be set to tabbed or stacked layouts, as well as made floating (such as for dialog windows). Floating windows are always on top.
+
=== Autostart ===
  
See [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#_tree i3 Tree] and [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AWA8Pl57UBY Containers and the tree data structure] for details.
+
Add an {{ic|exec}} command in {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}} file. For example:
  
== Configuration ==
+
exec terminator
  
See [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#configuring Configuring i3] for details. The rest of this article assumes the ''i3'' configuration file to be in the folder {{ic|~/.config}}.
+
Alternatively, you can use [[XDG Autostart]].
  
 
=== Colorschemes ===
 
=== Colorschemes ===
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The configuration file allows for customization of window decoration colors, but the syntax makes it impractical to create or share themes. There are several projects which make this easier and include a variety of user-contributed themes.
 
The configuration file allows for customization of window decoration colors, but the syntax makes it impractical to create or share themes. There are several projects which make this easier and include a variety of user-contributed themes.
  
* {{App|i3-style|Modifies your config in place from a theme stored in a JSON object, designed for frequently tweaking or changing a colorscheme|https://github.com/acrisci/i3-style|{{Aur|nodejs-i3-style}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|nodejs-i3-style}}}}}}
 
 
* {{App|j4-make-config|Merge your config with a collection of themes or personal config parts, for example host-specific configuration, allowing quick changing of the theme and flexible, dynamic customization of the configuration|https://github.com/okraits/j4-make-config|{{Aur|j4-make-config-git}}}}
 
* {{App|j4-make-config|Merge your config with a collection of themes or personal config parts, for example host-specific configuration, allowing quick changing of the theme and flexible, dynamic customization of the configuration|https://github.com/okraits/j4-make-config|{{Aur|j4-make-config-git}}}}
  
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==== i3bar alternatives ====
 
==== i3bar alternatives ====
  
Some users may prefer panels such as those provided by conventional [[Desktop environment|Desktop Environments]]. This can be achieved within i3 by launching the panel application of choice during startup.
+
Some users may prefer panels such as those provided by conventional [[Desktop environment|Desktop Environments]]. This can be achieved within ''i3'' by launching the panel application of choice during startup.
  
For the [[Xfce#Panel|XFCE panel]], add the following line anywhere in {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}}:
+
For example, to use the [[Xfce]] panel ({{Pkg|xfce4-panel}}), add the following line anywhere in {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}}:
  
 
  exec --no-startup-id xfce4-panel --disable-wm-check
 
  exec --no-startup-id xfce4-panel --disable-wm-check
  
Alternatively if using {{ic|startx}}, this can be done in your [[xinitrc]]:
+
i3bar can be disabled by commenting the {{ic|<nowiki>bar{ }</nowiki>}} section of {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}}, or defining a keybind to toggle the bar:
 
 
{{hc|~/.xinitrc|
 
xfce4-panel --disable-wm-check &
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Accuracy|i3 is [[Wikipedia:Extended_Window_Manager_Hints|NETWM]] compliant, so workspace management from external panels should usally work. See also [http://i3wm.org/docs/wsbar.html]}}
 
 
 
{{Note|Panel features that are specific to the [[Desktop environment]] (e.g., widgets for managing workspaces/sessions) will most likely not work, though i3's functionality should remain unaffected.}}
 
 
 
i3bar can be disabled by commenting out the {{ic|<nowiki>bar{ }</nowiki>}} section of {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}} or using:  
 
  
 
{{hc|~/.config/i3/config|
 
{{hc|~/.config/i3/config|
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bindsym $mod+m bar mode toggle
 
bindsym $mod+m bar mode toggle
 
}}
 
}}
This way you can show or hide bar as you want.
+
 
 +
Replacements independent of the desktop environment are listed below:
 +
* {{App|polybar|A fast and easy-to-use tool for creating status bars.|https://github.com/jaagr/polybar|{{Aur|polybar}}}}
 +
* {{App|excalibar|Lightweight yet customizable status bar written in C.|https://github.com/cylgom/excalibar|{{Aur|excalibar-git}}}}
  
 
=== i3status ===
 
=== i3status ===
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  $ cp /etc/i3status.conf ~/.config/i3status/config
 
  $ cp /etc/i3status.conf ~/.config/i3status/config
  
Not all plugins are defined in the default configuration and some configuration values may be invalid for your system, so the need to be updated accordingly. See {{ic|man i3status}} for details.
+
Not all plugins are defined in the default configuration and some configuration values may be invalid for your system, so the need to be updated accordingly. See {{man|1|i3status}} for details.
  
 
==== i3status replacements ====
 
==== i3status replacements ====
  
 
* {{App|[[conky]]| Highly extensible system monitor. For usage with i3bar see [http://i3wm.org/docs/user-contributed/conky-i3bar.html this tutorial] |https://github.com/brndnmtthws/conky|{{Pkg|conky}}}}
 
* {{App|[[conky]]| Highly extensible system monitor. For usage with i3bar see [http://i3wm.org/docs/user-contributed/conky-i3bar.html this tutorial] |https://github.com/brndnmtthws/conky|{{Pkg|conky}}}}
* {{App|i3blocks|Extensible via shell scripts. It can handle click events, interrupts, and defining of refresh intervals on a per-block basis.|https://github.com/vivien/i3blocks|{{AUR|i3blocks}}}}
+
* {{App|i3blocks|Extensible via shell scripts. It can handle click events, interrupts, and defining of refresh intervals on a per-block basis.|https://github.com/vivien/i3blocks|{{Pkg|i3blocks}}, {{AUR|i3blocks-git}} }}
* {{App|i3phtatus|An easily extensible i3status replacement meant for i3bar, written in PHP.|https://github.com/mwgg/i3phtatus}}
 
 
* {{App|i3pystatus|Extensible Python 3 status bar with many plugins and configuration options by default.|https://github.com/enkore/i3pystatus i3pystatus|{{AUR|i3pystatus-git}}}}
 
* {{App|i3pystatus|Extensible Python 3 status bar with many plugins and configuration options by default.|https://github.com/enkore/i3pystatus i3pystatus|{{AUR|i3pystatus-git}}}}
 
* {{App|i3situation|Another Python 3 status bar generator.|https://github.com/HarveyHunt/i3situation|{{Aur|i3situation-git}}}}
 
* {{App|i3situation|Another Python 3 status bar generator.|https://github.com/HarveyHunt/i3situation|{{Aur|i3situation-git}}}}
* {{App|j4status|Provides a statusline, configurable via plugins, and written in C.|http://j4status.j4tools.org/|{{Aur|j4status-git}}}}
+
* {{App|j4status|Provides a statusline, configurable via plugins, and written in C. Extra plugins are provided by {{Aur|j4status-plugins-git}}.|http://j4status.j4tools.org/|{{Aur|j4status-git}}}}
 +
* {{App|goi3bar|i3status replacement written in Go. Configuration-file driven with several plugins, concurrency options, and rich plugin support.|https://github.com/denbeigh2000/goi3bar/|{{Aur|goi3bar-git}}}}
 +
* {{App|goblocks|Fast, lightweight i3status replacement written in Go.|https://github.com/davidscholberg/goblocks|{{Aur|goblocks}}}}
 +
* {{App|bumblebee-status|Theme-able Python status bar generator.|https://github.com/tobi-wan-kenobi/bumblebee-status|{{Aur|bumblebee-status}} {{Aur|bumblebee-status-git}}}}
 +
* {{App|ty3status|i3status replacement written in Typescript. Built with first class support for javascript blocks.|https://github.com/mrkmg/ty3status|{{Aur|ty3status-git}}}}
 +
* {{App|i3status-rust|Highly efficient and feature-rich replacement written in Rust. Can handle push updates, individual update intervals, theming and click events|https://github.com/greshake/i3status-rust|{{Aur|i3status-rust-git}}}}
  
 
==== i3status wrappers ====
 
==== i3status wrappers ====
  
* {{App|[[h2status]]|Bash wrapper for i3status that allows custom json entries as input, and can handle click events as well as asynchronous updates of the status bar.|https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/H2status|{{Aur|h2status}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|h2status}}}}}}
 
 
* {{App|i3cat|A [[go]] based wrapper which can concatenate inputs from multiple external sources. It can handle click events and forwarding user specified signals to its subprocesses.|http://vincent-petithory.github.io/i3cat/|{{AUR|i3cat-git}}}}
 
* {{App|i3cat|A [[go]] based wrapper which can concatenate inputs from multiple external sources. It can handle click events and forwarding user specified signals to its subprocesses.|http://vincent-petithory.github.io/i3cat/|{{AUR|i3cat-git}}}}
* {{App|py3status|An extensible i3status wrapper written in Python.|https://github.com/ultrabug/py3status|{{Aur|py3status}}}}
+
* {{App|py3status|An extensible i3status wrapper written in Python.|https://github.com/ultrabug/py3status|{{Pkg|py3status}}}}
 +
* {{App|YaGoStatus|Yet Another i3status replacement written in Go.|https://github.com/burik666/yagostatus|{{Aur|yagostatus-git}}}}
  
 
==== Iconic fonts in the status bar ====
 
==== Iconic fonts in the status bar ====
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''i3bar'' can be [[#Patches|patched]] for XBM icon support, but you can use iconic font sets instead.
 
''i3bar'' can be [[#Patches|patched]] for XBM icon support, but you can use iconic font sets instead.
  
* {{App|ttf-font-awesome|Scalable vector icons that can be customized with CSS. A [http://fortawesome.github.io/Font-Awesome/cheatsheet/ cheatsheet] shows the Unicode point for each glyph.|http://fortawesome.github.io/Font-Awesome/|{{AUR|ttf-font-awesome}}}}
+
* {{App|ttf-font-awesome|Scalable vector icons that can be customized with CSS. A [http://fortawesome.github.io/Font-Awesome/cheatsheet/ cheatsheet] shows the Unicode point for each glyph.|http://fortawesome.github.io/Font-Awesome/|{{Pkg|ttf-font-awesome}}}}
* {{App|ttf-font-icons|Non-overlapping and consistently sized mix of Awesome and Ionicons. This also avoids minor overlapping between DejaVu Sans and Awesome.|https://www.dropbox.com/s/9iysh2i0gadi4ic/icons.pdf|{{AUR|ttf-font-icons}}}}.
+
* {{App|ttf-font-icons|Non-overlapping and consistently sized mix of Awesome and Ionicons. This also avoids minor overlapping between DejaVu Sans and Awesome.|http://kageurufu.net/icons.pdf|{{AUR|ttf-font-icons}}}}.
 +
* {{App|ttf-ionicons|The premium icon font for Ionic Framework.|https://ionicframework.com/docs/ionicons/|{{Pkg|ttf-ionicons}}}}.
  
 
To combine fonts, define a font fallback sequence in your configuration file, separating fonts with {{ic|,}} like so:
 
To combine fonts, define a font fallback sequence in your configuration file, separating fonts with {{ic|,}} like so:
Line 182: Line 198:
 
{{Merge|Internationalization|Should be described in one place; see also [[ArchWiki:Requests#Input methods]].}}
 
{{Merge|Internationalization|Should be described in one place; see also [[ArchWiki:Requests#Input methods]].}}
  
* in various gui text editors (e.g. [[gedit]], Leafpad) and terminals (e.g. GNOME Terminal, xfce4-terminal): {{ic|ctrl+shift+u}}, {{ic|f004}}, {{ic|Enter}}
+
* in various gui text editors (e.g. [[gedit]], Leafpad) and terminals (e.g. GNOME Terminal, xfce4-terminal): {{ic|Ctrl+Shift+u}}, {{ic|f004}}, {{ic|Enter}}
* in [[Emacs]]: {{ic|ctrl+x}}, {{ic|8}}, {{ic|Enter}}, {{ic|f004}}, {{ic|Enter}}
+
* in [[Emacs]]: {{ic|C-x}}, {{ic|8}}, {{ic|RET}}, {{ic|f004}}, {{ic|RET}}
 
* in [[Vim]] (while in insert mode): {{ic|Ctrl+v}}, {{ic|uf004}}
 
* in [[Vim]] (while in insert mode): {{ic|Ctrl+v}}, {{ic|uf004}}
 
* in [[urxvt]]: while holding {{ic|Ctrl+Shift}}, type {{ic|f004}}
 
* in [[urxvt]]: while holding {{ic|Ctrl+Shift}}, type {{ic|f004}}
Line 189: Line 205:
 
=== Terminal emulator ===
 
=== Terminal emulator ===
  
By default when pressing {{ic|$mod+Return}} it launches the {{ic|i3-sensible-terminal}} which is a script that invokes a terminal. See {{ic|man i3-sensible-terminal}} for the order terminals are invoked in.
+
By default when pressing {{ic|$mod+Return}} it launches the {{ic|i3-sensible-terminal}} which is a script that invokes a terminal. See {{man|1|i3-sensible-terminal}} for the order terminals are invoked in.
  
 
To instead launch a terminal of choice, modify this line in {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}}:
 
To instead launch a terminal of choice, modify this line in {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}}:
Line 195: Line 211:
 
  bindsym $mod+Return exec i3-sensible-terminal
 
  bindsym $mod+Return exec i3-sensible-terminal
  
Alternatively, [[Environment_variable#Defining_variables_locally|locally define]] the {{ic|$TERMINAL}} variable:
+
Alternatively, set the {{ic|$TERMINAL}} [[environment variable]].
 
 
$ export TERMINAL=''yourterminal''
 
  
 
== Tips and tricks ==
 
== Tips and tricks ==
 
=== Advanced window navigation ===
 
 
See [http://www.slackword.net/?p=657 i3 window Navigation Tips].
 
  
 
=== Jump to open window ===
 
=== Jump to open window ===
  
*{{App|quickswitch-i3|Python utility to quickly change to and locate windows in i3|https://github.com/proxypoke/quickswitch-for-i3|{{Aur|quickswitch-i3}}}}
+
*{{App|quickswitch-i3|Python utility to quickly change to and locate windows in ''i3''|https://github.com/OliverUv/quickswitch-for-i3/|{{Aur|quickswitch-i3}}}}
 
*{{App|i3-wm-scripts|search for and jump to windows with particular names matching regexp|https://github.com/yiuin/i3-wm-scripts||}}
 
*{{App|i3-wm-scripts|search for and jump to windows with particular names matching regexp|https://github.com/yiuin/i3-wm-scripts||}}
 
*{{App|winmenupy|Launches dmenu with a list of clients, sorted after workspaces. Selecting a client jumps to that window.|https://github.com/ziberna/i3-py/blob/master/examples/winmenu.py||}}
 
*{{App|winmenupy|Launches dmenu with a list of clients, sorted after workspaces. Selecting a client jumps to that window.|https://github.com/ziberna/i3-py/blob/master/examples/winmenu.py||}}
*{{App|rofi|Search and jump to open and scratchpad window|https://davedavenport.github.io/rofi/|{{Pkg|rofi}}}}
+
*{{App|[[rofi]]|Search and jump to open and scratchpad window|https://davedavenport.github.io/rofi/|{{Pkg|rofi}}}}
 +
*{{App|i3-easyfocus|Focus and select windows in ''i3''|https://github.com/cornerman/i3-easyfocus|{{Aur|i3-easyfocus-git}}}}
 +
*{{App|wmfocus|Focus and select windows in ''i3'' and other window managers|https://github.com/svenstaro/wmfocus|{{Aur|wmfocus}}}}
 +
*{{App|i3-cycle-focus|Provides an Alt-Tab functionality for ''i3''|https://github.com/acrisci/i3ipc-python/blob/master/examples/i3-cycle-focus.py||}}
  
 
=== Jump to urgent window ===
 
=== Jump to urgent window ===
Line 270: Line 283:
 
  ~/load_layout.sh
 
  ~/load_layout.sh
  
{{tip|Adding {{ic|bindsym $mod+g exec ~/load_layout.sh}} to {{ic|~/.i3/config}} and restarting i3 will bind Mod+g to run the above script.}}
+
{{tip|Adding {{ic|bindsym $mod+g exec ~/load_layout.sh}} to {{ic|~/.i3/config}} and restarting ''i3'' will bind Mod+g to run the above script.}}
  
 
{{note|If the above script does not work properly, refer to the [http://i3wm.org/docs/layout-saving.html#_editing_layout_files  official documentation]. The ''swallows'' sections of {{ic|~/.i3/workspace_N.json}} needs to be manually edited.}}
 
{{note|If the above script does not work properly, refer to the [http://i3wm.org/docs/layout-saving.html#_editing_layout_files  official documentation]. The ''swallows'' sections of {{ic|~/.i3/workspace_N.json}} needs to be manually edited.}}
Line 289: Line 302:
 
=== Screensaver and power management ===
 
=== Screensaver and power management ===
  
You can use [[DPMS]] to blank your screen or to suspend/poweroff your monitor. Adding the following line to your {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}} will suspend your monitor after 10 minutes.
+
With [[Power management#xss-lock]] you can register a screenlocker for your ''i3'' session. The {{ic|-time}} option with ''xautolock'' locks the screen after a given time period:
 
 
exec --no-startup-id xset dpms 600
 
 
 
With {{AUR|xss-lock-git}} you can register a screenlocker for your i3 session. xss-lock subscribes to the systemd-events {{ic|suspend}}, {{ic|hibernate}}, {{ic|lock-session}}, and {{ic|unlock-session}} with appropriate actions (run locker and wait for user to unlock or kill locker). It also reacts to the [[Display Power Management Signaling#xset screen-saver control|X screensaver]] and runs or kills the locker in response to the x-server signals. Start xss-lock in your [[autostart]] as follows:
 
  
  xss-lock -- i3lock -n -i ''background_image.png'' &
+
  xautolock -time 10 -locker "i3lock -i 'background_image.png'" &
  
Additionally, you can use {{Pkg|xautolock}} to lock the screen after a given time period:
+
A [[systemd]] service file can be used to lock the screen before the system is being sent to sleep or hibernation state. See [[Power management#Suspend/resume service files]]. Note that i3lock requires the type of the service to be {{ic|forking}}.
  
xautolock -time 10 -locker "i3lock -i ''background_image.png''" &
+
See also [[DPMS]].
 
 
See also [[#Shutdown, reboot, lock screen]] and [[Pm-utils#Creating your own hooks]].
 
  
 
=== Shutdown, reboot, lock screen ===
 
=== Shutdown, reboot, lock screen ===
  
As there are no Shutdown, Reboot, or Lock Screen buttons, we can add some hotkey combinations to help us out. The below assumes you have {{Pkg|polkit}} installed to allow unprivileged users to run [[systemd#Power_management|power management]] commands.
+
Key combinations for shutdown, reboot and screenlock can be added to {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}}. The below example assumes you have {{Pkg|polkit}} installed to allow unprivileged users to run [[systemd#Power_management|power management]] commands.
 
 
Add the following lines to your {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}} Once completed you will be presented with a prompt whenever you press {{ic|$mod+pause}}.
 
  
 
{{bc|
 
{{bc|
Line 328: Line 333:
 
bindsym $mod+Pause mode "$mode_system"
 
bindsym $mod+Pause mode "$mode_system"
 
}}
 
}}
 +
 +
Once completed, you will be presented with a prompt whenever you press {{ic|$mod+pause}}. For more complex behaviour, use a separate script, and refer to it in the mode. [https://gist.github.com/anonymous/c8cd0a59bf4acb273068]
  
 
{{Note|1=<br>
 
{{Note|1=<br>
 
* {{ic|sleep 1}} adds a small delay to prevent possible race conditions with suspend [https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/unity-2d/+bug/830348]
 
* {{ic|sleep 1}} adds a small delay to prevent possible race conditions with suspend [https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/unity-2d/+bug/830348]
 
* The {{ic|-i}} argument for {{ic|systemctl poweroff}} causes a shutdown even if other users are logged-in (this requires {{Pkg|polkit}}), or when ''logind'' (wrongly) assumes so. [https://bugs.freedesktop.org/show_bug.cgi?id=62676]
 
* The {{ic|-i}} argument for {{ic|systemctl poweroff}} causes a shutdown even if other users are logged-in (this requires {{Pkg|polkit}}), or when ''logind'' (wrongly) assumes so. [https://bugs.freedesktop.org/show_bug.cgi?id=62676]
* If you use {{AUR|xss-lock-git}}, call {{ic|xset s activate}} to start the locker. With {{Pkg|xautolock}} the command is {{ic|xautolock -locknow}}
 
* You can use a separate script for more complex behaviour, and refer to it in the mode. See [https://gist.github.com/anonymous/c8cd0a59bf4acb273068] for an example.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
For a list of alternative screen lockers, see [[List of applications/Security#Screen lockers]].
 
For a list of alternative screen lockers, see [[List of applications/Security#Screen lockers]].
 +
 +
===External displays manual management===
 +
 +
Thanks to [[xrandr]] there are many ways to easily manage systems displays. The below example integrates it in the ''i3'' config file, and behave as the Power Management section above.
 +
 +
Here a laptop with both VGA and HDMI outputs will use a menu selection to switch them On/Off:
 +
 +
## Manual management of external displays
 +
# Set the shortcuts and what they do
 +
set $mode_display Ext Screen (v) VGA ON, (h) HDMI ON, (x) VGA OFF, (y) HDMI OFF
 +
mode "$mode_display" {
 +
    bindsym v exec --no-startup-id xrandr --output VGA1 --auto --right-of LVDS1, mode "default"
 +
    bindsym h exec --no-startup-id xrandr --output HDMI1 --auto --right-of LVDS1, mode "default"
 +
    bindsym x exec --no-startup-id xrandr --output VGA1 --auto --off, mode "default"
 +
    bindsym y exec --no-startup-id xrandr --output HDMI1 --auto --off, mode "default"
 +
 +
    # back to normal: Enter or Escape
 +
    bindsym Return mode "default"
 +
    bindsym Escape mode "default"
 +
}
 +
# Declare here the shortcut to bring the display selection menu
 +
bindsym $mod+x mode "$mode_display"
 +
 +
Any window that is still open in a switched Off display will automatically come back to the remaining active display.
 +
 +
The simplest way to determine names of your devices is to plug the device you wish to use and run:
 +
 +
$ xrandr --query
 +
 +
which will output the available, recognized devices and their in-system names to set your config file appropriately.
 +
 +
Refer to the [[xrandr]] page or man page for the complete list of available options, the [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html i3 userguide] and/or the [https://www.reddit.com/r/i3wm i3 FAQ on reddit] for more info.
  
 
=== Tabbed or stacked web-browsing ===
 
=== Tabbed or stacked web-browsing ===
Line 342: Line 379:
 
Some web-browsers intentionally do not implement tabs, since managing tabs is considered to be the task of the window manager, not the task of the browser.
 
Some web-browsers intentionally do not implement tabs, since managing tabs is considered to be the task of the window manager, not the task of the browser.
  
To let i3 manage your tab-less web-browser, in this example for [[uzbl]], add the following line to your {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}}
+
To let ''i3'' manage your tab-less web-browser, in this example for [[uzbl]], add the following line to your {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}}
  
 
  for_window [class="Uzbl-core"] focus child, layout stacking, focus
 
  for_window [class="Uzbl-core"] focus child, layout stacking, focus
Line 354: Line 391:
 
=== Workspace variables ===
 
=== Workspace variables ===
  
As workspaces are defined multiple times in i3, assigning workspace variables can be helpful. For example [https://github.com/dkeg/bloat2.0/blob/master/i3config#L55]:
+
As workspaces are defined multiple times in ''i3'', assigning workspace variables can be helpful. For example:
  
 
  set $WS1 term
 
  set $WS1 term
Line 385: Line 422:
 
  for_window [class="(?i)mplayer"] floating enable
 
  for_window [class="(?i)mplayer"] floating enable
  
=== Network Download/Upload speed on statusbar ===
+
=== Network Download/Upload speed in statusbar ===
  
You might adapt this upstream [http://code.stapelberg.de/git/i3status/tree/contrib/measure-net-speed.bash script]. For that,
+
You might adapt this upstream [http://code.stapelberg.de/git/i3status/tree/contrib/net-speed.sh script]. For that,
  
 
* rename both network cards according to your system (use {{ic|ip addr}})
 
* rename both network cards according to your system (use {{ic|ip addr}})
Line 396: Line 433:
  
 
Now, just save the script in a suitable place (for example {{ic|~/.config/i3}}) and point your status program to it.
 
Now, just save the script in a suitable place (for example {{ic|~/.config/i3}}) and point your status program to it.
 +
 +
=== Alternating layouts ===
 +
 +
The {{AUR|alternating-layouts-git}} package can be used for alternating layouts resulting in a similar behavior to the spiral tiling of bspwm. After installation add the following to your {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}} and reload i3.
 +
 +
exec --no-startup-id ''/path/to/alternating_layouts.py''
  
 
== Patches ==
 
== Patches ==
 +
 +
{{Merge|#Installation|One package does not warrant a separate section}}
  
 
Packages with patches not merged upstream are available in the [[AUR]]:
 
Packages with patches not merged upstream are available in the [[AUR]]:
  
* {{App|i3bar-icons-git|Display XBM icons in i3bar|https://github.com/ashinkarov/i3-extras|{{AUR|i3bar-icons-git}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|i3bar-icons-git}}}}}}
 
* {{App|i3-smart-border|Smart borders|https://github.com/ashinkarov/i3-extras|{{AUR|i3-smart-border}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|i3-smart-border}}}}}}
 
 
* {{App|i3-wm-iconpatch|Titlebar icon support|https://github.com/ashinkarov/i3-extras|{{AUR|i3-wm-iconpatch}}}}
 
* {{App|i3-wm-iconpatch|Titlebar icon support|https://github.com/ashinkarov/i3-extras|{{AUR|i3-wm-iconpatch}}}}
  
Line 409: Line 452:
 
=== General ===
 
=== General ===
  
{{Expansion|Official debugging instructions may not work as expected, so expand on this topic}}
+
In many cases, bugs are fixed in the development versions {{AUR|i3-git}} and {{AUR|i3status-git}}, and upstream will ask to reproduce any errors with this version. [http://i3wm.org/docs/debugging.html] See also [[Debug - Getting Traces#General]].
 
 
In many cases, bugs are fixed in the development version {{AUR|i3-git}} (from the [[AUR]]) and upstream will ask to reproduce any errors with this version. [http://i3wm.org/docs/debugging.html] See also [[Debug - Getting Traces#General]].
 
  
 
=== Buttons in the i3 message bar do not work ===
 
=== Buttons in the i3 message bar do not work ===
  
Buttons such as "Edit config" in {{ic|i3-msg}} call {{ic|i3-sensible-terminal}}, so make sure your [[#Terminal_emulator|Terminal emulator]] is recognized by i3.
+
Buttons such as "Edit config" in {{ic|i3-nagbar}} call {{ic|i3-sensible-terminal}}, so make sure your [[#Terminal_emulator|Terminal emulator]] is recognized by ''i3''.
  
 
=== Faulty line wraps in tiled terminals ===
 
=== Faulty line wraps in tiled terminals ===
  
i3 v4.3 and higher ignore size increment hints for tiled windows [https://www.mail-archive.com/i3-discuss@i3.zekjur.net/msg00709.html]. This may cause terminals to wrap lines prematurely, amongst other issues. As a workaround, make the offending window floating, before tiling it again.
+
''i3'' v4.3 and higher ignore size increment hints for tiled windows [https://www.mail-archive.com/i3-discuss@i3.zekjur.net/msg00709.html]. This may cause terminals to wrap lines prematurely, amongst other issues. As a workaround, make the offending window floating, before tiling it again.
  
 
=== Mouse cursor remains in waiting mode ===
 
=== Mouse cursor remains in waiting mode ===
Line 440: Line 481:
 
=== Tearing ===
 
=== Tearing ===
  
i3 does [https://github.com/i3/i3/issues/661 not properly implement double buffering] hence tearing or flickering may occur. To prevent this, install and configure [[compton]]. [https://faq.i3wm.org/question/3279/do-i-need-a-composite-manager-compton/?answer=3282#post-id-3282]
+
''i3'' does not properly implement double buffering [https://github.com/i3/i3/issues/661] hence tearing or flickering may occur. See [[Compton]] and [https://faq.i3wm.org/question/3279/do-i-need-a-composite-manager-compton.1#post-id-3282].
 +
 
 +
=== Tray icons not visible ===
 +
 
 +
The {{ic|tray_output primary}} directive may require setting a primary output with ''xrandr'', specifying the output explicitly or simply removing this directive. [https://github.com/i3/i3/issues/1144] See [[Xrandr]] for details. The default configuration created by i3-config-wizard no longer adds this directive to the configuration from ''i3'' 4.12.
 +
 
 +
=== Default workspace for Spotify ===
 +
 
 +
To assign a default workspace for spotify windows one cannot use the standard route with {{ic|assign}} and should rather use a {{ic|for_window}} command, such as
 +
{{hc|~/.config/i3/config|2=
 +
...
 +
for_window [class="Spotify"] move to workspace $ws10
 +
}}
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
Line 446: Line 499:
 
* [http://i3wm.org Official website]
 
* [http://i3wm.org Official website]
 
* [http://www.funtoo.org/I3_Tiling_Window_Manager funtoo Wiki]
 
* [http://www.funtoo.org/I3_Tiling_Window_Manager funtoo Wiki]
* [http://code.stapelberg.de/git/i3 i3 Source code]
+
* [https://github.com/i3/i3 i3 Source code]
 
* [https://github.com/ashinkarov/i3-extras i3-extras] - Collection of scripts and patches
 
* [https://github.com/ashinkarov/i3-extras i3-extras] - Collection of scripts and patches
* [https://github.com/acrisci/i3ipc-glib i3ipc-glib] - A library for i3 extensions
+
* [https://github.com/acrisci/i3ipc-glib i3ipc-glib] - A library for ''i3'' extensions
* [https://github.com/veelenga/i3ipc-ruby i3ipc-ruby] - An improved library for i3 extensions in Ruby
+
* [https://github.com/veelenga/i3ipc-ruby i3ipc-ruby] - An improved library for ''i3'' extensions in Ruby
* [http://www.j4tools.org/ j4tools] - non-official tools designed to work with i3
+
* [https://j4tools.github.io/ j4tools] - non-official tools designed to work with ''i3''
  
 
'''Arch Linux Forums'''
 
'''Arch Linux Forums'''
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=99064 The i3 thread] - A general discussion about i3
+
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=99064 The i3 thread] - A general discussion about ''i3''
 
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=103369 i3 desktop screenshots and config sharing]
 
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=103369 i3 desktop screenshots and config sharing]
  
 
'''Screencasts'''
 
'''Screencasts'''
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wx0eNaGzAZU i3 window manager v4.1 screencast]
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wx0eNaGzAZU i3 window manager v4.1 screencast]
 +
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j1I63wGcvU4&index=1&list=PL5ze0DjYv5DbCv9vNEzFmP6sU7ZmkGzcf i3 window manager v4.1X screencasts]

Latest revision as of 13:57, 1 August 2019

i3 is a dynamic tiling window manager inspired by wmii that is primarily targeted at developers and advanced users.

The stated goals for i3 include clear documentation, proper multi-monitor support, a tree structure for windows, and different modes like in vim.

Installation

i3 can be installed with the i3-wm package.

An i3 package group is also available. It includes the window manager, a screen locker and two programs which write a status line to i3bar through stdout.

Note: i3-wm conflicts with i3-gaps and by default i3-gaps (a fork of i3 with gaps and other features) will be installed.

Additional packages are available in the Arch User Repository. See #Patches for examples.

Starting

From tty

Run i3 with xinit.

Display manager

i3-wm includes i3.desktop as Xsession which starts the window manager. i3-with-shmlog.desktop enables logs (useful for debugging). i3-gnomeAUR/i3-gnome-gitAUR integrates i3 into GNOME.

Usage

See the official documentation for more information, namely the i3 User’s Guide.

Keybindings

In i3, commands are invoked with a modifier key, referred to as $mod. This is Alt (Mod1) by default, with Super (Mod4) being a popular alternative. Super is the key usually represented on a keyboard as a Windows icon, or on an Apple keyboard as a Command key.

See the i3 reference card and Using i3 for the defaults. See Keyboard bindings to add new shortcuts.

Users of non-Qwerty keyboard layouts may wish to circumvent the "configuration wizard" as described below.

Containers and layouts

i3 manages windows in a tree structure, with containers as building blocks. This structure branches with horizontal or vertical splits. Containers are tiled by default, but can be set to tabbed or stacking layouts, as well as made floating (such as for dialog windows). Floating windows are always on top.

See i3 Tree and Containers and the tree data structure for details.

Application launcher

i3 uses dmenu as an application launcher, which is bound by default to $mod+d. As it is an optional dependency dmenu must first be installed before this functionality can be used.

i3-wm contains i3-dmenu-desktop, a Perl wrapper for dmenu which uses desktop entries to create a list of all installed applications. Alternatively, the package j4-dmenu-desktop-gitAUR can be used.

KRunner as application launcher in KDE Plasma/i3

When running the KDE Plasma DE with KDEWM=/usr/bin/i3, one can set KRunner as alternative application launcher with $mod+d by adding the following to the i3 config:

~/.config/i3/config
set $menu --no-startup-id qdbus org.kde.krunner /App display
bindsym $mod+d exec $menu

Configuration

See Configuring i3 for details. The rest of this article assumes the i3 configuration file to be in the folder ~/.config/.

Configuration wizard and alternative keyboard layouts

When i3 is first started, it offers to run the configuration wizard i3-config-wizard. This tool creates ~/.config/i3/config by rewriting a template configuration file in /etc/i3/config.keycodes. It makes two modifications to the default template:

  1. It asks the user to choose a default modifier key, which it adds to the template as a single line, like set $mod Mod1; and
  2. it replaces all bindcode lines with bindsym lines corresponding to the user's current keyboard layout.

Step 2 is designed to ensure that the four navigation shortcuts, j, k, l and "semicolon" on a Qwerty keyboard, will be mapped to keysyms which have the same location, e.g. h, t, n, s on a Dvorak keyboard. The side-effect of this magic is that up to fifteen other keysyms may be remapped in ways which break the mnemonics - so that, for a Dvorak user, "restart" is bound to $mod1+p instead of $mod1+r, "split horizontally" is bound to $mod1+d instead of $mod1+h, and so on.

Therefore, users of alternate keyboard layouts who want straightforward key bindings, which match the bindings given in tutorials, may prefer to circumvent the "config wizard". This can be done by just copying /etc/i3/config into ~/.config/i3/config (or ~/.i3/config), and editing that file.

Note that a keycode-based configuration is also possible, e.g. for users who often switch between keyboard layouts, but want the i3 bindings to stay the same.

Autostart

Add an exec command in ~/.config/i3/config file. For example:

exec terminator

Alternatively, you can use XDG Autostart.

Colorschemes

The configuration file allows for customization of window decoration colors, but the syntax makes it impractical to create or share themes. There are several projects which make this easier and include a variety of user-contributed themes.

  • j4-make-config — Merge your config with a collection of themes or personal config parts, for example host-specific configuration, allowing quick changing of the theme and flexible, dynamic customization of the configuration
https://github.com/okraits/j4-make-config || j4-make-config-gitAUR

i3bar

In addition to showing workspace information, i3bar can act as an input for i3status or an alternative, such as those mentioned in the next section. For example:

~/.config/i3/config
bar {
    output            LVDS1
    status_command    i3status
    position          top
    mode              hide
    workspace_buttons yes
    tray_output       none
    
    font -misc-fixed-medium-r-normal--13-120-75-75-C-70-iso10646-1

    colors {
        background #000000
        statusline #ffffff

        focused_workspace  #ffffff #285577
        active_workspace   #ffffff #333333
        inactive_workspace #888888 #222222
        urgent_workspace   #ffffff #900000
    }
}

See the Configuring i3bar for details.

i3bar alternatives

Some users may prefer panels such as those provided by conventional Desktop Environments. This can be achieved within i3 by launching the panel application of choice during startup.

For example, to use the Xfce panel (xfce4-panel), add the following line anywhere in ~/.config/i3/config:

exec --no-startup-id xfce4-panel --disable-wm-check

i3bar can be disabled by commenting the bar{ } section of ~/.config/i3/config, or defining a keybind to toggle the bar:

~/.config/i3/config
# bar toggle, hide or show 
bindsym $mod+m bar mode toggle

Replacements independent of the desktop environment are listed below:

  • polybar — A fast and easy-to-use tool for creating status bars.
https://github.com/jaagr/polybar || polybarAUR
  • excalibar — Lightweight yet customizable status bar written in C.
https://github.com/cylgom/excalibar || excalibar-gitAUR

i3status

Copy over the default configuration files to the home directory:

$ cp /etc/i3status.conf ~/.config/i3status/config

Not all plugins are defined in the default configuration and some configuration values may be invalid for your system, so the need to be updated accordingly. See i3status(1) for details.

i3status replacements

https://github.com/brndnmtthws/conky || conky
  • i3blocks — Extensible via shell scripts. It can handle click events, interrupts, and defining of refresh intervals on a per-block basis.
https://github.com/vivien/i3blocks || i3blocks, i3blocks-gitAUR
  • i3pystatus — Extensible Python 3 status bar with many plugins and configuration options by default.
https://github.com/enkore/i3pystatus i3pystatus || i3pystatus-gitAUR
  • i3situation — Another Python 3 status bar generator.
https://github.com/HarveyHunt/i3situation || i3situation-gitAUR
  • j4status — Provides a statusline, configurable via plugins, and written in C. Extra plugins are provided by j4status-plugins-gitAUR.
http://j4status.j4tools.org/ || j4status-gitAUR
  • goi3bar — i3status replacement written in Go. Configuration-file driven with several plugins, concurrency options, and rich plugin support.
https://github.com/denbeigh2000/goi3bar/ || goi3bar-gitAUR
  • goblocks — Fast, lightweight i3status replacement written in Go.
https://github.com/davidscholberg/goblocks || goblocksAUR
  • bumblebee-status — Theme-able Python status bar generator.
https://github.com/tobi-wan-kenobi/bumblebee-status || bumblebee-statusAUR bumblebee-status-gitAUR
  • ty3status — i3status replacement written in Typescript. Built with first class support for javascript blocks.
https://github.com/mrkmg/ty3status || ty3status-gitAUR
  • i3status-rust — Highly efficient and feature-rich replacement written in Rust. Can handle push updates, individual update intervals, theming and click events
https://github.com/greshake/i3status-rust || i3status-rust-gitAUR

i3status wrappers

  • i3cat — A go based wrapper which can concatenate inputs from multiple external sources. It can handle click events and forwarding user specified signals to its subprocesses.
http://vincent-petithory.github.io/i3cat/ || i3cat-gitAUR
  • py3status — An extensible i3status wrapper written in Python.
https://github.com/ultrabug/py3status || py3status
  • YaGoStatus — Yet Another i3status replacement written in Go.
https://github.com/burik666/yagostatus || yagostatus-gitAUR

Iconic fonts in the status bar

i3bar can be patched for XBM icon support, but you can use iconic font sets instead.

  • ttf-font-awesome — Scalable vector icons that can be customized with CSS. A cheatsheet shows the Unicode point for each glyph.
http://fortawesome.github.io/Font-Awesome/ || ttf-font-awesome
  • ttf-font-icons — Non-overlapping and consistently sized mix of Awesome and Ionicons. This also avoids minor overlapping between DejaVu Sans and Awesome.
http://kageurufu.net/icons.pdf || ttf-font-iconsAUR.
  • ttf-ionicons — The premium icon font for Ionic Framework.
https://ionicframework.com/docs/ionicons/ || ttf-ionicons.

To combine fonts, define a font fallback sequence in your configuration file, separating fonts with , like so:

~/.config/i3/config
bar {
  ...
  font pango:DejaVu Sans Mono, Icons 8
  ...
}

In accordance with pango syntax, font size is specified only once, at the end of the comma-separated list of font families. Setting a size for each font would cause all but the last font to be ignored.

Add icons to the format strings in ~/.config/i3status/config using the unicode numbers given in the cheatsheets linked above. The input method will vary between text editors. For instance, to insert the "heart" icon (unicode number f004):

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with Internationalization.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: Should be described in one place; see also ArchWiki:Requests#Input methods. (Discuss in Talk:I3#)
  • in various gui text editors (e.g. gedit, Leafpad) and terminals (e.g. GNOME Terminal, xfce4-terminal): Ctrl+Shift+u, f004, Enter
  • in Emacs: C-x, 8, RET, f004, RET
  • in Vim (while in insert mode): Ctrl+v, uf004
  • in urxvt: while holding Ctrl+Shift, type f004

Terminal emulator

By default when pressing $mod+Return it launches the i3-sensible-terminal which is a script that invokes a terminal. See i3-sensible-terminal(1) for the order terminals are invoked in.

To instead launch a terminal of choice, modify this line in ~/.config/i3/config:

bindsym $mod+Return exec i3-sensible-terminal

Alternatively, set the $TERMINAL environment variable.

Tips and tricks

Jump to open window

  • quickswitch-i3 — Python utility to quickly change to and locate windows in i3
https://github.com/OliverUv/quickswitch-for-i3/ || quickswitch-i3AUR
  • i3-wm-scripts — search for and jump to windows with particular names matching regexp
https://github.com/yiuin/i3-wm-scripts ||
  • winmenupy — Launches dmenu with a list of clients, sorted after workspaces. Selecting a client jumps to that window.
https://github.com/ziberna/i3-py/blob/master/examples/winmenu.py ||
  • rofi — Search and jump to open and scratchpad window
https://davedavenport.github.io/rofi/ || rofi
  • i3-easyfocus — Focus and select windows in i3
https://github.com/cornerman/i3-easyfocus || i3-easyfocus-gitAUR
  • wmfocus — Focus and select windows in i3 and other window managers
https://github.com/svenstaro/wmfocus || wmfocusAUR
  • i3-cycle-focus — Provides an Alt-Tab functionality for i3
https://github.com/acrisci/i3ipc-python/blob/master/examples/i3-cycle-focus.py ||

Jump to urgent window

Add to .i3/config: [1]

bindsym $mod+x [urgent=latest] focus

Save and restore the window layout

From version 4.8, and onward i3 can save and restore workspace layouts. To do this, the following packages are needed: perl-anyevent-i3 and perl-json-xs from the official repositories.

Note: This section only provides quick tutorial on how to save the current window layout of a single workspace and how to restore it for later use. Refer to the official documentation for more details

Save the current window layout of a single workspace

To save the current window layout, follow these steps:

  1. First, execute various commands to open windows in a preferred workspace and resize them if needed. Make sure to write down each executed command for each window.
  2. Now, in a new workspace, open a terminal and run the following:
    i3-save-tree --workspace N > ~/.i3/workspace_N.json
    where N is the number of the preferred workspace. This will save the current layout of workspace N to the file ~/.i3/workspace_N.json.
  3. The newly created file needs to be edited, however this may be done with the following commands:
    tail -n +2 ~/.i3/workspace_N.json | fgrep -v '// splitv' | sed 's|//||g' > ~/.i3/workspace_N.json

Restore the window layout of the workspace

There are two ways to restore the layout of the workspace: by writing a script, or by editing ~/.i3/config to automatically load the layout. In this section only the first case will be considered, refer to the official documentation for the second case.

To restore the saved layout in the previous section, write a file named load_layout.sh with the following contents:

  • The starting lines:
~/load_layout.sh
#!/bin/bash
i3-msg "workspace M; append_layout ~/.i3/workspace_N.json"

where M is the number of the workspace in which you would like to load the previously saved layout and N is the number of workspace saved in the previous section.

  • And the commands used in the previous section to get the preferred windows, but enclosed in parentheses and with an ampersand appended before the last parentheses.

For example, if the saved layout contained three uxterm windows:

~/load_layout.sh
#!/bin/bash

# First we append the saved layout of worspace N to workspace M
i3-msg "workspace M; append_layout ~/.i3/workspace_N.json"

# And finally we fill the containers with the programs they had
(uxterm &)
(uxterm &)
(uxterm &)

Then set the file as executable:

chmod u+x ~/load_layout.sh

And finally, the layout of worskpace N can be loaded onto to workspace M by running:

~/load_layout.sh
Tip: Adding bindsym $mod+g exec ~/load_layout.sh to ~/.i3/config and restarting i3 will bind Mod+g to run the above script.
Note: If the above script does not work properly, refer to the official documentation. The swallows sections of ~/.i3/workspace_N.json needs to be manually edited.

Scratchpad containers

By default, scratchpads only contain a single window. However, containers can also be made a scratchpad.

Create a new container (for example, Mod+Enter), split it (Mod+v) and create another container. Focus the parent (Mod+a), split in the opposite direction (Mod+h), and create again.

Focus the first container (with focus parent as needed), make the window floating (Mod+Shift+Space), and move it to the scratchpad (Mod+Shift+-). You can now split containers to preference.

Note: Containers cannot be resized individually in floating windows. Resize the containers before making windows floating.
Tip: When only using terminal applications, consider a multiplexer such as tmux instead.

See also [2] for multiple scratchpads.

Screensaver and power management

With Power management#xss-lock you can register a screenlocker for your i3 session. The -time option with xautolock locks the screen after a given time period:

xautolock -time 10 -locker "i3lock -i 'background_image.png'" &

A systemd service file can be used to lock the screen before the system is being sent to sleep or hibernation state. See Power management#Suspend/resume service files. Note that i3lock requires the type of the service to be forking.

See also DPMS.

Shutdown, reboot, lock screen

Key combinations for shutdown, reboot and screenlock can be added to ~/.config/i3/config. The below example assumes you have polkit installed to allow unprivileged users to run power management commands.

set $Locker i3lock && sleep 1

set $mode_system System (l) lock, (e) logout, (s) suspend, (h) hibernate, (r) reboot, (Shift+s) shutdown
mode "$mode_system" {
    bindsym l exec --no-startup-id $Locker, mode "default"
    bindsym e exec --no-startup-id i3-msg exit, mode "default"
    bindsym s exec --no-startup-id $Locker && systemctl suspend, mode "default"
    bindsym h exec --no-startup-id $Locker && systemctl hibernate, mode "default"
    bindsym r exec --no-startup-id systemctl reboot, mode "default"
    bindsym Shift+s exec --no-startup-id systemctl poweroff -i, mode "default"  

    # back to normal: Enter or Escape
    bindsym Return mode "default"
    bindsym Escape mode "default"
}

bindsym $mod+Pause mode "$mode_system"

Once completed, you will be presented with a prompt whenever you press $mod+pause. For more complex behaviour, use a separate script, and refer to it in the mode. [3]

Note:
  • sleep 1 adds a small delay to prevent possible race conditions with suspend [4]
  • The -i argument for systemctl poweroff causes a shutdown even if other users are logged-in (this requires polkit), or when logind (wrongly) assumes so. [5]

For a list of alternative screen lockers, see List of applications/Security#Screen lockers.

External displays manual management

Thanks to xrandr there are many ways to easily manage systems displays. The below example integrates it in the i3 config file, and behave as the Power Management section above.

Here a laptop with both VGA and HDMI outputs will use a menu selection to switch them On/Off:

## Manual management of external displays
# Set the shortcuts and what they do
set $mode_display Ext Screen (v) VGA ON, (h) HDMI ON, (x) VGA OFF, (y) HDMI OFF
mode "$mode_display" {
    bindsym v exec --no-startup-id xrandr --output VGA1 --auto --right-of LVDS1, mode "default"
    bindsym h exec --no-startup-id xrandr --output HDMI1 --auto --right-of LVDS1, mode "default"
    bindsym x exec --no-startup-id xrandr --output VGA1 --auto --off, mode "default"
    bindsym y exec --no-startup-id xrandr --output HDMI1 --auto --off, mode "default"

    # back to normal: Enter or Escape
    bindsym Return mode "default"
    bindsym Escape mode "default"
}
# Declare here the shortcut to bring the display selection menu
bindsym $mod+x mode "$mode_display"

Any window that is still open in a switched Off display will automatically come back to the remaining active display.

The simplest way to determine names of your devices is to plug the device you wish to use and run:

$ xrandr --query

which will output the available, recognized devices and their in-system names to set your config file appropriately.

Refer to the xrandr page or man page for the complete list of available options, the i3 userguide and/or the i3 FAQ on reddit for more info.

Tabbed or stacked web-browsing

Some web-browsers intentionally do not implement tabs, since managing tabs is considered to be the task of the window manager, not the task of the browser.

To let i3 manage your tab-less web-browser, in this example for uzbl, add the following line to your ~/.config/i3/config

for_window [class="Uzbl-core"] focus child, layout stacking, focus

This is for stacked web browsing, meaning that the windows will be shown vertically. The advantage over tabbed browsing is that the window-titles are fully visible, even if a lot of browser windows are open.

If you prefer tabbed browsing, with windows in horizontal direction ('tabs'), use

for_window [class="Uzbl-core"] focus child, layout tabbed, focus

Workspace variables

As workspaces are defined multiple times in i3, assigning workspace variables can be helpful. For example:

set $WS1 term
set $WS2 web
set $WS3 misc
set $WS4 media
set $WS5 code

Then replace workspace names with their matching variables:

bindsym $mod+1          workspace $WS1
...
bindsym $mod+Shift+1    move container to workspace $WS1

See Changing named workspaces for more information.

Correct handling of floating dialogs

While dialogs should open in floating mode by default [6], many still open in tiling mode. To change this behaviour, check the dialog's WM_WINDOW_ROLE with xorg-xprop and add the correct rules to ~/.i3/config (using pcre syntax):

for_window [window_role="pop-up"] floating enable
for_window [window_role="task_dialog"] floating enable

You can also use title rules and regular expressions:

for_window [title="Preferences$"] floating enable

or WM_CLASS:

for_window [class="(?i)mplayer"] floating enable

Network Download/Upload speed in statusbar

You might adapt this upstream script. For that,

  • rename both network cards according to your system (use ip addr)
  • find them on /sys/devices then replace them appropriately:
$ find /sys/devices -name network_interface
Tip: Use /sys/class/net/interface/statistics/ to not depend on PCI location.

Now, just save the script in a suitable place (for example ~/.config/i3) and point your status program to it.

Alternating layouts

The alternating-layouts-gitAUR package can be used for alternating layouts resulting in a similar behavior to the spiral tiling of bspwm. After installation add the following to your ~/.config/i3/config and reload i3.

exec --no-startup-id /path/to/alternating_layouts.py

Patches

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with #Installation.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: One package does not warrant a separate section (Discuss in Talk:I3#)

Packages with patches not merged upstream are available in the AUR:

  • i3-wm-iconpatch — Titlebar icon support
https://github.com/ashinkarov/i3-extras || i3-wm-iconpatchAUR

Troubleshooting

General

In many cases, bugs are fixed in the development versions i3-gitAUR and i3status-gitAUR, and upstream will ask to reproduce any errors with this version. [7] See also Debug - Getting Traces#General.

Buttons in the i3 message bar do not work

Buttons such as "Edit config" in i3-nagbar call i3-sensible-terminal, so make sure your Terminal emulator is recognized by i3.

Faulty line wraps in tiled terminals

i3 v4.3 and higher ignore size increment hints for tiled windows [8]. This may cause terminals to wrap lines prematurely, amongst other issues. As a workaround, make the offending window floating, before tiling it again.

Mouse cursor remains in waiting mode

When starting a script or application which does not support startup notifications, the mouse cursor will remain in busy/watch/clock mode for 60 seconds.

To solve this for a particlar application, use the --no-startup-id parameter, for example:

exec --no-startup-id ~/script
bindsym $mod+d exec --no-startup-id dmenu_run

To disable this animation globally, see Cursor themes#Create links to missing cursors.

Unresponsive key bindings

Some tools such as scrot may not work when used with a regular key binding (executed after key press). In those cases, execute commands after key release with the --release argument [9]:

bindsym --release Print exec --no-startup-id scrot
bindsym --release Shift+Print exec --no-startup-id scrot -s

Tearing

i3 does not properly implement double buffering [10] hence tearing or flickering may occur. See Compton and [11].

Tray icons not visible

The tray_output primary directive may require setting a primary output with xrandr, specifying the output explicitly or simply removing this directive. [12] See Xrandr for details. The default configuration created by i3-config-wizard no longer adds this directive to the configuration from i3 4.12.

Default workspace for Spotify

To assign a default workspace for spotify windows one cannot use the standard route with assign and should rather use a for_window command, such as

~/.config/i3/config
...
for_window [class="Spotify"] move to workspace $ws10

See also

Arch Linux Forums

Screencasts