IBM ThinkPad X31

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Revision as of 10:44, 1 February 2009 by Tad (Talk | contribs) (Installation)

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The IBM Thinkpad X31 is a wonderful little laptop which contains everything you need for your everyday work, and even some gaming, if you tweak things a little. The X31 is rock solid, light (3.7 lbs), and nowadays very cheap (I bought mine 375$, and the price is still dropping). The only drawback is the lack of internal optical drive. This tutorial contains most of what I did to get everything working, that part was easy by the way, and the tips and tricks to really boost things up. You can see the specs of the X31 on ThinkWiki, a wonderful resource, from which I found most of what I needed for this tutorial.


A basic Arch Linux installation will do just fine for about everything, so I won't talk about sound or other basic stuff. No custom kernel needed. However, you will need the following particular packages:

  • acpi and acpid for various reasons
  • ipw2100-fw and wireless_tools for wireless
  • cpufrequtils for powersaving (see above)
  • xf86-input-evdev for Xorg input autodetection
  • xf86-video-ati for direct rendering (see above)
  • laptop-mode-tools for powersaving (see above)

Now add acpid, cpufreq, and laptop-mode to your DAEMONS section of your rc.conf.

Add acpi-cpufreq and thinkpad_acpi to your MODULES section of your rc.conf.

Quick note: add an @ before all your DAEMONS in your rc.conf to speed up boot time.

The following useful packages are on AUR.

  • rovclock for boosting direct rendering (see above)
  • uswsusp for hibernation (see above)
  • acpi-cpufreq-phc for undervolting the CPU (see above) (Only for kernel >=


Simply save this script as /usr/bin/hibernation:

modprobe -r ehci_hcd 
/usr/sbin/s2ram -rf
modprobe ehci_hcd

You now just have to run this command whenever you want to suspend to ram:

# hibernation

To hibernate and resume simply by closing the lid of your laptop, simply run this command:

# echo -e "event=button[ /]lid\naction=/usr/bin/hibernation" > /etc/acpi/events/suspend.conf

It simply tells ACPI to run the command "hibernation" on the "lid closed" event. I strongly suggest using this. After less than a day, you'll think of shutting down a computer as barbaric, and you'll be astonished each time you see a computer taking more than five seconds to boot.

Xorg and direct rendering

Use my /etc/xorg.conf:

Note added by Benoitb: I could not start X with your conf file, I removed some contents of the ServerFlags section to get it to start on my configuration. Others, please report your experiences.

Section "ServerLayout"
	Identifier     "Xorg Configured"
	Screen      0  "Screen0" 0 0
	InputDevice    "Keyboard0" "CoreKeyboard"
	InputDevice    "PS/2 Mouse" "CorePointer"
	Option         "AIGLX" "true"
# Serial Mouse not detected
# USB Mouse not detected

Section "ServerFlags"
	Option "AllowMouseOpenFail"  "true"
        Option "PM" "off"
        Option "DPMS" "off"
        Option "Xinerama" "0"	

Section "Files"
	RgbPath      "/usr/share/X11/rgb"
	ModulePath   "/usr/lib/xorg/modules"
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/misc:unscaled"
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/misc"
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/75dpi:unscaled"
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/75dpi"
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/100dpi:unscaled"
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/100dpi"
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/PEX"
# Additional fonts: Locale, Gimp, TTF...
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/cyrillic"
#	FontPath     "/usr/share/lib/X11/fonts/latin2/75dpi"
#	FontPath     "/usr/share/lib/X11/fonts/latin2/100dpi"
# True type and type1 fonts are also handled via xftlib, see /etc/X11/XftConfig!
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/Type1"
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/ttf/western"
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/ttf/decoratives"
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/truetype"
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/truetype/openoffice"
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/truetype/ttf-bitstream-vera"
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/latex-ttf-fonts"
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/defoma/CID"
	FontPath     "/usr/share/fonts/defoma/TrueType"
	FontPath	"/usr/share/fonts/artwiz-fonts"

Section "Module"
        Load  "ddc"  # ddc probing of monitor
	Load  "dbe"
        Load  "record"
        Load  "extmod"
        Load  "dbe"
        Load  "dri"
        Load  "glx"
        Load  "xtrap"
        Load  "freetype"
        Load  "type1"
        Load  "speedo"
        Load  "radeon"
        Load   "drm"

Section "InputDevice"
	Identifier  "Keyboard0"
	Driver      "keyboard"
        Option      "CoreKeyboard"
	Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
	Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
	Option "XkbLayout" "us"
	Option "XkbVariant" 
	Option "XkbOptions" "ctrl:nocaps"

Section "InputDevice"
	Identifier  "Serial Mouse"
	Driver      "mouse"
	Option      "Protocol" "Microsoft"
	Option      "Device" "/dev/ttyS0"
	Option      "Emulate3Buttons" "true"
	Option      "Emulate3Timeout" "70"
	Option	    "SendCoreEvents"  "true"

Section "InputDevice"
	Identifier  "PS/2 Mouse"
	Driver      "mouse"
	Option      "Protocol" "auto"
	Option          "ZAxisMapping"          "4 5"
	Option      "Device" "/dev/psaux"
	Option      "Emulate3Buttons" "true"
	Option      "Emulate3Timeout" "70"
	Option	    "SendCoreEvents"  "true"

Section "InputDevice"
        Identifier      "USB Mouse"
        Driver          "mouse"
        Option          "Device"                "/dev/input/mice"
	Option		"SendCoreEvents"	"true"
        Option          "Protocol"              "IMPS/2"
        Option          "ZAxisMapping"          "4 5"
        Option          "Buttons"               "5"

# Auto-generated by Archie mkxcfg

Section "Monitor"
        Identifier   "Monitor0"
        VendorName   "IBM"
        ModelName    "X31 TFT Screen"
        HorizSync    31.5 - 48.5
        VertRefresh  40.0 - 70.0
#        Option       "DPMS"
        DisplaySize  243.84 182.88

Section "Device"
        Identifier      "Card0"
        Driver          "radeon"
        BusID           "PCI:1:0:0"
        Option          "AGPMode" "4"
       Option          "AGPSize" "16" # default: 8
#        Option          "AGPFastWrite" "false" # MUST BE FALSE!!!
#       Option          "SWcursor" "true" # MUST BE TRUE!!!
        Option          "RingSize" "4"
        Option          "BufferSize" "2"
        Option          "EnablePageFlip" "true"
#        Option          "EnableDepthMoves" "false" # MUST BE FALSE!!!
        Option          "RenderAccel" "true"
        Option          "AccelMethod" "XAA" # or XAA, EXA
        Option          "DDCMode"
        Option          "SubPixelOrder" "NONE"
        Option          "ColorTiling" "true"
        Option          "DynamicClocks" "true"
        Option          "bioshotkeys"   "True"
#        Option          "XAANoOffscreenPixmaps" "true"
       Option      "DRI"     "true"

Section "Screen"
	Identifier "Screen0"
	Device     "Card0"
	Monitor    "Monitor0"
	DefaultColorDepth 24
	SubSection "Display"
		Depth     1
		Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
	SubSection "Display"
		Depth     4
		Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
	SubSection "Display"
		Depth     8
		Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
	SubSection "Display"
		Depth     15
		Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
	SubSection "Display"
		Depth     16
		Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
	SubSection "Display"
		Depth     24
		Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
	SubSection "Display"
		Depth     32
		Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"

Section "DRI"
	Group        "0"
	Mode 0666

Section "Extensions"
  Option "Composite" "Enable"


You can boost your performance by using my ~/.drirc:

    <device screen="0" driver="radeon">
        <application name="Default">
            <option name="force_s3tc_enable" value="true" />
            <option name="no_rast" value="false" />
            <option name="fthrottle_mode" value="2" />
            <option name="tcl_mode" value="3" />
            <option name="texture_depth" value="0" />
            <option name="def_max_anisotropy" value="1.0" />
            <option name="no_neg_lod_bias" value="false" />
            <option name="texture_units" value="2" />
            <option name="dither_mode" value="0" />
            <option name="hyperz" value="true" />
            <option name="round_mode" value="1" />
            <option name="color_reduction" value="0" />
            <option name="vblank_mode" value="0" />
            <option name="allow_large_textures" value="2" />

This should double your glxgear. If you wish to play with your dri configuration, install driconf found in AUR.


You can also overclock your graphic card. As far as I know, there is no real drawback, but you can play it safe and only use it while running a game or compiz or any application using your graphic card:

# rovclock -c 220 -m 210

Use this command to get back to default settings:

# rovclock -c 144 -m 144

This, with the my drirc and xorg.conf, gives me a glxgears of 1400, which is pretty impressive for a 16mb video ram radeon. Default value for an Arch Linux is below 300, so it really is worth it. Note that if you what to enable it permanently, you just have to add the first command in your ~/.xinitrc, or use any other way to run it once X is started. If, however, you barely use your graphic card, you can lower both power usage and temperature slightly by underclocking your graphic card at boot. Add this command to ~/.xinitrc :

# rovclock -c 90 -m 100

Dual Screen

If you want to use an external screen for a presentation or as an extended desktop, you can use xrandr. For an extended desktop, you should first add one line in your /etc/x11/xorg.conf configuration file at the SubSection "Display" area: Before:

SubSection "Display"
 		Depth     24
 		Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"


SubSection "Display"
 		Depth     24
 		Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
               Virtual 2304 1024

The numbers are the total rectangular resolution that you need to use. In this case, I'm using the internal 1024x768 screen and an external 1280x1024 screen on the right. The total resolution is 1024+1280=2304 pixels large and 1024>768=1024 pixels height.

Note that in 24 bits with this option, the performance is affected for 3D drawing, so you may need to comment it and use only one screen when you need the graphical power.

Then restart your X server (ctrl-alt-backspace). You can issue this command in a shell:

xrandr --output VGA-0 --right-of LVDS

To find the exact name of the monitors and the maximum resolution that you set up in the configuration file, you can type just xrandr without arguments.


Here are various method to save power:


This will put your screen brightness to the minimum level when on battery and restore it to maximum when on ac power:

# echo -e '#!/bin/bash\necho 0 > /sys/class/backlight/thinkpad_screen/brightness' > /etc/laptop-mode/batt-start/battscript
# chmod 0755 /etc/laptop-mode/batt-start/battscript
# echo -e '#!/bin/bash\necho 7 > /sys/class/backlight/thinkpad_screen/brightness' > /etc/laptop-mode/lm-ac-start/acscript
# chmod 0755 /etc/laptop-mode/lm-ac-start/acscript
# ln -s /etc/laptop-mode/lm-ac-start/acscript /etc/laptop-mode/onlm-ac-start/acscript

It will create scripts, executed by the laptop-mode daemon when switching the power source, that change the brightness of your screen using the thinkpad_acpi module.


Adding those commands to your /etc/rc.local script will save you some power:

ethtool -s eth0 wol d
rmmod uhci_hcd
echo 5 > /proc/sys/vm/laptop_mode
echo 1500 > /proc/sys/vm/dirty_writeback_centisecs
hdparm -B 1 -S 12 /dev/sda
echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/nmi_watchdog
/sbin/iwpriv eth1 set_power 5

Ethtool cancels the power-draining and seldom needed wake-on-LAN feature of your ethernet card.

The uhci_hcd module drains a lot of power and is only needed for USB1 devices. If you still use them, remove the rmmod command. Don't use this command if you have an integrated bluetooth device otherwise it won't work

The next four commands simply tweak your hard drive to spin less, and therefore save a good deal of power.

The iwpriv command sets the wireless card on power saving mode.


The X31 CPUs can be undervolted, which means they will offer you the same performance, but with more battery life and a cooler laptop. From personal experience, my CPU temperature,during 100% activity, dropped by 15-20°C just by using this patch. This is extremely easy using the linux-phc patch, but only if you know the proper values to give the CPU. Informations on how to find them is available here or here. I know it can be hard to find your own values, so here is a table were you can indicate what are the good values for each of the X31 CPUs:

  • Pentium-m 1600MHz : 34 26 18 12 8 5
    Please note you computer may freeze once a month because of those values. If you find more stable ones, please indicate them.

One you have your values, just run:

# echo VALUES > /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/phc_vids

For example:

# echo 34 26 18 12 8 5 > /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/phc_vids

You can add this command to your /etc/rc.local to make the undervolting permanent.


Put those line in your /etc/modprobe.conf:

options usbcore autosuspend=1
options ipw2100 associate=0
options snd_ac97_codec power_save=1
options thinkpad-acpi experimental=1 fan_control=1

The three first lines put some of your devices in power-saving mode, respectively the USB ports, the wireless card and the sound card. Note that you need the last line in order to control your fan speed (see above)


To see additional sources of power drain, install powertop:

# pacman -S powertop

And run it while on battery power.

Hard drive dilemna

As set earlier, the hard drive is on a power-saving mode that can make it spin off and on often. It may reduce its lifetime. You can install the smartmontools package and issue this command:

# smartctl -A /dev/sda | grep Load_Cycle_Count

If the number is growing too fast, you might want to set off the powersaving mode by issuing:

# hdparm -B 254 /dev/sda

See the above item rc.local to modify it at boot time.



You can use a script from ThinkWiki to considerably lower your CPU temperature. My maximum CPU temperature dropped by about ten degrees, so I really suggest using it. Simply download it from here, rename it to tp-fancontrol, and run:

# chmod 0755 tp-fancontrol
# mv tp-fancontrol /usr/bin

To run the script at each boot, add this line to your /etc/rc.local:

tp-fancontrol -d

Also, I suggest changing the first maximum temperature threshold (the CPU one) to 55. Just edit /usr/bin/tp-fancontrol, the file is self-explanatory.

Wireless and WPA

If you have the Cisco neta504 wifi card, it's a bit tricky to use the wpa encryption with it. Firstofall, remove and blacklist the airo and the airo_cs modules in your /etc/rc.conf remove the module airo from the kernel

# rmmod airo
# rmmod airo_cs

then install ndiswrapper

# pacman -S ndiswrapper

download the neta504 driver for windows and unpack it (Be sure that you have unpacked the whole driver !) Then run :

# ndiswrapper -i /path/to/your/dir/netA504.inf

Save the ndiswrapper conf file :

# ndiswrapper -m
# ndiswrapper -ma
# ndiswrapper -mi

Now you can add to your kernel the module :

# modprobe ndiswrapper

and voilà ! I've tried this with wicd and it works flawlessly !