Difference between revisions of "Install bundled 32-bit system in 64-bit system"

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#redirect [[ArchWiki:Archive]]
[[cs:32bit chroot]]
[[fr:Install environnement 32 sur un systeme 64]]
[[zh-CN:Install bundled 32-bit system in Arch64]]
{{Article summary start}}
{{Article summary text|
This article presents one way of running 32-bit applications, which may be of use to those who do not wish to install the lib32-* libraries from the multilib repository and instead prefer to isolate 32bit applications. The approach involves creating a "chroot jail" to handle 32-bit apps.}}
{{Article summary end}}
== Make the i686 Chroot ==
===Install the Base 32-bit System===
1. Create the directory:
mkdir /opt/arch32
2. Generate temporary [[pacman]] configuration files for chroot:
sed -e 's/\$arch/i686/g' /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist > /opt/arch32/mirrorlist
sed -e 's@/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist@/opt/arch32/mirrorlist@g' -e '/Architecture/ s,auto,i686,'  /etc/pacman.conf > /opt/arch32/pacman.conf
*These files would conflict with the normal pacman files, which will be installed in the later steps.
*For this reason they must be put ''into'' a temporary location ({{ic|/opt/arch32}} is used here).
*Remember to delete/comment the multilib repo, if you have enable it, in the {{ic|/opt/arch32/pacman.conf}} file
3. Create the directory:
mkdir -p /opt/arch32/var/{cache/pacman/pkg,lib/pacman}
4. Sync pacman:
pacman --root /opt/arch32 --cachedir /opt/arch32/var/cache/pacman/pkg --config /opt/arch32/pacman.conf -Sy
5. Install the base and optionally base-devel groups:
pacman --root /opt/arch32 --cachedir /opt/arch32/var/cache/pacman/pkg --config /opt/arch32/pacman.conf -S base base-devel
Optionally add your favorite text editor and distcc if you plan to compile within the chroot with other machines:
pacman --root /opt/arch32 --cachedir /opt/arch32/var/cache/pacman/pkg --config /opt/arch32/pacman.conf -S base base-devel sudo vim distcc
Optionally move the pacman mirror list into place:
mv /opt/arch32/mirrorlist /opt/arch32/etc/pacman.d
===Configuration files===
Key configuration files should be copied over:
cd /opt/arch32/etc
cp /etc/passwd* .
cp /etc/shadow* .
cp /etc/group* .
cp /etc/sudoers .
cp /etc/resolv.conf .
cp /etc/localtime .
cp /etc/locale.gen .
cp /etc/profile.d/locale.sh profile.d
cp /etc/vimrc .
cp /etc/mtab .
cp /etc/inputrc .
Be sure to include the "." character!
Remember to define the correct the number of MAKEFLAGS and other vars in {{ic|/opt/arch32/etc/makepkg.conf}} before attempting to build.
== Create an Arch32 Daemon Script and Systemd Service ==
Description=32-bit chroot
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/arch32 start
ExecStop=/usr/local/bin/arch32 stop
# Leave this blank if not using distccd from within the chroot.
start_distccd() {
  [[ ! -L $MOUNTPOINT/usr/bin/distccd-chroot ]] && ln -s /usr/bin/distccd $MOUNTPOINT/usr/bin/distccd-chroot
  DISTCC_ARGS="--user nobody --allow $DISTCC_SUBNET --port 3692 --log-level warning --log-file /tmp/distccd-i686.log"
  if [[ -z "$(pgrep distccd-chroot)" ]]; then
    linux32 chroot $MOUNTPOINT /bin/bash -c "/usr/bin/distccd-chroot --daemon ${DISTCC_ARGS}"
    echo "/usr/bin/distccd-chroot seems to be running so doing nothing!"
stop_distccd() {
  if [[ -n "$(pgrep distccd-chroot)" ]]; then
    linux32 chroot $MOUNTPOINT /bin/bash -c "pkill -SIGTERM distccd-chroot"
    echo "/usr/bin/distccd-chroot does NOT seems to be running so doing nothing!"
case $1 in
    # Only relevant for users with an arch32 chroot on a separate partition.
    # Edit to fit your system and take note of the corresponding unmount option in the stop function!
    # mountpoint -q $MOUNTPOINT || mount LABEL="arch32" $MOUNTPOINT
    dirs=(/tmp /dev /dev/pts /home)
    for d in "${dirs[@]}"; do
      mount -o bind $d $MOUNTPOINT$d
    mount -t proc none $MOUNTPOINT/proc
    mount -t sysfs none $MOUNTPOINT/sys
    touch $PIDFILE
    [[ -n "$USEDISTCC" ]] && start_distccd
    dirs=(/home /dev/pts /dev /tmp)
    [[ -n "$USEDISTCC" ]] && stop_distccd
    umount $MOUNTPOINT/{sys,proc}
    for d in "${dirs[@]}"; do
      umount -l "$MOUNTPOINT$d"
    # Only relevant for users with an arch32 chroot on a separate partition.
    # umount -l $MOUNTPOINT
    rm -f $PIDFILE
    echo "usage: $0 (start|stop)"
    exit 1
# vim:set ts=2 sw=2 et:
Be sure to make the init script executable:
# chmod +x /usr/local/bin/arch32
Enable the service as any other systemd service.
==Configure the new system==
=== Configure the chroot ===
Chroot into the new system:
/usr/local/bin/arch32 start
xhost +SI:localuser:usernametogiveaccesstogoeshere
chroot /opt/arch32
It is recommended to use a custom bash prompt inside the 32-bit chroot installation in order to differentiate from the regular system. You can, for example, add a ''ARCH32'' string to the ''PS1'' variable defined in {{ic|~/.bashrc}}.  In fact, the default Debian .bashrc prompt string contains appropriate logic to report whether the working directory is within a chroot.
=== First-time Setup ===
Fix possible locale issues:
Initialize pacman:
sed -i 's/CheckSpace/#CheckSpace/' /etc/pacman.conf
pacman-key --init
pacman-key --populate archlinux
=== Install Needed Packages ===
Install the needed packages including apps, fonts, etc. for example:
pacman -S firefox
pacman -S flashplugin
=== Regain Space (Optional) ===
{{Warning| This cleanup is for the '''32-bit''' root environment and must then be done inside it NOT the native 64-bit environment!}}
The following shows recommended packages for removal:
pacman -Rd linux mkinitcpio dhcpcd ppp xfsprogs reiserfsprogs jfsutils logrotate lvm2 pcmciautils netcfg heirloom-mailx iputils iproute2 man-pages mdadm inetutils man-db cronie vi
Also consider regularly clearing out pacman's cache:
pacman -Scc
== Install and Configure Schroot ==
Install "schroot" to the native '''64-bit''' installation:
pacman -S schroot
Edit {{ic|/etc/schroot/schroot.conf}}, and create an ''[Arch32]'' section.
Optionally edit {{ic|/etc/schroot/arch32/mount}} to match the mounts created within {{ic|/usr/local/bin/arch32}}.
== Using Schroot to run a 32-bit application ==
The general syntax for calling an application ''inside'' the chroot is:
schroot -p -- htop
In this example, htop is called from within the 32-bit environment.
===Compilation and installing===
Ensure the desired options are set in the local {{ic|/etc/makepkg.conf}}.
Some packages may require a {{ic|--host}} flag be added to the ./configure script in the PKBUILD:
./configure --host="i686-pc-linux" ...
This is the case when the build makes use of values (for example, the output of the {{ic|uname}} command) inherited from your base system.
You may need to give users write access to your chroot's /dev/null to stop some scripts from failing:
chmod 666 /dev/null
===Video issues===
If you get:
X Error of failed request: BadLength (poly request too large or internal Xlib length error)
while trying to run an application that requires video acceleration, make sure you have installed appropriate video drivers in your chroot. For example,
pacman -S nvidia
===Sound in flash (youtube, etc.)===
To get sound from the flash player in Firefox, open a terminal and chroot inside the 32-bit system:
chroot /opt/arch32
From there, install alsa-oss:
pacman -S alsa-oss
Then type:
export FIREFOX_DSP="aoss"
Every chroot into the 32-bit system will require this export command to be entered so it may be best to incorporate it into a script.
Finally, launch Firefox.
For [[Wine]] this works the same way. The package alsa-oss will also install the alsa libs required by [[Wine]] to output sound.
==Tips and tricks==
===Java in a chroot===
See [[Java]] for installation instructions.
After installing, adjust the path to get Java working:
export PATH="/opt/java/bin/:$PATH"
Xyne has created a package that installs a minimalist 32-bit chroot as described above. More information can be found [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=97629 on the forum] and [http://xyne.archlinux.ca/projects/arch32-light on the project page].
===Allowing 32-bit applications access to 64-bit Pulseaudio===
Add these lines in {{ic|/usr/local/bin/arch32}}, before the daemon is started:
mount --bind /var/run /opt/arch32/var/run
mount --bind /var/lib/dbus /opt/arch32/var/lib/dbus
And before the daemon is stopped:
umount /opt/arch32/var/run
umount /opt/arch32/var/lib/dbus
More information is available at the [[Pulseaudio]] article, especially the section on [[PulseAudio#Pulseaudio_from_within_a_chroot_.28ex._32-bit_chroot_in_64-bit_install.29|Pulseaudio from within a chroot]].
===Enabling sound in Firefox===
Open a text editor and save the following in {{ic|/usr/bin/firefox32}} as root:
schroot -p firefox $1;export FIREFOX_DSP="aoss"
Make it executable:
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/firefox32
Now you can make an alias for Firefox, if desired:
alias firefox="firefox32"
Add this to the end of file {{ic|~/.bashrc}} and source it to enable its usage. Or you can just change all your desktop environment's launchers to firefox32 if you still want 64-bit Firefox to be available.
===Enabling 3D acceleration===
You need to install the corresponding package under your "native" arch for 3D support.
For information on how to set up your graphic adapter refer to:
* [[ATI]]
* [[Intel]]
* [[NVIDIA]]
===Script for wine===
In order to compile wine, you need a 32-bit system installed. Compiling wine is needed for applying patches in order to get [http://art.ified.ca/?page_id=40 PulseAudio] working. See also [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=19675 wine-hacks] from AUR.
Add the following alias to {{ic|~/.bashrc}}:
alias wine='schroot -pqd "$(pwd)" -- wine'
The {{ic|-q}} switch makes schroot operate in quiet mode, so it works like "regular" wine does. Also note that If you still use dchroot instead of schroot, you should use switch {{ic|-d}} instead of {{ic|-s}}.
For accessing CUPS printers intalled in the base system from the chroot environment, see [[CUPS#Installing_CUPS_a_32_bit_chroot_environment|the applicable section]] of the [[CUPS|Arch CUPS Wiki page]].

Latest revision as of 08:48, 26 November 2017

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