Difference between revisions of "I3"

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[[Category:Tiling WMs]]
 
[[Category:Tiling WMs]]
 
[[Category:Dynamic WMs]]
 
[[Category:Dynamic WMs]]
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[[ja:i3]]
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[[ko:I3]]
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[[ru:I3]]
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[[zh-CN:I3]]
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{{Related articles start}}
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{{Related|Desktop environment}}
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{{Related|Display manager}}
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{{Related|File manager functionality}}
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{{Related|Window manager}}
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{{Related|Comparison of tiling window managers}}
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{{Related|Clipboard}}
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{{Related|Autostarting#Graphical}}
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{{Related articles end}}
 
[http://i3wm.org/ i3] is a dynamic [[Wikipedia:Tiling window manager|tiling window manager]] inspired by [[wmii]] that is primarily targeted at developers and advanced users.
 
[http://i3wm.org/ i3] is a dynamic [[Wikipedia:Tiling window manager|tiling window manager]] inspired by [[wmii]] that is primarily targeted at developers and advanced users.
  
== Introduction ==
+
The stated goals for i3 include clear documentation, proper multi-monitor support, a tree structure for windows, and different modes like in [[vim]].
The developers' attempt to hack and fix [[wmii]] led to the creation of i3. At the time Wmii didn't provide certain features, like support for [[Wikipedia:Xinerama|Xinerama]], and lacked source code comments and documentation.
+
 
+
Clients within i3 are either allowed to float or placed into containers. Clients can be stacked or tabbed within containers.  
+
  
 
== Installation ==
 
== Installation ==
i3 is located in the {{ic|[[community]]}} repository. Installing i3 can be accomplished by choosing the {{Pkg|i3}} group, which includes the packages {{Pkg|i3lock}}, {{Pkg|i3status}} and {{Pkg|i3-wm}}. Alternatively, you can install the window manager ({{Pkg|i3-wm}}) exclusively.
 
  
A status line is provided by piping text to i3bar, with {{Pkg|i3status}} or any other program that writes a statusline to stdout.
+
[[Install]] the {{Grp|i3}} [[Pacman#Installing package groups|package group]]. It includes the window manager {{Pkg|i3-wm}}, {{Pkg|i3status}} which writes a status line to i3bar through [[Wikipedia:Standard streams#Standard output (stdout)|stdout]], and {{Pkg|i3lock}}, a screen locker.
  
Additionally, {{AUR|i3-git}} is available in the [[AUR]].
+
Additional packages are available in the [[Arch User Repository]]. See the section [[#Patches]] for examples.
  
For gnome users, see {{AUR|i3-gnome}} in [[AUR]] to add a i3 gnome session (gtk theme, gnome-keyring, notifications, gnome online accounts).
+
=== Display manager ===
  
==Running i3==
+
{{Pkg|i3-wm}} includes {{ic|i3.desktop}} as [[Xsession]] which starts the window manager. {{ic|i3-with-shmlog.desktop}} enables logs (useful for debugging). {{AUR|i3-gnome}} integrates {{ic|i3}} into [[GNOME]].
 +
 
 +
=== xinitrc ===
 +
 
 +
Edit [[Xinitrc]], and add:
  
Edit your {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} and add:
 
 
  exec i3
 
  exec i3
If you want i3 to log its output (useful for debugging), add this line to {{ic|~/.xinitrc}}:
 
exec i3 -V >> ~/.i3/i3log 2>&1
 
If you use the Nvidia binary driver '''<302.17''' you need to add the --force-xinerama flag to {{ic|~/.xinitrc}}.  A detailed explanation can be found at [http://i3wm.org/docs/multi-monitor.html i3wm.org].
 
exec i3 --force-xinerama
 
  
== Basic Keybindings and Window Management ==
+
To log the output from i3, add this line instead:
The default keybindings mostly depend on Mod1 (usually mapped to Alt) or Mod3/Mod4 (usually mapped to the Windows key) as the basic modifier key sometimes combined with Ctrl or Shift. To identify the different Mod# keys on your system, use the
+
command {{ic|xmodmap}} without arguments.
+
  
The key combinations are configured in the file {{ic|~/.i3/config}} (or, if it does not exist, {{ic|/etc/i3/config}}).
+
exec i3 -V >> ~/i3log-$(date +'%F-%k-%M-%S') 2>&1
  
The default key combinations rely on key codes and not on the actual letters of your keyboard layout! You can replace the {{ic|bind}} directives in the config with {{ic|bindsym}} directives if you do not like this. For more info on configuration see the next section.
+
== Usage ==
  
Some of the most important keybindings include the following:
+
See the [http://i3wm.org/docs official documentation] for more information, namely the [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html i3 User’s Guide].
* Run a program: Mod1+d
+
* Create a new terminal: Mod1+Enter
+
* Switch between different windows: Mod1+ any of "jkl;" or cursor keys  (somewhat Vim-like keybindings)
+
* Move a window: Mod1+Shift+ any of "jkl;" or cursor keys
+
* Switch to a different workspace: Mod1+ any number
+
* Move window to a different workspace: Mod1+Shift+ any number
+
  
Note that i3 uses containers for window management. So in contrast to [[Wmii]] you can also tile windows horizontally. To do this, simply move a window up or down (with Mod1+Shift+DirectionKey) beyond the edge of the screen. A new row will appear. You can then use Mod4+Ctrl+DirectionKey to enlarge the window into the chosen direction. DirectionKey can be the arrow keys as well as "jkl;".
+
=== Keybindings ===
  
There are 3 container modes:
+
In i3, commands are invoked with a modifier key, referred to as {{ic|$mod}}. This is {{ic|Alt}} (Mod1) by default, with {{ic|Super}} (Mod4) being a popular alternative. Super is the key usually represented on a keyboard as a Windows icon, or on an Apple keyboard as a Command key.
* Normal (columns): Mod1+e
+
* Tabbed: Mod1+w
+
* Stacked: Mod1+s
+
  
Additionally, you can put a window into fullscreen mode with Mod1+f.
+
See the [http://i3wm.org/docs/refcard.html i3 reference card] and [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#_using_i3 Using i3] for the defaults. See [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#keybindings Keyboard bindings] to add new shortcuts.
  
[http://i3wm.org/docs/refcard.pdf i3 keybinding cheatsheet (pdf)]
+
Users of non-Qwerty keyboard layouts may wish to circumvent the "configuration wizard" as [[#Configuration wizard and alternative keyboard layouts|described below]].
 +
 
 +
=== Containers ===
 +
 
 +
i3 manages windows in a tree structure, with containers as building blocks. This structure branches with horizontal or vertical splits. Containers are tiled by default, but can be set to tabbed or stacked layouts, as well as made floating (such as for dialog windows). Floating windows are always on top.
 +
 
 +
See [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#_tree i3 Tree] and [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AWA8Pl57UBY Containers and the tree data structure] for details.
 +
 
 +
=== Application launcher ===
 +
 
 +
i3 uses [[dmenu]] as an application launcher, which is bound by default to {{ic|$mod+d}}.
 +
 
 +
{{Pkg|i3-wm}} contains ''i3-dmenu-desktop'', a [[Wikipedia:Perl|Perl]] wrapper for ''dmenu'' which uses [[desktop entries]] to create a list of all installed applications. Alternatively, the package {{AUR|j4-dmenu-desktop-git}} can be used.
  
 
== Configuration ==
 
== Configuration ==
  
i3 is configured using a simple text file.  It first looks for {{ic|~/.i3/config}} and if it doesn't exist, reads the default config at {{ic|/etc/i3/config}}.  So to start customizing, copy the config file to your home directory:
+
See [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#configuring Configuring i3] for details. The rest of this article assumes the ''i3'' configuration file to be in the folder {{ic|~/.config}}.
cp /etc/i3/config ~/.i3/config
+
The config allows you to change such things as:
+
*Terminal emulator (see [http://buildbot.i3wm.org/docs/i3-sensible-terminal.html i3-sensible-terminal])
+
*Border colors
+
*Font
+
*Keybindings
+
*Workspace names
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*Default container layout
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*Assignment of apps to specific workspaces
+
  
The i3 [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html User's Guide] gives a nice overview of the config settings.
+
=== Configuration wizard and alternative keyboard layouts ===
  
For users seeking to convert their configuration to v4, i3-wm comes with a perl script for conversion:
+
When ''i3'' is first started, it offers to run the configuration wizard ''i3-config-wizard''. This tool creates {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}} by rewriting a template configuration file in {{ic|/etc/i3/config.keycodes}}. It makes two modifications to the default template:
{{bc|mv config config.old #save the old file
+
i3-migrate-config-to-v4 config.old > config
+
}}
+
Have a look at the changes!
+
  
== Status bar ==
+
# It asks the user to choose a default modifier key, which it adds to the template as a single line, like {{ic|set $mod Mod1}}; and
The internal status bar, i3-''ws''bar, was deprecated and replaced by i3bar in i3 v4.0.
+
# it replaces all ''bindcode'' lines with ''bindsym'' lines corresponding to the user's current keyboard layout.
  
=== New method: i3bar ===
+
Step 2 is designed to ensure that the four navigation shortcuts, {{ic|j}}, {{ic|k}}, {{ic|l}} and "semicolon" on a Qwerty keyboard, will be mapped to keysyms which have the same location, e.g. {{ic|h}}, {{ic|t}}, {{ic|n}}, {{ic|s}} on a [[Dvorak]] keyboard. The side-effect of this magic is that up to fifteen other keysyms may be remapped in ways which break the mnemonics - so that, for a Dvorak user, "restart" is bound to {{ic|$mod1+p}} instead of {{ic|$mod1+r}}, "split horizontally" is bound to {{ic|$mod1+d}} instead of {{ic|$mod1+h}}, and so on.
Unlike i3-wsbar, which requires dzen2, i3bar does not have any dependecies other than {{Pkg|i3-wm}}. It can be used to view information generated by [[conky]] or i3status. For example (as of version 4.1):
+
 
{{hc|~/.i3/config|<nowiki>
+
Therefore, users of alternate keyboard layouts who want straightforward key bindings, which match the bindings given in tutorials, may prefer to circumvent the "config wizard". This can be done by just copying {{ic|/etc/i3/config}} into {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}} (or {{ic|~/.i3/config}}), and editing that file.
 +
 
 +
Note that a keycode-based configuration is also possible, e.g. for users who often switch between keyboard layouts, but want the i3 bindings to stay the same.
 +
 
 +
=== Colorschemes ===
 +
 
 +
The configuration file allows for customization of window decoration colors, but the syntax makes it impractical to create or share themes. There are several projects which make this easier and include a variety of user-contributed themes.
 +
 
 +
* {{App|i3-style|Modifies your config in place from a theme stored in a JSON object, designed for frequently tweaking or changing a colorscheme|https://github.com/acrisci/i3-style|{{Aur|nodejs-i3-style}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|nodejs-i3-style}}}}}}
 +
* {{App|j4-make-config|Merge your config with a collection of themes or personal config parts, for example host-specific configuration, allowing quick changing of the theme and flexible, dynamic customization of the configuration|https://github.com/okraits/j4-make-config|{{Aur|j4-make-config-git}}}}
 +
 
 +
=== i3bar ===
 +
 
 +
In addition to showing workspace information, i3bar can act as an input for i3status or an alternative, such as those mentioned in the next section. For example:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|~/.config/i3/config|2=
 
bar {
 
bar {
 
     output            LVDS1
 
     output            LVDS1
Line 101: Line 112:
 
     }
 
     }
 
}
 
}
</nowiki>}}
+
}}
 +
 
 +
See the [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#_configuring_i3bar Configuring i3bar] for details.
 +
 
 +
==== i3bar alternatives ====
 +
 
 +
Some users may prefer panels such as those provided by conventional [[Desktop environment|Desktop Environments]]. This can be achieved within i3 by launching the panel application of choice during startup.
 +
 
 +
For the [[Xfce#Panel|XFCE panel]]{{Broken section link}}, add the following line anywhere in {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}}:
 +
 
 +
exec --no-startup-id xfce4-panel --disable-wm-check
 +
 
 +
i3bar can be disabled by commenting the {{ic|<nowiki>bar{ }</nowiki>}} section of {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}}, or defining a keybind to toggle the bar:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|~/.config/i3/config|
 +
# bar toggle, hide or show
 +
bindsym $mod+m bar mode toggle
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
=== i3status ===
 +
 
 +
Copy over the default configuration files to the home directory:
 +
 
 +
$ cp /etc/i3status.conf ~/.config/i3status/config
 +
 
 +
Not all plugins are defined in the default configuration and some configuration values may be invalid for your system, so the need to be updated accordingly. See {{ic|man i3status}} for details.
 +
 
 +
==== i3status replacements ====
 +
 
 +
* {{App|[[conky]]| Highly extensible system monitor. For usage with i3bar see [http://i3wm.org/docs/user-contributed/conky-i3bar.html this tutorial] |https://github.com/brndnmtthws/conky|{{Pkg|conky}}}}
 +
* {{App|[[i3blocks]]|Extensible via shell scripts. It can handle click events, interrupts, and defining of refresh intervals on a per-block basis.|https://github.com/vivien/i3blocks|{{AUR|i3blocks}}}}
 +
* {{App|i3pystatus|Extensible Python 3 status bar with many plugins and configuration options by default.|https://github.com/enkore/i3pystatus i3pystatus|{{AUR|i3pystatus-git}}}}
 +
* {{App|i3situation|Another Python 3 status bar generator.|https://github.com/HarveyHunt/i3situation|{{Aur|i3situation-git}}}}
 +
* {{App|j4status|Provides a statusline, configurable via plugins, and written in C. Extra plugins are provided by {{Aur|j4status-plugins-git}}.|http://j4status.j4tools.org/|{{Aur|j4status-git}}}}
 +
* {{App|goi3bar|i3status replacement written in Go. Configuration-file driven with several plugins, concurrency options, and rich plugin support.|https://github.com/denbeigh2000/goi3bar/|{{Aur|goi3bar-git}}}}
 +
* {{App|goblocks|Fast, lightweight i3status replacement written in Go.|https://github.com/davidscholberg/goblocks|{{Aur|goblocks}}}}
 +
* {{App|bumblebee-status|Theme-able Python status bar generator.|https://github.com/tobi-wan-kenobi/bumblebee-status}}
 +
* {{App|ty3status|i3status replacement written in Typescript. Built with first class support for javascript blocks.|https://github.com/mrkmg/ty3status|{{Aur|ty3status-git}}}}
 +
 
 +
==== i3status wrappers ====
 +
 
 +
* {{App|i3cat|A [[go]] based wrapper which can concatenate inputs from multiple external sources. It can handle click events and forwarding user specified signals to its subprocesses.|http://vincent-petithory.github.io/i3cat/|{{AUR|i3cat-git}}}}
 +
* {{App|py3status|An extensible i3status wrapper written in Python.|https://github.com/ultrabug/py3status|{{Aur|py3status}}}}
 +
 
 +
==== Iconic fonts in the status bar ====
 +
 
 +
''i3bar'' can be [[#Patches|patched]] for XBM icon support, but you can use iconic font sets instead.
 +
 
 +
* {{App|ttf-font-awesome|Scalable vector icons that can be customized with CSS. A [http://fortawesome.github.io/Font-Awesome/cheatsheet/ cheatsheet] shows the Unicode point for each glyph.|http://fortawesome.github.io/Font-Awesome/|{{AUR|ttf-font-awesome}}}}
 +
* {{App|ttf-font-icons|Non-overlapping and consistently sized mix of Awesome and Ionicons. This also avoids minor overlapping between DejaVu Sans and Awesome.|http://kageurufu.net/icons.pdf|{{AUR|ttf-font-icons}}}}.
 +
 
 +
To combine fonts, define a font fallback sequence in your configuration file, separating fonts with {{ic|,}} like so:
 +
{{hc|~/.config/i3/config|2=
 +
bar {
 +
  ...
 +
  font pango:DejaVu Sans Mono, Icons 8
 +
  ...
 +
}
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
In accordance with [https://developer.gnome.org/pango/stable/pango-Fonts.html#pango-font-description-from-string pango syntax], font size is specified only once, at the end of the comma-separated list of font families. Setting a size for each font would cause all but the last font to be ignored.
 +
 
 +
Add icons to the format strings in {{ic|~/.config/i3status/config}} using the unicode numbers given in the cheatsheets linked above. The input method will vary between text editors. For instance, to insert the "heart" icon (unicode number f004):
 +
 
 +
{{Merge|Internationalization|Should be described in one place; see also [[ArchWiki:Requests#Input methods]].}}
 +
 
 +
* in various gui text editors (e.g. [[gedit]], Leafpad) and terminals (e.g. GNOME Terminal, xfce4-terminal): {{ic|ctrl+shift+u}}, {{ic|f004}}, {{ic|Enter}}
 +
* in [[Emacs]]: {{ic|ctrl+x}}, {{ic|8}}, {{ic|Enter}}, {{ic|f004}}, {{ic|Enter}}
 +
* in [[Vim]] (while in insert mode): {{ic|Ctrl+v}}, {{ic|uf004}}
 +
* in [[urxvt]]: while holding {{ic|Ctrl+Shift}}, type {{ic|f004}}
 +
 
 +
=== Terminal emulator ===
 +
 
 +
By default when pressing {{ic|$mod+Return}} it launches the {{ic|i3-sensible-terminal}} which is a script that invokes a terminal. See {{ic|man i3-sensible-terminal}} for the order terminals are invoked in.
 +
 
 +
To instead launch a terminal of choice, modify this line in {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}}:
 +
 
 +
bindsym $mod+Return exec i3-sensible-terminal
 +
 
 +
Alternatively, set the {{ic|$TERMINAL}} [[environment variable]].
 +
 
 +
== Tips and tricks ==
 +
 
 +
=== Advanced window navigation ===
 +
 
 +
See [http://www.slackword.net/?p=657 i3 window Navigation Tips].
 +
 
 +
=== Jump to open window ===
 +
 
 +
*{{App|quickswitch-i3|Python utility to quickly change to and locate windows in i3|https://github.com/proxypoke/quickswitch-for-i3|{{Aur|quickswitch-i3}}}}
 +
*{{App|i3-wm-scripts|search for and jump to windows with particular names matching regexp|https://github.com/yiuin/i3-wm-scripts||}}
 +
*{{App|winmenupy|Launches dmenu with a list of clients, sorted after workspaces. Selecting a client jumps to that window.|https://github.com/ziberna/i3-py/blob/master/examples/winmenu.py||}}
 +
*{{App|[[rofi]]|Search and jump to open and scratchpad window|https://davedavenport.github.io/rofi/|{{Pkg|rofi}}}}
 +
 
 +
=== Jump to urgent window ===
 +
 
 +
Add to {{ic|.i3/config}}: [https://faq.i3wm.org/question/853/how-to-jump-to-urgent-workspace/]
 +
 
 +
bindsym $mod+x [urgent=latest] focus
 +
 
 +
=== Save and restore the window layout ===
 +
 
 +
From version 4.8, and onward ''i3'' can save and restore workspace layouts. To do this, the following packages are needed: {{Pkg|perl-anyevent-i3}} and {{Pkg|perl-json-xs}} from the [[official repositories]].
 +
 
 +
{{note| This section only provides quick tutorial on how to save the current window layout of a single workspace and how to restore it for later use. Refer to the [http://i3wm.org/docs/layout-saving.html official documentation] for more details}}
 +
 
 +
==== Save the current window layout of a single workspace ====
 +
 
 +
To save the current window layout, follow these steps:
 +
 
 +
# First, execute various commands to open windows in a preferred workspace and resize them if needed. Make sure to write down each executed command for each window.
 +
# Now, in a new workspace, open a terminal and run the following: {{bc|i3-save-tree --workspace N > ~/.i3/workspace_N.json}} where N is the number of the preferred workspace. This will save the current layout of workspace N to the file {{ic|~/.i3/workspace_N.json}}.
 +
# The newly created file needs to be edited, however this may be done with the following commands: {{bc|<nowiki>tail -n +2 ~/.i3/workspace_N.json | fgrep -v '// splitv' | sed 's|//||g' > ~/.i3/workspace_N.json</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
==== Restore the window layout of the workspace ====
 +
 
 +
There are two ways to restore the layout of the workspace: by writing a script, or by editing {{ic|~/.i3/config}} to automatically load the layout. In this section only the first case will be considered, refer to the [http://i3wm.org/docs/layout-saving.html#_restoring_the_layout official documentation] for the second case.
 +
 
 +
To restore the saved layout in the previous section, write a file named {{ic|load_layout.sh}} with the following contents:
 +
 
 +
* The starting lines:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|head=~/load_layout.sh|output=
 +
#!/bin/bash
 +
i3-msg "workspace M; append_layout ~/.i3/workspace_N.json"
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
where M is the number of the workspace in which you would like to load the previously saved layout and N is the number of workspace saved in the previous section.
 +
* And the commands used in the previous section to get the preferred windows, but enclosed in parentheses and with an ampersand appended before the last parentheses.
 +
 
 +
For example, if the saved layout contained three {{ic|uxterm}} windows:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|head=~/load_layout.sh|output=
 +
#!/bin/bash
 +
 
 +
# First we append the saved layout of worspace N to workspace M
 +
i3-msg "workspace M; append_layout ~/.i3/workspace_N.json"
 +
 
 +
# And finally we fill the containers with the programs they had
 +
(uxterm &)
 +
(uxterm &)
 +
(uxterm &)
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Then set the file as executable:
 +
 
 +
chmod u+x ~/load_layout.sh
 +
 
 +
And finally, the layout of worskpace N can be loaded onto to workspace M by running:
 +
 
 +
~/load_layout.sh
 +
 
 +
{{tip|Adding {{ic|bindsym $mod+g exec ~/load_layout.sh}} to {{ic|~/.i3/config}} and restarting i3 will bind Mod+g to run the above script.}}
 +
 
 +
{{note|If the above script does not work properly, refer to the [http://i3wm.org/docs/layout-saving.html#_editing_layout_files  official documentation]. The ''swallows'' sections of {{ic|~/.i3/workspace_N.json}} needs to be manually edited.}}
 +
 
 +
=== Scratchpad containers ===
 +
 
 +
By default, [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#_scratchpad scratchpads] only contain a single window. However, containers can also be made a scratchpad.
 +
 
 +
Create a new container (for example, {{ic|Mod+Enter}}), split it ({{ic|Mod+v}}) and create another container. Focus the parent ({{ic|Mod+a}}), split in the opposite direction ({{ic|Mod+h}}), and create again.
 +
 
 +
Focus the first container (with focus parent as needed), make the window floating ({{ic|Mod+Shift+Space}}), and move it to the scratchpad ({{ic|Mod+Shift+-}}). You can now split containers to preference.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|Containers cannot be resized individually in floating windows.  Resize the containers before making windows floating.}}
 +
{{Tip|When only using terminal applications, consider a multiplexer such as [[tmux]] instead.}}
 +
 
 +
See also [https://faq.i3wm.org/question/138/multiple-scratchpad/i3] for multiple scratchpads.
 +
 
 +
=== Screensaver and power management ===
 +
 
 +
With [[Power management#xss-lock]] you can register a screenlocker for your i3 session. The {{ic|-time}} option locks the screen after a given time period.
 +
 
 +
xautolock -time 10 -locker "i3lock -i 'background_image.png'" &
 +
 
 +
A [[systemd]] service file can be used to lock the screen before the system is being sent to sleep or hibernation state. See [[Power management#Suspend/resume service files]]. Note that i3lock requires the type of the service to be {{ic|forking}}.
 +
 
 +
See also [[DPMS]].
 +
 
 +
=== Shutdown, reboot, lock screen ===
 +
 
 +
Key combinations for shutdown, reboot and screenlock can be added to {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}}. The below example assumes you have {{Pkg|polkit}} installed to allow unprivileged users to run [[systemd#Power_management|power management]] commands.
 +
 
 +
{{bc|
 +
set $Locker i3lock && sleep 1
 +
 
 +
set $mode_system System (l) lock, (e) logout, (s) suspend, (h) hibernate, (r) reboot, (Shift+s) shutdown
 +
mode "$mode_system" {
 +
    bindsym l exec --no-startup-id $Locker, mode "default"
 +
    bindsym e exec --no-startup-id i3-msg exit, mode "default"
 +
    bindsym s exec --no-startup-id $Locker && systemctl suspend, mode "default"
 +
    bindsym h exec --no-startup-id $Locker && systemctl hibernate, mode "default"
 +
    bindsym r exec --no-startup-id systemctl reboot, mode "default"
 +
    bindsym Shift+s exec --no-startup-id systemctl poweroff -i, mode "default" 
 +
 
 +
    # back to normal: Enter or Escape
 +
    bindsym Return mode "default"
 +
    bindsym Escape mode "default"
 +
}
 +
 
 +
bindsym $mod+Pause mode "$mode_system"
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Once completed, you will be presented with a prompt whenever you press {{ic|$mod+pause}}. For more complex behaviour, use a separate script, and refer to it in the mode. [https://gist.github.com/anonymous/c8cd0a59bf4acb273068]
 +
 
 +
{{Note|1=<br>
 +
* {{ic|sleep 1}} adds a small delay to prevent possible race conditions with suspend [https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/unity-2d/+bug/830348]
 +
* The {{ic|-i}} argument for {{ic|systemctl poweroff}} causes a shutdown even if other users are logged-in (this requires {{Pkg|polkit}}), or when ''logind'' (wrongly) assumes so. [https://bugs.freedesktop.org/show_bug.cgi?id=62676]
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
For a list of alternative screen lockers, see [[List of applications/Security#Screen lockers]].
 +
 
 +
===External displays manual management===
 +
 
 +
Thanks to [[xrandr]] there are many ways to easily manage systems displays. The below example integrates it in the i3 config file, and behave as the Power Management section above.
 +
 
 +
Here a laptop with both VGA and HDMI outputs will use a menu selection to switch them On/Off:
 +
 
 +
## Manual management of external displays
 +
# Set the shortcuts and what they do
 +
set $mode_display Ext Screen (v) VGA ON, (h) HDMI ON, (x) VGA OFF, (y) HDMI OFF
 +
mode "$mode_display" {
 +
    bindsym v exec --no-startup-id xrandr --output VGA1 --auto --right-of LVDS1, mode "default"
 +
    bindsym h exec --no-startup-id xrandr --output HDMI1 --auto --right-of LVDS1, mode "default"
 +
    bindsym x exec --no-startup-id xrandr --output VGA1 --auto --off, mode "default"
 +
    bindsym y exec --no-startup-id xrandr --output HDMI1 --auto --off, mode "default"
 +
 +
    # back to normal: Enter or Escape
 +
    bindsym Return mode "default"
 +
    bindsym Escape mode "default"
 +
}
 +
# Declare here the shortcut to bring the display selection menu
 +
bindsym $mod+x mode "$mode_display"
 +
 
 +
Any window that is still open in a switched Off display will automatically come back to the remaining active display.
 +
 
 +
The simplest way to determine names of your devices is to plug the device you wish to use and run:
 +
 
 +
$ xrandr --query
 +
 
 +
which will output the available, recognized devices and their in-system names to set your config file appropriately.
 +
 
 +
Refer to the [[xrandr]] page or man page for the complete list of available options, the [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html i3 userguide] and/or the [https://www.reddit.com/r/i3wm i3 FAQ on reddit] for more info.
 +
 
 +
=== Tabbed or stacked web-browsing ===
 +
 
 +
Some web-browsers intentionally do not implement tabs, since managing tabs is considered to be the task of the window manager, not the task of the browser.
 +
 
 +
To let i3 manage your tab-less web-browser, in this example for [[uzbl]], add the following line to your {{ic|~/.config/i3/config}}
 +
 
 +
for_window [class="Uzbl-core"] focus child, layout stacking, focus
 +
 
 +
This is for stacked web browsing, meaning that the windows will be shown vertically. The advantage over tabbed browsing is that the window-titles are fully visible, even if a lot of browser windows are open.
 +
 
 +
If you prefer tabbed browsing, with windows in horizontal direction ('tabs'), use
 +
 
 +
for_window [class="Uzbl-core"] focus child, layout tabbed, focus
 +
 
 +
=== Workspace variables ===
 +
 
 +
As workspaces are defined multiple times in i3, assigning workspace variables can be helpful. For example:
 +
 
 +
set $WS1 term
 +
set $WS2 web
 +
set $WS3 misc
 +
set $WS4 media
 +
set $WS5 code
 +
 
 +
Then replace workspace names with their matching variables:
 +
 
 +
bindsym $mod+1          workspace $WS1
 +
...
 +
bindsym $mod+Shift+1    move container to workspace $WS1
 +
 
 +
See [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#_changing_named_workspaces_moving_to_workspaces Changing named workspaces] for more information.
 +
 
 +
=== Correct handling of floating dialogs ===
 +
 
 +
While dialogs should open in floating mode by default [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#_floating], many still open in tiling mode. To change this behaviour, check the dialog's {{ic|WM_WINDOW_ROLE}} with {{pkg|xorg-xprop}} and add the correct rules to {{ic|~/.i3/config}} (using [http://www.pcre.org/ pcre] syntax):
 +
 
 +
for_window [window_role="pop-up"] floating enable
 +
for_window [window_role="task_dialog"] floating enable
 +
 
 +
You can also use title rules and regular expressions:
 +
 
 +
for_window [title="Preferences$"] floating enable
 +
 
 +
or {{ic|WM_CLASS}}:
 +
 
 +
for_window [class="(?i)mplayer"] floating enable
 +
 
 +
=== Network Download/Upload speed on statusbar ===
 +
 
 +
You might adapt this upstream [http://code.stapelberg.de/git/i3status/tree/contrib/measure-net-speed.bash script]. For that,
 +
 
 +
* rename both network cards according to your system (use {{ic|ip addr}})
 +
* find them on {{ic|/sys/devices}} then replace them appropriately:
 +
$ find /sys/devices -name ''network_interface''
 +
 
 +
{{Tip|Use {{ic|/sys/class/net/''interface''/statistics/}} to not depend on PCI location.}}
 +
 
 +
Now, just save the script in a suitable place (for example {{ic|~/.config/i3}}) and point your status program to it.
 +
 
 +
== Patches ==
 +
 
 +
{{Merge|#Installation|One package does not warrant a separate section}}
 +
 
 +
Packages with patches not merged upstream are available in the [[AUR]]:
 +
 
 +
* {{App|i3-wm-iconpatch|Titlebar icon support|https://github.com/ashinkarov/i3-extras|{{AUR|i3-wm-iconpatch}}}}
 +
 
 +
== Troubleshooting ==
 +
 
 +
=== General ===
 +
 
 +
In many cases, bugs are fixed in the development versions {{AUR|i3-git}} and {{AUR|i3status-git}}, and upstream will ask to reproduce any errors with this version. [http://i3wm.org/docs/debugging.html] See also [[Debug - Getting Traces#General]].
 +
 
 +
=== Buttons in the i3 message bar do not work ===
 +
 
 +
Buttons such as "Edit config" in {{ic|i3-nagbar}} call {{ic|i3-sensible-terminal}}, so make sure your [[#Terminal_emulator|Terminal emulator]] is recognized by i3.
 +
 
 +
=== Faulty line wraps in tiled terminals ===
 +
 
 +
i3 v4.3 and higher ignore size increment hints for tiled windows [https://www.mail-archive.com/i3-discuss@i3.zekjur.net/msg00709.html]. This may cause terminals to wrap lines prematurely, amongst other issues. As a workaround, make the offending window floating, before tiling it again.
 +
 
 +
=== Mouse cursor remains in waiting mode ===
 +
 
 +
When starting a script or application which does not support startup notifications, the mouse cursor will remain in busy/watch/clock mode for 60 seconds.
 +
 
 +
To solve this for a particlar application, use the {{ic|--no-startup-id}} parameter, for example:
 +
exec --no-startup-id ~/script
 +
bindsym $mod+d exec --no-startup-id dmenu_run
 +
 
 +
To disable this animation globally, see [[Cursor themes#Create links to missing cursors]].
 +
 
 +
=== Unresponsive key bindings ===
  
For further information see the [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#_configuring_i3bar Configuring i3bar] section of the official User Guide.
+
Some tools such as [[Taking_a_screenshot#scrot|scrot]] may not work when used with a regular key binding (executed after key press). In those cases, execute commands after key release with the {{ic|--release}} argument [http://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html#keybindings]:
  
=== Old method: i3-wsbar and dzen ===
+
bindsym --release Print exec --no-startup-id scrot
[[Dzen]] can be placed in the status bar at the bottom of the screen. Information for dzen2 can be generated using {{Pkg|i3status}}
+
  bindsym --release Shift+Print exec --no-startup-id scrot -s
  i3status | dzen2 &
+
or {{Pkg|conky}}
+
conky | dzen2 &
+
The svn development version of [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=19926 dzen2] in the [[AUR]] offers a {{ic|-dock}} option, which puts dzen2 at the bottom of the screen and tells i3 not to manage it.
+
  
In the AUR you can also find {{AUR|i3-wsbar}}, which is able to get the list of workspaces from the socket that i3 offers for IPC. Thus you can pipe the conky output to i3-wsbar and tell it to use dzen2. For example, put the following in your i3 configuration file:
+
=== Tearing ===
{{hc|~/.i3/config|<nowiki>exec conky | i3-wsbar -c "dzen2 -x %x -dock -fn -*-profont-*-*-*-*-11-*-*-*-*-*-*-* -ta l"</nowiki>}}
+
  
For further information see ''[http://i3wm.org/docs/wsbar.html External workspace bars]''.
+
i3 does [https://github.com/i3/i3/issues/661 not properly implement double buffering] hence tearing or flickering may occur. To prevent this, install and configure [[compton]]. [https://faq.i3wm.org/question/3279/do-i-need-a-composite-manager-compton.1#post-id-3282]
  
{{note|Dzen color codes can be used in your conky configuration file.}}
+
=== Tray icons not visible ===
  
=== Comparison of i3bar and dzen2 ===
+
The {{ic|tray_output primary}} directive may require setting a primary output with ''xrandr'', specifying the output explicitly or simply removing this directive. [https://github.com/i3/i3/issues/1144] See [[Xrandr]] for details. The default configuration created by i3-config-wizard no longer adds this directive to the configuration from i3 4.12.
This comparison of i3bar and dzen2 only takes into account how well the two programs can handle the input from conky or i3status.
+
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" align="center"
+
! Program !! Color Codes !! Formatting !! Special Fonts !! Dock !! Trayer
+
|-
+
| i3bar  || Yes    || No, right aligned || No (UTF8 only)|| Yes || Yes
+
|-
+
| dzen2  || Yes    || No, left aligned  || Yes || Yes (the svn version) || No
+
|-
+
|}
+
  
Though development of i3bar is very active and support for custom formatting and fonts has been announced, dzen2-svn has an edge over i3bar (as of August 7th).
+
== See also ==
  
== Other tools ==
+
* [http://i3wm.org Official website]
i3 currently uses [[dmenu]] as a application launcher, which is bound by default to {{Keypress|Mod1|background=#FF0}}+{{Keypress|d}}.  
+
* [http://www.funtoo.org/I3_Tiling_Window_Manager funtoo Wiki]
 +
* [http://code.stapelberg.de/git/i3 i3 Source code]
 +
* [https://github.com/ashinkarov/i3-extras i3-extras] - Collection of scripts and patches
 +
* [https://github.com/acrisci/i3ipc-glib i3ipc-glib] - A library for i3 extensions
 +
* [https://github.com/veelenga/i3ipc-ruby i3ipc-ruby] - An improved library for i3 extensions in Ruby
 +
* [http://www.j4tools.org/ j4tools] - non-official tools designed to work with i3
  
{{Pkg|i3lock}} is a screen locker inspired by {{Pkg|slock}}.
+
'''Arch Linux Forums'''
 +
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=99064 The i3 thread] - A general discussion about i3
 +
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=103369 i3 desktop screenshots and config sharing]
  
== Additional sources ==
+
'''Screencasts'''
* [[Comparison of Tiling Window Managers]]
+
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wx0eNaGzAZU i3 window manager v4.1 screencast]
* [http://i3wm.org/docs/ Official i3 Documentation]
+
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j1I63wGcvU4&index=1&list=PL5ze0DjYv5DbCv9vNEzFmP6sU7ZmkGzcf i3 window manager v4.1X screencasts]
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=99064 The i3 thread]
+

Latest revision as of 19:12, 17 November 2016

i3 is a dynamic tiling window manager inspired by wmii that is primarily targeted at developers and advanced users.

The stated goals for i3 include clear documentation, proper multi-monitor support, a tree structure for windows, and different modes like in vim.

Installation

Install the i3 package group. It includes the window manager i3-wm, i3status which writes a status line to i3bar through stdout, and i3lock, a screen locker.

Additional packages are available in the Arch User Repository. See the section #Patches for examples.

Display manager

i3-wm includes i3.desktop as Xsession which starts the window manager. i3-with-shmlog.desktop enables logs (useful for debugging). i3-gnomeAUR integrates i3 into GNOME.

xinitrc

Edit Xinitrc, and add:

exec i3

To log the output from i3, add this line instead:

exec i3 -V >> ~/i3log-$(date +'%F-%k-%M-%S') 2>&1

Usage

See the official documentation for more information, namely the i3 User’s Guide.

Keybindings

In i3, commands are invoked with a modifier key, referred to as $mod. This is Alt (Mod1) by default, with Super (Mod4) being a popular alternative. Super is the key usually represented on a keyboard as a Windows icon, or on an Apple keyboard as a Command key.

See the i3 reference card and Using i3 for the defaults. See Keyboard bindings to add new shortcuts.

Users of non-Qwerty keyboard layouts may wish to circumvent the "configuration wizard" as described below.

Containers

i3 manages windows in a tree structure, with containers as building blocks. This structure branches with horizontal or vertical splits. Containers are tiled by default, but can be set to tabbed or stacked layouts, as well as made floating (such as for dialog windows). Floating windows are always on top.

See i3 Tree and Containers and the tree data structure for details.

Application launcher

i3 uses dmenu as an application launcher, which is bound by default to $mod+d.

i3-wm contains i3-dmenu-desktop, a Perl wrapper for dmenu which uses desktop entries to create a list of all installed applications. Alternatively, the package j4-dmenu-desktop-gitAUR can be used.

Configuration

See Configuring i3 for details. The rest of this article assumes the i3 configuration file to be in the folder ~/.config.

Configuration wizard and alternative keyboard layouts

When i3 is first started, it offers to run the configuration wizard i3-config-wizard. This tool creates ~/.config/i3/config by rewriting a template configuration file in /etc/i3/config.keycodes. It makes two modifications to the default template:

  1. It asks the user to choose a default modifier key, which it adds to the template as a single line, like set $mod Mod1; and
  2. it replaces all bindcode lines with bindsym lines corresponding to the user's current keyboard layout.

Step 2 is designed to ensure that the four navigation shortcuts, j, k, l and "semicolon" on a Qwerty keyboard, will be mapped to keysyms which have the same location, e.g. h, t, n, s on a Dvorak keyboard. The side-effect of this magic is that up to fifteen other keysyms may be remapped in ways which break the mnemonics - so that, for a Dvorak user, "restart" is bound to $mod1+p instead of $mod1+r, "split horizontally" is bound to $mod1+d instead of $mod1+h, and so on.

Therefore, users of alternate keyboard layouts who want straightforward key bindings, which match the bindings given in tutorials, may prefer to circumvent the "config wizard". This can be done by just copying /etc/i3/config into ~/.config/i3/config (or ~/.i3/config), and editing that file.

Note that a keycode-based configuration is also possible, e.g. for users who often switch between keyboard layouts, but want the i3 bindings to stay the same.

Colorschemes

The configuration file allows for customization of window decoration colors, but the syntax makes it impractical to create or share themes. There are several projects which make this easier and include a variety of user-contributed themes.

  • i3-style — Modifies your config in place from a theme stored in a JSON object, designed for frequently tweaking or changing a colorscheme
https://github.com/acrisci/i3-style || nodejs-i3-styleAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror]
  • j4-make-config — Merge your config with a collection of themes or personal config parts, for example host-specific configuration, allowing quick changing of the theme and flexible, dynamic customization of the configuration
https://github.com/okraits/j4-make-config || j4-make-config-gitAUR

i3bar

In addition to showing workspace information, i3bar can act as an input for i3status or an alternative, such as those mentioned in the next section. For example:

~/.config/i3/config
bar {
    output            LVDS1
    status_command    i3status
    position          top
    mode              hide
    workspace_buttons yes
    tray_output       none
    
    font -misc-fixed-medium-r-normal--13-120-75-75-C-70-iso10646-1

    colors {
        background #000000
        statusline #ffffff

        focused_workspace  #ffffff #285577
        active_workspace   #ffffff #333333
        inactive_workspace #888888 #222222
        urgent_workspace   #ffffff #900000
    }
}

See the Configuring i3bar for details.

i3bar alternatives

Some users may prefer panels such as those provided by conventional Desktop Environments. This can be achieved within i3 by launching the panel application of choice during startup.

For the XFCE panel[broken link: invalid section], add the following line anywhere in ~/.config/i3/config:

exec --no-startup-id xfce4-panel --disable-wm-check

i3bar can be disabled by commenting the bar{ } section of ~/.config/i3/config, or defining a keybind to toggle the bar:

~/.config/i3/config
# bar toggle, hide or show 
bindsym $mod+m bar mode toggle

i3status

Copy over the default configuration files to the home directory:

$ cp /etc/i3status.conf ~/.config/i3status/config

Not all plugins are defined in the default configuration and some configuration values may be invalid for your system, so the need to be updated accordingly. See man i3status for details.

i3status replacements

https://github.com/brndnmtthws/conky || conky
  • i3blocks — Extensible via shell scripts. It can handle click events, interrupts, and defining of refresh intervals on a per-block basis.
https://github.com/vivien/i3blocks || i3blocksAUR
  • i3pystatus — Extensible Python 3 status bar with many plugins and configuration options by default.
https://github.com/enkore/i3pystatus i3pystatus || i3pystatus-gitAUR
  • i3situation — Another Python 3 status bar generator.
https://github.com/HarveyHunt/i3situation || i3situation-gitAUR
  • j4status — Provides a statusline, configurable via plugins, and written in C. Extra plugins are provided by j4status-plugins-gitAUR.
http://j4status.j4tools.org/ || j4status-gitAUR
  • goi3bar — i3status replacement written in Go. Configuration-file driven with several plugins, concurrency options, and rich plugin support.
https://github.com/denbeigh2000/goi3bar/ || goi3bar-gitAUR
  • goblocks — Fast, lightweight i3status replacement written in Go.
https://github.com/davidscholberg/goblocks || goblocksAUR
  • bumblebee-status — Theme-able Python status bar generator.
https://github.com/tobi-wan-kenobi/bumblebee-status || not packaged? search in AUR
  • ty3status — i3status replacement written in Typescript. Built with first class support for javascript blocks.
https://github.com/mrkmg/ty3status || ty3status-gitAUR

i3status wrappers

  • i3cat — A go based wrapper which can concatenate inputs from multiple external sources. It can handle click events and forwarding user specified signals to its subprocesses.
http://vincent-petithory.github.io/i3cat/ || i3cat-gitAUR
  • py3status — An extensible i3status wrapper written in Python.
https://github.com/ultrabug/py3status || py3statusAUR

Iconic fonts in the status bar

i3bar can be patched for XBM icon support, but you can use iconic font sets instead.

  • ttf-font-awesome — Scalable vector icons that can be customized with CSS. A cheatsheet shows the Unicode point for each glyph.
http://fortawesome.github.io/Font-Awesome/ || ttf-font-awesomeAUR
  • ttf-font-icons — Non-overlapping and consistently sized mix of Awesome and Ionicons. This also avoids minor overlapping between DejaVu Sans and Awesome.
http://kageurufu.net/icons.pdf || ttf-font-iconsAUR.

To combine fonts, define a font fallback sequence in your configuration file, separating fonts with , like so:

~/.config/i3/config
bar {
  ...
  font pango:DejaVu Sans Mono, Icons 8
  ...
}

In accordance with pango syntax, font size is specified only once, at the end of the comma-separated list of font families. Setting a size for each font would cause all but the last font to be ignored.

Add icons to the format strings in ~/.config/i3status/config using the unicode numbers given in the cheatsheets linked above. The input method will vary between text editors. For instance, to insert the "heart" icon (unicode number f004):

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with Internationalization.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: Should be described in one place; see also ArchWiki:Requests#Input methods. (Discuss in Talk:I3#)
  • in various gui text editors (e.g. gedit, Leafpad) and terminals (e.g. GNOME Terminal, xfce4-terminal): ctrl+shift+u, f004, Enter
  • in Emacs: ctrl+x, 8, Enter, f004, Enter
  • in Vim (while in insert mode): Ctrl+v, uf004
  • in urxvt: while holding Ctrl+Shift, type f004

Terminal emulator

By default when pressing $mod+Return it launches the i3-sensible-terminal which is a script that invokes a terminal. See man i3-sensible-terminal for the order terminals are invoked in.

To instead launch a terminal of choice, modify this line in ~/.config/i3/config:

bindsym $mod+Return exec i3-sensible-terminal

Alternatively, set the $TERMINAL environment variable.

Tips and tricks

Advanced window navigation

See i3 window Navigation Tips.

Jump to open window

  • quickswitch-i3 — Python utility to quickly change to and locate windows in i3
https://github.com/proxypoke/quickswitch-for-i3 || quickswitch-i3AUR
  • i3-wm-scripts — search for and jump to windows with particular names matching regexp
https://github.com/yiuin/i3-wm-scripts ||
  • winmenupy — Launches dmenu with a list of clients, sorted after workspaces. Selecting a client jumps to that window.
https://github.com/ziberna/i3-py/blob/master/examples/winmenu.py ||
  • rofi — Search and jump to open and scratchpad window
https://davedavenport.github.io/rofi/ || rofi

Jump to urgent window

Add to .i3/config: [1]

bindsym $mod+x [urgent=latest] focus

Save and restore the window layout

From version 4.8, and onward i3 can save and restore workspace layouts. To do this, the following packages are needed: perl-anyevent-i3 and perl-json-xs from the official repositories.

Note: This section only provides quick tutorial on how to save the current window layout of a single workspace and how to restore it for later use. Refer to the official documentation for more details

Save the current window layout of a single workspace

To save the current window layout, follow these steps:

  1. First, execute various commands to open windows in a preferred workspace and resize them if needed. Make sure to write down each executed command for each window.
  2. Now, in a new workspace, open a terminal and run the following:
    i3-save-tree --workspace N > ~/.i3/workspace_N.json
    where N is the number of the preferred workspace. This will save the current layout of workspace N to the file ~/.i3/workspace_N.json.
  3. The newly created file needs to be edited, however this may be done with the following commands:
    tail -n +2 ~/.i3/workspace_N.json | fgrep -v '// splitv' | sed 's|//||g' > ~/.i3/workspace_N.json

Restore the window layout of the workspace

There are two ways to restore the layout of the workspace: by writing a script, or by editing ~/.i3/config to automatically load the layout. In this section only the first case will be considered, refer to the official documentation for the second case.

To restore the saved layout in the previous section, write a file named load_layout.sh with the following contents:

  • The starting lines:
~/load_layout.sh
#!/bin/bash
i3-msg "workspace M; append_layout ~/.i3/workspace_N.json"

where M is the number of the workspace in which you would like to load the previously saved layout and N is the number of workspace saved in the previous section.

  • And the commands used in the previous section to get the preferred windows, but enclosed in parentheses and with an ampersand appended before the last parentheses.

For example, if the saved layout contained three uxterm windows:

~/load_layout.sh
#!/bin/bash

# First we append the saved layout of worspace N to workspace M
i3-msg "workspace M; append_layout ~/.i3/workspace_N.json"

# And finally we fill the containers with the programs they had
(uxterm &)
(uxterm &)
(uxterm &)

Then set the file as executable:

chmod u+x ~/load_layout.sh

And finally, the layout of worskpace N can be loaded onto to workspace M by running:

~/load_layout.sh
Tip: Adding bindsym $mod+g exec ~/load_layout.sh to ~/.i3/config and restarting i3 will bind Mod+g to run the above script.
Note: If the above script does not work properly, refer to the official documentation. The swallows sections of ~/.i3/workspace_N.json needs to be manually edited.

Scratchpad containers

By default, scratchpads only contain a single window. However, containers can also be made a scratchpad.

Create a new container (for example, Mod+Enter), split it (Mod+v) and create another container. Focus the parent (Mod+a), split in the opposite direction (Mod+h), and create again.

Focus the first container (with focus parent as needed), make the window floating (Mod+Shift+Space), and move it to the scratchpad (Mod+Shift+-). You can now split containers to preference.

Note: Containers cannot be resized individually in floating windows. Resize the containers before making windows floating.
Tip: When only using terminal applications, consider a multiplexer such as tmux instead.

See also [2] for multiple scratchpads.

Screensaver and power management

With Power management#xss-lock you can register a screenlocker for your i3 session. The -time option locks the screen after a given time period.

xautolock -time 10 -locker "i3lock -i 'background_image.png'" &

A systemd service file can be used to lock the screen before the system is being sent to sleep or hibernation state. See Power management#Suspend/resume service files. Note that i3lock requires the type of the service to be forking.

See also DPMS.

Shutdown, reboot, lock screen

Key combinations for shutdown, reboot and screenlock can be added to ~/.config/i3/config. The below example assumes you have polkit installed to allow unprivileged users to run power management commands.

set $Locker i3lock && sleep 1

set $mode_system System (l) lock, (e) logout, (s) suspend, (h) hibernate, (r) reboot, (Shift+s) shutdown
mode "$mode_system" {
    bindsym l exec --no-startup-id $Locker, mode "default"
    bindsym e exec --no-startup-id i3-msg exit, mode "default"
    bindsym s exec --no-startup-id $Locker && systemctl suspend, mode "default"
    bindsym h exec --no-startup-id $Locker && systemctl hibernate, mode "default"
    bindsym r exec --no-startup-id systemctl reboot, mode "default"
    bindsym Shift+s exec --no-startup-id systemctl poweroff -i, mode "default"  

    # back to normal: Enter or Escape
    bindsym Return mode "default"
    bindsym Escape mode "default"
}

bindsym $mod+Pause mode "$mode_system"

Once completed, you will be presented with a prompt whenever you press $mod+pause. For more complex behaviour, use a separate script, and refer to it in the mode. [3]

Note:
  • sleep 1 adds a small delay to prevent possible race conditions with suspend [4]
  • The -i argument for systemctl poweroff causes a shutdown even if other users are logged-in (this requires polkit), or when logind (wrongly) assumes so. [5]

For a list of alternative screen lockers, see List of applications/Security#Screen lockers.

External displays manual management

Thanks to xrandr there are many ways to easily manage systems displays. The below example integrates it in the i3 config file, and behave as the Power Management section above.

Here a laptop with both VGA and HDMI outputs will use a menu selection to switch them On/Off:

## Manual management of external displays
# Set the shortcuts and what they do
set $mode_display Ext Screen (v) VGA ON, (h) HDMI ON, (x) VGA OFF, (y) HDMI OFF
mode "$mode_display" {
    bindsym v exec --no-startup-id xrandr --output VGA1 --auto --right-of LVDS1, mode "default"
    bindsym h exec --no-startup-id xrandr --output HDMI1 --auto --right-of LVDS1, mode "default"
    bindsym x exec --no-startup-id xrandr --output VGA1 --auto --off, mode "default"
    bindsym y exec --no-startup-id xrandr --output HDMI1 --auto --off, mode "default"

    # back to normal: Enter or Escape
    bindsym Return mode "default"
    bindsym Escape mode "default"
}
# Declare here the shortcut to bring the display selection menu
bindsym $mod+x mode "$mode_display"

Any window that is still open in a switched Off display will automatically come back to the remaining active display.

The simplest way to determine names of your devices is to plug the device you wish to use and run:

$ xrandr --query

which will output the available, recognized devices and their in-system names to set your config file appropriately.

Refer to the xrandr page or man page for the complete list of available options, the i3 userguide and/or the i3 FAQ on reddit for more info.

Tabbed or stacked web-browsing

Some web-browsers intentionally do not implement tabs, since managing tabs is considered to be the task of the window manager, not the task of the browser.

To let i3 manage your tab-less web-browser, in this example for uzbl, add the following line to your ~/.config/i3/config

for_window [class="Uzbl-core"] focus child, layout stacking, focus

This is for stacked web browsing, meaning that the windows will be shown vertically. The advantage over tabbed browsing is that the window-titles are fully visible, even if a lot of browser windows are open.

If you prefer tabbed browsing, with windows in horizontal direction ('tabs'), use

for_window [class="Uzbl-core"] focus child, layout tabbed, focus

Workspace variables

As workspaces are defined multiple times in i3, assigning workspace variables can be helpful. For example:

set $WS1 term
set $WS2 web
set $WS3 misc
set $WS4 media
set $WS5 code

Then replace workspace names with their matching variables:

bindsym $mod+1          workspace $WS1
...
bindsym $mod+Shift+1    move container to workspace $WS1

See Changing named workspaces for more information.

Correct handling of floating dialogs

While dialogs should open in floating mode by default [6], many still open in tiling mode. To change this behaviour, check the dialog's WM_WINDOW_ROLE with xorg-xprop and add the correct rules to ~/.i3/config (using pcre syntax):

for_window [window_role="pop-up"] floating enable
for_window [window_role="task_dialog"] floating enable

You can also use title rules and regular expressions:

for_window [title="Preferences$"] floating enable

or WM_CLASS:

for_window [class="(?i)mplayer"] floating enable

Network Download/Upload speed on statusbar

You might adapt this upstream script. For that,

  • rename both network cards according to your system (use ip addr)
  • find them on /sys/devices then replace them appropriately:
$ find /sys/devices -name network_interface
Tip: Use /sys/class/net/interface/statistics/ to not depend on PCI location.

Now, just save the script in a suitable place (for example ~/.config/i3) and point your status program to it.

Patches

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with #Installation.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: One package does not warrant a separate section (Discuss in Talk:I3#)

Packages with patches not merged upstream are available in the AUR:

  • i3-wm-iconpatch — Titlebar icon support
https://github.com/ashinkarov/i3-extras || i3-wm-iconpatchAUR

Troubleshooting

General

In many cases, bugs are fixed in the development versions i3-gitAUR and i3status-gitAUR, and upstream will ask to reproduce any errors with this version. [7] See also Debug - Getting Traces#General.

Buttons in the i3 message bar do not work

Buttons such as "Edit config" in i3-nagbar call i3-sensible-terminal, so make sure your Terminal emulator is recognized by i3.

Faulty line wraps in tiled terminals

i3 v4.3 and higher ignore size increment hints for tiled windows [8]. This may cause terminals to wrap lines prematurely, amongst other issues. As a workaround, make the offending window floating, before tiling it again.

Mouse cursor remains in waiting mode

When starting a script or application which does not support startup notifications, the mouse cursor will remain in busy/watch/clock mode for 60 seconds.

To solve this for a particlar application, use the --no-startup-id parameter, for example:

exec --no-startup-id ~/script
bindsym $mod+d exec --no-startup-id dmenu_run

To disable this animation globally, see Cursor themes#Create links to missing cursors.

Unresponsive key bindings

Some tools such as scrot may not work when used with a regular key binding (executed after key press). In those cases, execute commands after key release with the --release argument [9]:

bindsym --release Print exec --no-startup-id scrot
bindsym --release Shift+Print exec --no-startup-id scrot -s

Tearing

i3 does not properly implement double buffering hence tearing or flickering may occur. To prevent this, install and configure compton. [10]

Tray icons not visible

The tray_output primary directive may require setting a primary output with xrandr, specifying the output explicitly or simply removing this directive. [11] See Xrandr for details. The default configuration created by i3-config-wizard no longer adds this directive to the configuration from i3 4.12.

See also

Arch Linux Forums

Screencasts