Difference between revisions of "Install from existing Linux"

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[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
 
[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
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[[de:Schnellinstallation von einem bestehenden Linuxsystem]]
 
[[es:Install from Existing Linux]]
 
[[es:Install from Existing Linux]]
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[[fr:Install chroot]]
 
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[[it:Install from Existing Linux]]
 
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[[zh-CN:Install from Existing Linux]]
 
[[zh-CN:Install from Existing Linux]]
 
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[[zh-TW:Install from Existing Linux]]
{{Out of date|Needs to be updated for pacman 4}}
 
This guide is intended to combine and update the three previously existing and highly similar alternative install guides on this wiki.    This guide is intended for anybody who wants to install Arch Linux from any other running Linux -- be it off a LiveCD or a pre-existing install of a different distro.
 
 
==Overview==
 
Arch Linux's [[pacman]] can be configured (-r) to perform operations in any directory you like, using that as the context of "root" while running.
 
 
This is useful for building up new Arch Linux systems from scratch from another distro's LiveCD or existing installation. It is also useful for creating new chroot environments on a "host" system, maintaining a "golden-master" for development & distribution, or other fun topics like [[Diskless_network_boot_NFS_root|rootfs-over-NFS for diskless machines]].
 
  
This guide requires that the existing host system be able to execute the new target Arch Linux architecture programs.  In the case of an x86_64 host, it is possible to use i686-pacman to build a 32-bit chroot environment.  See [[Arch64 Install bundled 32bit system]].  However it is not so easy to build a 64-bit environment when the host only supports running 32-bit programs.
+
This guide is intended for anybody who wants to install Arch Linux from any other running Linux -- be it off a LiveCD or a pre-existing install of a different distro.
  
Throughout this guide, we will refer to partitions as /dev/hdxx or /dev/sdxx.  This refers to whatever dev entry you have on your system for the partition in question.  The convention is:
+
This is useful for:
Drive 1, Partition 1:  /dev/hda1 or /dev/sda1
+
* remotely installing Archlinux (e.g. a (virtual) root server)
Drive 1, Partition 2:  /dev/hda2 or /dev/sda2
+
* creating a new linux distribution or LiveCD based on Archlinux
Drive 2, Partition 1:  /dev/hdb1 or /dev/sdb1
+
* creating an Archlinux chroot environments
etc...
+
* [[Diskless_network_boot_NFS_root|rootfs-over-NFS for diskless machines]]
  
We will refer to it as /dev/sdxx whenever possible, but realize depending on your system it could be /dev/hdxx.
+
This guide requires that the existing host system be able to execute the new target Arch Linux architecture programs.  In the case of an x86_64 host, it is possible to use i686-pacman to build a 32-bit chroot environment.  See [[Arch64 Install bundled 32bit system]].  However it is not so easy to build a 64-bit environment when the host only supports running 32-bit programs.
  
In this article,  
+
{{Note|If you are already using Arch, instead of following this guide, just install {{Pkg|arch-install-scripts}} from the [[Official Repositories|official repositories]] and follow the [[Installation Guide]]}}
;host: refers to the computer which is used to perform the installation.
+
  
;target: refers to the computer where you want to install Arch.  
+
'''This guide provides additional steps to the [[Installation Guide]]. The steps of that guide must still be followed as needed.'''
  
These may be one and the same computer. The host does not need to be an Arch system -- it can be a Debian or Redhat system, for example. The section entitled "Setup the host system" explains how to install pacman on the host. The following section "Setup the target system" explains how to use pacman from the host system to install Arch on the target system. Therefore if the host system is already running Arch, you can skip to "Setup the target system".
+
==Prepare the system==
  
==Setup the host system==
+
Follow the [[Installation Guide]] steps, until you have your partitions, keyboard and internet connection ready.
  
You need to install the Arch Linux package manager, pacman, on your host Linux environment. In addition you will need a list of pacman mirror sites which is used to download data on available packages as well as the packages themselves. If you are already using Arch, skip this step and go to [[Install from Existing Linux#Setup the target system]].
+
==Setup the environment for pacman==
  
===Get the required packages===
+
You need to create an environment where ''pacman'' and the ''arch install scripts'' can run on your current linux distro. (If you choose the Method 1, only pacman is necessary)
  
====Introduction====
+
There are in principle two different methods to prepare that environment: either by '''installing pacman natively''' on your linux distro or by setting up a '''chroot environment'''.
 +
The latter way should in general be considered as easier.
  
You need to get the required packages for your host Linux environment. The examples given here assume you are using an i686 environment. '''If you are running on a 64-bit Linux instead you should replace each occurrence of "i686" with "x86_64".'''
+
Considering the ''chroot'' way one further has two possibilities:
 +
* '''Using chroot as installation environment''': The prepared Archlinux chroot environment will be used temporarily to set up the actual Archlinux installation using the ''arch-install-scripts''. This is a bit more work and takes longer but once you set up the installation system you can quickly install Archlinux systems. '''However''', if you want to set up only a single Archlinux this might be overkill. You are actually setting up the system twice, have a lot more network traffic and especially need a lot more RAM, mostly due to the quite big iso image.
  
All version numbers given here may change. Please check the version numbers the packages are at first and note them down. The version numbers can be found at:
+
* '''Installing Archlinux directly/Direct Bootstrapping''': Thanks to tokland's ''arch-bootstrap'' script this method is effectively a one-liner and very fast. After that one line of code your Archlinux base system is installed to disk. '''However''', when setting up multiple Archlinux the scripts downloads the base packages every time again.
* {{pkg|pacman}}
+
* {{pkg|pacman-mirrorlist}}
+
  
Once you are sure of the version numbers, download the required packages (change the value of ARCH to either x86_64 or i686, see above):
+
As a subjective conclusion, I, personally, would recommend using '''Direct bootstrapping''' as long as you want to set up only a small number of systems. If you set up lots of Archlinux based systems the chroot install environment or event the native pacman installation might suite you better.
  
ARCH=i686
+
===Method 1: Directly bootstrapping Archlinux===
base_chroot=/tmp
+
mkdir ${base_chroot}/archlinux
+
cd ${base_chroot}/archlinux
+
  
====Download the pacman's binaries and shared libraries====
+
This method will install a basic Archlinux system directly onto your previously prepared root file system mounted as {{ic|/mnt}}. This is known as [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bootstrapping#Computing bootstrapping].
 +
It is the recommended and easiest way to install an Archlinux from a foreign distribution.
  
You want to install pacman in order to be able to install software in your new base directory. We first download the binaries for [[pacman]], the Arch package manager.
+
It is also possible to set up a separate chroot environment and run the archlinux installer from there, however in this case the first LiveCD-image method above is easier.
* pacman: https://www.archlinux.org/packages/core/$ARCH/pacman/download/ . Change $ARCH according to your system.
+
* pacman-mirrorlist: https://www.archlinux.org/packages/core/any/pacman-mirrorlist/download/
+
  
==== Using wget to download ====
+
This works best if you are in a LiveCD environment or, in the case of servers, a GNU/Linux-based rescue environment.
wget  https://www.archlinux.org/packages/core/$ARCH/pacman/download/ --no-check-certificate --trust-server-names
+
wget https://www.archlinux.org/packages/core/any/pacman-mirrorlist/download/ --no-check-certificate --trust-server-names
+
  
or this direct way (give attention to the date string in the file name, as it may need changing) :
+
As described in the [[Installation Guide]] we assume your disk which should become your root device is mountet at {{ic|/mnt}}. At first grab ''tokland's'' ''arch-bootstrap'' script, c.f. [[Archbootstrap]],
{{bc|wget http://mirrors.kernel.org/archlinux/core/os/i686/pacman-mirrorlist-20120626-1-any.pkg.tar.xz}}
+
  
See [http://pwet.fr/man/linux/commandes/wget the man page] and the [http://www.gnu.org/software/wget/manual/wget.html official manual] of wget for further details.
+
# cd /tmp
 +
# wget http://tokland.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/archlinux/arch-bootstrap.sh
 +
# chmod +x arch-bootstrap.sh
  
==== Using lftp to download ====
+
This script will bootstrap a basic archlinux system, i.e., it will download the linux kernel, pacman basic tools like bash and all needed dependencies and unpack them to the given directory, in this case {{ic|/mnt}}.
If you have issues with downloading '''pacman-mirrorlist''' use this direct way with lftp :
+
{{bc|1=link_name=http://mirrors.kernel.org/archlinux/core/os/i686/
+
lftp -e "mget pacman-mirrorlist-*.tar.xz" "${link_name}"}}
+
  
==== Additional libraries====
+
{{Note|For an alternative, however, not so sophisticated script check out the  [[#Appendix: Alternative Bootstrapping script|appendix]] of this article}}
You may need additional libraries to make pacman work, for newer distributions:
+
  
  for software_name in libarchive openssl xz expat ; do wget https://www.archlinux.org/packages/core/$ARCH/${software_name}/download/ --trust-server-names ; done
+
If you are wanting to install a 32-bit system:
 +
  # ./arch-bootstrap.sh -a i686 -r "ftp://ftp.hosteurope.de/mirror/ftp.archlinux.org" /mnt/
 +
Or a 64-bit system:
 +
# ./arch-bootstrap.sh -a x86_64 -r "ftp://ftp.hosteurope.de/mirror/ftp.archlinux.org" /mnt/
  
When using an older distribution to bootstrap, a few more libraries may be needed for it to work, for example :
+
The bootstrapping will take 2-5 minutes depending on the speed of your system.
{{bc|for software_name in glibc gcc-libs binutils libssh2 curl gcc libarchive openssl xz expat ; do wget https://www.archlinux.org/packages/core/$ARCH/${software_name}/download/ --trust-server-names ; done}}
+
Also note that below when you set LD_LIBRARY_PATH you have to add /lib and /lib64:
+
{{bc|1=export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=${base_chroot}/archlinux/usr/lib:${base_chroot}/archlinux/lib:${base_chroot}/archlinux/usr/lib64:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH}}
+
  
Unpack all needed packages:
+
If your LiveCD's architecture is not the same as the one of the newly bootstrapped system you might have to change the architecture in {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}.
for f in *.pkg.tar*; do tar xvf $f; done
+
  
To prepare for using pacman, do not forget to edit {{Ic|/tmp/archlinux/etc/pacman.conf}} to point to {{Ic|/tmp/archlinux/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}} and select your favorite mirror. For easier use (assuming you are using {{Ic|bash}} or {{Ic|zsh}}), you may set up an environment:
+
If your bootstrapped system is 32-bit system:
  export PATH=${base_chroot}/archlinux/usr/bin:$PATH
+
  Architecture = i686
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=${base_chroot}/archlinux/usr/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH
+
Or for a 64-bit system:
  alias pacman="pacman --config ${base_chroot}/archlinux/etc/pacman.conf"
+
  Architecture = x86_64
  
====Install pacman on the host system====
+
Before chrooting into the newly created system we need to set up some mount points.
{{Note|('''Issues while running pacman on 64-bit host''') If while running pacman you end up with {{ic|/tmp/archlinux/usr/bin/pacman: No such file or directory}} please symlink ld-linux-x86-64.so.2: {{ic|ln -s /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 /lib/}}}}
+
This is essential for the installation of a bootloader later on, c.f. [[Change Root]].
 +
# mount -t proc none /mnt/proc
 +
# mount -t sysfs none /mnt/sys
 +
# mount -o bind /dev /mnt/dev
 +
# mount -o bind /dev/pts /mnt/dev/pts # important for pacman (for signature check)
  
 +
Now everything is prepared to chroot into your newly installed Arch environment
 +
# chroot /mnt bash
  
If you do not mind littering your install host, you can extract all the downloaded tar balls into your root directory by running as root:
+
Before you can use ''pacman'' you have to initialize its keyring as explained below, in [[#Fix the Pacman Signature Keyring]].
{{Note|However, keep in mind that this operation could erase some of your files, and break your system.}}
+
cd /
+
for f in /tmp/archlinux/pacman-*pkg.tar.gz ; do
+
  tar xzf $f
+
done
+
  
<ol>
+
From here on proceed with [[Installation Guide#Install the base system]], '''but''' remember, you are already working in your final system, thus no need for {{ic|pacstrap}}, simply use {{ic|pacman}}. So the next command you are most likely to execute will be
<li><div>If installing from Ubuntu 9.10's LiveCD (perhaps other versions), you will need more than just the pacman files (shared libs) to use pacman at all. Use Lucky's script described in [[https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=759166 this thread]] to get/install them for you!
+
  
</div></li>
+
  # pacman -S base # and evtl. also base-devel
<li><div>Alternatively, you can instead turn these tarballs into packages for your distribution with the [http://kitenet.net/~joey/code/alien/ alien] tool. See the man page of the tool for instructions. The packages created that way may be installed into your host distribution using the usual package management tools available there. This approach offers the best integration into the host Linux environment. For a Debian package based system this is done with the following commands:
+
cd /tmp/archlinux
+
alien -d pacman-*-i686.pkg.tar.xz
+
alien -d pacman-mirrorlist-20120626-1-any.pkg.tar.xz
+
  
RPM based systems will need to replace the parameter "-d" with "-r".
+
''Credit goes to [https://github.com/tokland Arnau Sanchez] alias tokland, the author of the arch-bootstrap script.''
  
These distribution packages can then get installed using the normal package management tools of the host Linux environment.
+
===Method 2: Chroot into LiveCD-image===
</div></li>
+
<li><div>
+
Under Fedora 12, I was not able to install pacman with any of the other methods, but with the nice script at https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=734336#p734336 it will download and install it for you. Worked wonderfully for me.
+
</div></li>
+
<li><div>On [http://gentoo.org/ Gentoo]: Just unmask pacman by adding {{Ic|sys-apps/pacman}} to {{Ic|/etc/portage/package.keywords}}. Now just run {{Ic|emerge -av pacman}}.
+
There is also a [http://ohnopub.net/~ohnobinki/gentoo/arch/ more detailed tutorial].
+
</div></li>
+
</ol>
+
  
===Configure the host system===
+
It is possible to mount the root image of the latest Archlinux installation media and then chroot into it. This method has the advantage of providing you with a working Arch Linux installation right within your host system without the need to prepare it by installing specific packages.
  
The main goal of this operation is to make a proper configuration to pacman.
+
{{Note|Before proceeding, make sure the latest version of {{Pkg|squashfs-tools}} is installed on the host system. Otherwise you will get errors like: {{ic|FATAL ERROR aborting: uncompress_inode_table: failed to read block}}.}}
  
Configure your /etc/pacman.conf to your liking, and remove unnecessary mirrors from /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist. Also, enabling at least a few mirrors might become necessary, as you may experience errors during syncing if you have no mirror set. You may want to manually resolve DNS in the /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist, because pacman for i686 may not be able to get address information on x86_64 systems.
+
* Download the lastest installation CD image from https://www.archlinux.org/download/
+
If you are installing from a LiveCD, and you have a system with a low amount of combined RAM and swap (< 1 GB), be sure to set the cachedir in /etc/pacman.conf to be in the new Arch partition (e.g. {{ic|/newarch/var/cache/pacman/pkg}}).  Otherwise you could exhaust memory between the overhead of the existing distro and downloading necessary packages to install.
+
  
==Setup the target system==
+
* Mount the Live CD image:
 +
{{bc|# mount -o loop archlinux-{date}-dual.iso /mnt}}
  
===Prepare a partition for Arch===
+
* The root image exists in [[Wikipedia:Squashfs|squashfs format]] on the Live CD. The squashfs format is not editable as such. Hence, we unsquash the root image and then mount it.
  
You do not ''have to'' install Arch on a separate partition. You could instead build up a root filesystem in a normal directory, and then create a master tarball from it, or transfer it across the network.
+
To unsquash the x86_64 (or i686 respectively) root image, run
 +
{{bc|# unsquashfs -d /squashfs-root /mnt/arch/x86_64/root-image.fs.sfs}}
  
However, most users will want to be installing Arch onto its own partition.
+
* Now you can unmount and remove the iso image
 +
{{bc|
 +
# umount /mnt
 +
# rm archlinux-{date}-dual.iso
 +
}}
  
Prepare any partitions and filesystems you need for your installation. If your host system has any GUI tools for this, such as gparted, cfdisk, or Mandrake's diskdrake, feel free to use them.
+
* Now you can loop mount the root image
+
{{bc|# mount -o loop /squashfs-root/root-image.fs /arch}}
To format a partition as ext4, you run (where /dev/sdxx is the partition you want to setup):
+
mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdxx
+
To format it as ext3 with journaling and dir_index:
+
mkfs.ext4 -j -O dir_index /dev/sdxx
+
To format it as reiserfs:
+
mkreiserfs /dev/sdxx
+
To format a partition as swap, and to start using it:
+
mkswap /dev/sdxx
+
swapon /dev/sdxx
+
  
Most other filesystems can be setup with their own mkfs variant, take a look using tab completion. Available filesystems depend entirely on your host system.  
+
* Before [[Change Root|chrooting]] to it, we need to set up some mount points.
+
{{bc|
Once you have your filesystems setup, mount them. Throughout this guide, we will refer to the new Arch root directory as /newarch, however you can put it wherever you like.
+
# mount -t proc none /arch/proc
new_arch=/newarch
+
# mount -t sysfs none /arch/sys
mkdir ${new_arch}
+
# mount -o bind /dev /arch/dev
mount /dev/sdxx ${new_arch}
+
# mount -o bind /dev/pts /arch/dev/pts # important for pacman (for signature check)
 +
}}
  
===Install the core===
+
* Now everything is prepared to chroot into your newly installed Arch environment
 +
{{bc|# chroot /arch bash}}
  
Update pacman. You may have to create the {{ic|/newarch/var/lib/pacman}} folder for it to work (see "Setup the host system" above):
+
This chroot is able to execute the arch install scripts. The destination partitions should be mounted under the {{ic|/mnt}} directory from this chroot.
mkdir -p ${new_arch}/var/lib/pacman
+
pacman -Sy -r ${new_arch}
+
  
Install the 'base' group of packages:
+
===Method 3: Bootstrapping the arch installation scripts===
mkdir -p ${new_arch}/var/cache/pacman/pkg
+
pacman  -Su base --cachedir ${new_arch}/var/cache/pacman/pkg -r ${new_arch}
+
  
===Prepare /dev nodes===
+
Contrary to the other methods, '''this method is one-step only'''; you only have to execute the script below and thats it.
  
First, ensure the correct {{ic|/dev}} nodes have been made for [[udev]]:
+
This method can be considered an hybrid between Method 1 and Method 2. It provides a chroot enviroment from where to execute the arch install scripts (similar to Method 2), by using a bootstrapping script (similar to Method 1).
ls -alF ${new_arch}/dev
+
  
This result in a list containing lines similar to the following (the dates will differ for you):
+
The script below is going to create a directory called {{ic|archinstall-pkg}} and download the required packages there. Then, is going to extract them into the {{ic|archinstall-chroot}} directory. Finally, is going to prepare mount points, configure pacman and enter into a chroot.
crw-------  1 root root 5, 1 2008-12-27 21:40 console
+
crw-rw-rw-  1 root root 1, 3 2008-12-27 21:42 null
+
crw-rw-rw-  1 root root 1, 5 2008-12-27 21:40 zero
+
  
Delete and recreate any device which has a different set of permissions (the crw-... stuff plus the two root entries) and major/minor numbers (the two before the date).
+
This chroot is able to execute the arch install scripts. The destination partitions should be mounted under the {{ic|/mnt}} directory from this chroot.
  
cd ${new_arch}/dev
+
{{hc|archinstall-bootstrap.sh|<nowiki>
rm -f console ; mknod -m 600 console c 5 1
+
#!/bin/bash
rm -f null ; mknod -m 666 null c 1 3
+
# This script is inspired on the archbootstrap script.
rm -f zero ; mknod -m 666 zero c 1 5
+
  
All device nodes should have been created for you already with the right permissions and you should not need to recreate any of them.
+
PACKAGES=(acl attr bzip2 curl expat glibc gpgme libarchive libassuan libgpg-error libssh2 openssl pacman xz zlib pacman-mirrorlist coreutils bash grep gawk file tar ncurses readline libcap util-linux pcre arch-install-scripts)
 +
# Change the mirror as necessary
 +
MIRROR='http://mirrors.kernel.org/archlinux'
 +
# You can set the ARCH variable to i686 or x86_64
 +
ARCH=`uname -m`
 +
LIST=`mktemp`
 +
CHROOT_DIR=archinstall-chroot
 +
DIR=archinstall-pkg
 +
mkdir -p "$DIR"
 +
mkdir -p "$CHROOT_DIR"
 +
# Create a list with urls for the arch packages
 +
for REPO in core community extra; do 
 +
        wget -q -O- "$MIRROR/$REPO/os/$ARCH/" |sed  -n "s|.*href=\"\\([^\"]*\\).*|$MIRROR\\/$REPO\\/os\\/$ARCH\\/\\1|p"|grep -v 'sig$'|uniq >> $LIST 
 +
done
 +
# Download and extract each package.
 +
for PACKAGE in ${PACKAGES[*]}; do
 +
        URL=`grep "$PACKAGE-[0-9]" $LIST|head -n1`
 +
        FILE=`echo $URL|sed 's/.*\/\([^\/][^\/]*\)$/\1/'`
 +
        wget "$URL" -c -O "$DIR/$FILE"
 +
        xz -dc "$DIR/$FILE" | tar x -k -C "$CHROOT_DIR"
 +
done
 +
# Create mount points
 +
mkdir -p "$CHROOT_DIR/dev" "$CHROOT_DIR/proc" "$CHROOT_DIR/sys" "$CHROOT_DIR/mnt"
 +
mount -t proc proc "$CHROOT_DIR/proc/"
 +
mount -t sysfs sys "$CHROOT_DIR/sys/"
 +
mount -o bind /dev "$CHROOT_DIR/dev/"
 +
mkdir -p "$CHROOT_DIR/dev/pts"
 +
mount -t devpts pts "$CHROOT_DIR/dev/pts/"
  
===Chroot===
+
# Hash for empty password  Created by doing: openssl passwd -1 -salt ihlrowCo and entering an empty password (just press enter)
Now we will [[Change Root|chroot into the new Arch system]].
+
echo 'root:$1$ihlrowCo$sF0HjA9E8up9DYs258uDQ0:10063:0:99999:7:::' > "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/shadow"
 +
echo "root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash" > "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/passwd"
 +
touch "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/group"
 +
echo "myhost" > "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/hostname"
 +
test -e "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/mtab" || echo "rootfs / rootfs rw 0 0" > "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/mtab"
 +
[ -f "/etc/resolv.conf" ] && cp "/etc/resolv.conf" "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/"
 +
sed -ni '/^[ \t]*CheckSpace/ !p' "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/pacman.conf"
 +
sed -i "s/^[ \t]*SigLevel[ \t].*/SigLevel = Never/" "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/pacman.conf"
 +
echo "Server = $MIRROR/\$repo/os/$ARCH" >> "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist"
  
In order for DNS to work properly you need to edit {{ic|${new_arch}/etc/resolv.conf}} or replace it with the resolv.conf from your running distribution
+
chroot $CHROOT_DIR /usr/bin/pacman -Sy
cp /etc/resolv.conf ${new_arch}/etc/
+
chroot $CHROOT_DIR /bin/bash
 +
</nowiki>}}
  
Also, you need to copy a correctly setup mirrorlist into the new system:
+
===Method 4: Install pacman natively on non-arch distro (advanced)===
cp /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist ${new_arch}/etc/pacman.d
+
{{Warning|This method is potentially difficult, your mileage may vary from distro to distro. If you just want to do an arch installation from another distro and you are not interested in have pacman as a regular program under such distro, is better to use a different method.}}
  
Finally edit the pacman configuration file {{ic|${new_arch}/etc/pacman.conf}} setting "Architecture" so that it matches the one of the target system.
+
This method is about installing pacman and the arch install scripts directly under another distro, so they become regular programs on that distro.
The default of "auto" might fail if it is different from the host system.
+
  
Architecture = i686 or x86_64
+
This is really useful if you are planning to use another distro regularly to install arch linux, or do fancy things like updating packages of an arch installation using another distro. This is the only method that not imply creating a chroot to be able to execute pacman and the arch install scripts. (but since part of the installation includes entering inside a chroot, you'll end using a chroot anyway)
  
Mount various filesystems into the new Arch system:  
+
==== Download pacman source code and pacman packages ====
mount -t proc proc ${new_arch}/proc
+
Visit the pacman homepage: https://www.archlinux.org/pacman/#_releases and download the latest release.
mount -t sysfs sys ${new_arch}/sys
+
mount -o bind /dev ${new_arch}/dev
+
mount -t devpts pts ${new_arch}/dev/pts
+
  
If you have a separate {{ic|/boot}} partition, you will probably need to mount that too. See [[Change Root]] for more details.
+
Now, download the following packages:
  
{{Warning|If you have a separate {{ic|/boot}} partition and plan on using grub2, make sure to mount {{ic|/boot}} after chrooting. If you mount the {{ic|/boot}} partition before the chroot, grub2 will assume that {{ic|/boot}} and root are on the same partition and will not update correctly. }}
+
* pacman-mirrorlist: https://www.archlinux.org/packages/core/any/pacman-mirrorlist/download/
 +
* arch-install-scripts: https://www.archlinux.org/packages/extra/any/arch-install-scripts/download/
 +
* pacman (necessary for the config files): https://www.archlinux.org/packages/core/x86_64/pacman/download/ (change x86_64 as necessary)
  
When everything is prepared, chroot into the new filesystem:
+
==== Install dependencies ====
 +
Using your distribution mechanisms, install the required packages for pacman and the arch install scripts. libcurl, libarchive, fakeroot, xz, asciidoc, wget, and sed are among them. Of course, gcc, make and maybe some other "devel" packages are necessary too.
  
chroot ${new_arch} /bin/bash
+
==== Compile pacman ====
  
Then setup [[pacman-key]] and verify the Master keys:
+
* Decompress the pacman source code and cd inside.
pacman-key --init ; pacman-key --populate archlinux
+
* Execute configure, adapting the paths as necessary: {{bc|<nowiki> ./configure --prefix=/usr --sysconfdir=/etc --localstatedir=/var --enable-doc</nowiki>}}
 +
If you get errors here, chances are you are missing dependencies, or your current libcurl, libarchive or others, are too old. Install the dependencies missing using your distro options, or if they are too old, compile them from source.
 +
* Compile {{bc|make}}
 +
* If there were no errors, install the files {{bc|make install}}
 +
* You may need to manually call {{ic|ldconfig}} to make your distro detect libalpm.
 +
==== Prepare configuration files ====
 +
Now is time to extract the configuration files. Change the x86_64 as necessary.
 +
* Extract the pacman.conf and makepkg.conf files from the pacman package, and disable signature checking: {{bc|<nowiki>tar xJvf pacman-*-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz etc -C / ; sed -i 's/SigLevel.*/SigLevel = Never/g' /etc/pacman.conf</nowiki>}}
 +
* Extract the mirror list: {{bc|tar xJvf pacman-mirrorlist-*-any.pkg.tar.xz -C /}}
 +
* Enable some mirrors on {{ic|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}}
 +
* Extract the arch-install-scripts {{bc|tar xJvf arch-install-scripts-*-any.pkg.tar.xz -C /}}
  
===Install the rest===
+
Another option is using the {{ic|alien}} tool to convert the {{ic|pacman-mirrorlist}} and {{ic|arch-install-scripts}} (but no {{ic|pacman}}) to native packages of your distro.
Install your preferred kernel, and any other packages you may wish to install.
+
For the default kernel (which is already installed!):
+
pacman -S --needed linux
+
  
If you wish to install extra packages now, you may do so with:
 
pacman -S packagename
 
  
===Configure the target system===
+
==Fix the Pacman Signature Keyring==
Edit your {{ic|/etc/fstab}}, remembering to add /, swap and any other partitions you may wish to use. Be sure to use the /dev/sd* (sda1, sda2, sdb1, etc) for the partitions instead of /dev/hd*, as Arch uses the sdxx convention for all drives.
+
+
Edit your {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}, {{ic|/etc/hosts}} and {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} to your needs. If you are installing Arch Linux to a USB flash drive, don't forget to add the {{ic|usb}} hook to {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}}. Then, rebuild the initcpio image:
+
mkinitcpio -p linux
+
  
Edit {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}, uncommenting any locales you wish to have available, and build the locales:
+
It is necessary to initialize ''pacman's'' keyring for signature checking.
locale-gen
+
  
===Setup Grub===
+
This is done using
To use [[GRUB]] when chrooted, you need to ensure that {{ic|/etc/mtab}} is up-to-date:
+
  # pacman-key --init # read the note below!
  diff /etc/mtab /proc/mounts
+
  # pacman-key --populate archlinux
If you get any output from the previous command, run:
+
  grep -v rootfs /proc/mounts > /etc/mtab 
+
  
You can now run:  
+
'''However''', when connected via SSH you might run out of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy_(computing) entropy]. In this case you can try something like
grub-install /dev/sdx
+
  
If grub-install fails, you can manually install:
+
  # cat /usr/bin/* > /dev/null &
  grub
+
  # find / > /dev/null &
grub> find /boot/grub/stage1    (You should see some results here if you have done everything right so far.  If not, back up and retrace your steps.)
+
grub> root (hd0,X)    (Note that Grub 1 and Grub 2 differ in how they each handle partition numbering. See the GRUB articles for info.)
+
  grub> setup (hd0)
+
grub> quit
+
  
Double-check your {{ic|/boot/grub/menu.lst}}. Depending on the host, it could need correcting from hda to sda, and a prefix of /boot as well in the paths.  
+
before executing {{ic|pacman-key --init}}.
  
====Manual recovery of GRUB libs ====
+
It might take some time. If nevertheless all this does help install {{Pkg|haveged}} and run prior to {{ic|pacman-key --init}}
 +
# /usr/sbin/haveged -w 1024 -v 1
  
The {{ic|*stage*}} files are expected to be in {{ic|/boot/grub}}, which may not be the case if the bootloader was not installed during system installation or if the partition/filesystem was damaged, accidentally deleted, etc. 
 
  
Manually copy the grub libs like so:
+
==Setup the target system==
# cp -a /usr/lib/grub/i386-pc/* /boot/grub
+
 
+
{{Note|Do not forget to mount the system's boot partition if your setup uses a separate one!  The above assumes that either the boot partition resides on the root filesystem or is mounted to /boot on the root file system!}}
+
 
+
Detailed instructions for [[GRUB]], [[GRUB2]], [[LILO]], [[Burg]] and [[Syslinux]] are available; see also [[:Category:Boot loaders]].
+
 
+
===Finishing touches===
+
See [[Beginners_Guide#Configure_the_system|Beginners Guide:Configure the system]]. You can ignore 2.11, but the rest of that guide should be of use to you in post-installation configuration of your system.
+
+
[[Change_Root#Cleaning_up|Exit your chroot]]:
+
exit
+
umount ${new_arch}/boot  # if you mounted this or any other separate partitions
+
umount ${new_arch}/{proc,sys,dev}
+
umount ${new_arch}
+
 
+
Reboot to your new Arch system!
+
 
+
== An alternate, simpler installation method ==
+
 
+
This method is verified to be working as of 1-4-12.
+
This works best if you are in a LiveCD environment (or, in the case of servers, a GNU/Linux-based rescue environment). Firstly, you need to mount the disk you want to use for the Archlinux installation at /mnt. In this example, /dev/sda1 is used.
+
mnt /dev/sda1 /mnt
+
cd ~
+
wget http://tokland.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/archlinux/arch-bootstrap.sh && chmod +x arch-bootstrap.sh
+
 
+
If you are wanting to install a 32-bit system:
+
./arch-bootstrap.sh -a i686 -r "ftp://ftp.hosteurope.de/mirror/ftp.archlinux.org" /mnt/
+
Or a 64-bit system:
+
./arch-bootstrap.sh -a x86_64 -r "ftp://ftp.hosteurope.de/mirror/ftp.archlinux.org" /mnt/
+
 
+
The bootstrapping will take 2-5 minutes depending on the speed of your system.
+
 
+
mount -t proc none /mnt/proc
+
mount -t sysfs none /mnt/sys
+
mount -o bind /dev /mnt/dev
+
 
+
Mounting these is essential for the installation of a bootloader later on.
+
 
+
If you have switched between architectures, ''pacman'' auto-detection might not work, in this case you need to edit /etc/pacman.conf to:
+
 
+
From 64-bit to a 32-bit system:
+
Architecture = i686
+
Or from 32-bit to a 64-bit system:
+
Architecture = x86_64
+
 
+
Now for the fun part, chroot into your newly installed Arch installation:
+
chroot /mnt bash
+
pacman -Sy base
+
mkinitcpio -p linux
+
 
+
Choose a bootloader. You can find the installation instructions on their own dedicated pages. ([[Syslinux]], [[Grub]], [[Grub2]], etc.).
+
 
+
'''Remember:''' You will still need to do any final configuration touches as you would in a normal Arch install.
+
 
+
''Credits to the Turkish site [http://raptiye.org/blog/2011/3/27/hetznerde-arch-linux-kurulumu/ Raptiye] for the original guide.''
+
  
==Troubleshooting==
+
At this point, follow the normal steps of [[Installation Guide]]. Remember to mount the destination partition under the {{ic|/mnt}} of the chroot.
  
===Root device '/dev/sd??' doesn't exist===
+
# pacstrap /mnt base base-devel
If when you reboot into your new system you get a error messages like this:
+
  # # ...
  Root device '/dev/sda1' doesn't exist, attempting to create it... etc.  
+
  
This means the drives are showing up as "hda1" instead of "sda1" In which case change your GRUB or LILO settings to use "hd??" or try the following.
+
===Edit the fstab file===
+
Edit /etc/mkinitcpio.conf and change "ide" to "pata" in the "HOOKS=" line. Then regenerate your initrd. (Make sure you have chroot'ed into the new system first.)
+
mkinitcpio -p linux
+
  
If you are using LVM make sure you add "lvm2" in the HOOKS line. Regenerate your initrd as above.
+
Probably the {{ic|genfstab}} script won't work. In that case, you'll need to edit the {{ic|/mnt/etc/fstab}} file by hand.
 +
You can use the content of {{ic|/etc/mtab}} as reference.
  
If you are installing to a device that needs PATA hook make sure it is located before autodetect hook in mkinitcpio.conf.
+
===Finish the Installation===
 +
Now just do the rest of the steps normally.
  
If your root partition is on an USB device, you have to add “usb” into your “HOOKS=” line before anything else, even “base”.
+
==Tips and tricks==
<!-- vim: set ft=Wikipedia: -->
+
* In case you want to replace an existing system, but can for some reason not use a LiveCD, since, e.g., you have no physical access to the computer, the following tip might help: If you manage to get ~500MB of free space somewhere on the disk (e.g. by partitioning a swap partition) you can install the new Archlinux system there, reboot into the newly created system and [[Full_System_Backup_with_rsync#With_a_single_command|rsync the entire system]] to the primary partition. Finally don't forget to fix the bootloader configuration before rebooting.

Revision as of 11:35, 6 January 2013


This guide is intended for anybody who wants to install Arch Linux from any other running Linux -- be it off a LiveCD or a pre-existing install of a different distro.

This is useful for:

  • remotely installing Archlinux (e.g. a (virtual) root server)
  • creating a new linux distribution or LiveCD based on Archlinux
  • creating an Archlinux chroot environments
  • rootfs-over-NFS for diskless machines

This guide requires that the existing host system be able to execute the new target Arch Linux architecture programs. In the case of an x86_64 host, it is possible to use i686-pacman to build a 32-bit chroot environment. See Arch64 Install bundled 32bit system. However it is not so easy to build a 64-bit environment when the host only supports running 32-bit programs.

Note: If you are already using Arch, instead of following this guide, just install arch-install-scripts from the official repositories and follow the Installation Guide

This guide provides additional steps to the Installation Guide. The steps of that guide must still be followed as needed.

Prepare the system

Follow the Installation Guide steps, until you have your partitions, keyboard and internet connection ready.

Setup the environment for pacman

You need to create an environment where pacman and the arch install scripts can run on your current linux distro. (If you choose the Method 1, only pacman is necessary)

There are in principle two different methods to prepare that environment: either by installing pacman natively on your linux distro or by setting up a chroot environment. The latter way should in general be considered as easier.

Considering the chroot way one further has two possibilities:

  • Using chroot as installation environment: The prepared Archlinux chroot environment will be used temporarily to set up the actual Archlinux installation using the arch-install-scripts. This is a bit more work and takes longer but once you set up the installation system you can quickly install Archlinux systems. However, if you want to set up only a single Archlinux this might be overkill. You are actually setting up the system twice, have a lot more network traffic and especially need a lot more RAM, mostly due to the quite big iso image.
  • Installing Archlinux directly/Direct Bootstrapping: Thanks to tokland's arch-bootstrap script this method is effectively a one-liner and very fast. After that one line of code your Archlinux base system is installed to disk. However, when setting up multiple Archlinux the scripts downloads the base packages every time again.

As a subjective conclusion, I, personally, would recommend using Direct bootstrapping as long as you want to set up only a small number of systems. If you set up lots of Archlinux based systems the chroot install environment or event the native pacman installation might suite you better.

Method 1: Directly bootstrapping Archlinux

This method will install a basic Archlinux system directly onto your previously prepared root file system mounted as /mnt. This is known as bootstrapping. It is the recommended and easiest way to install an Archlinux from a foreign distribution.

It is also possible to set up a separate chroot environment and run the archlinux installer from there, however in this case the first LiveCD-image method above is easier.

This works best if you are in a LiveCD environment or, in the case of servers, a GNU/Linux-based rescue environment.

As described in the Installation Guide we assume your disk which should become your root device is mountet at /mnt. At first grab tokland's arch-bootstrap script, c.f. Archbootstrap,

# cd /tmp
# wget http://tokland.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/archlinux/arch-bootstrap.sh
# chmod +x arch-bootstrap.sh

This script will bootstrap a basic archlinux system, i.e., it will download the linux kernel, pacman basic tools like bash and all needed dependencies and unpack them to the given directory, in this case /mnt.

Note: For an alternative, however, not so sophisticated script check out the appendix of this article

If you are wanting to install a 32-bit system:

# ./arch-bootstrap.sh -a i686 -r "ftp://ftp.hosteurope.de/mirror/ftp.archlinux.org" /mnt/

Or a 64-bit system:

# ./arch-bootstrap.sh -a x86_64 -r "ftp://ftp.hosteurope.de/mirror/ftp.archlinux.org" /mnt/

The bootstrapping will take 2-5 minutes depending on the speed of your system.

If your LiveCD's architecture is not the same as the one of the newly bootstrapped system you might have to change the architecture in /etc/pacman.conf.

If your bootstrapped system is 32-bit system:

Architecture = i686

Or for a 64-bit system:

Architecture = x86_64

Before chrooting into the newly created system we need to set up some mount points. This is essential for the installation of a bootloader later on, c.f. Change Root.

# mount -t proc none /mnt/proc
# mount -t sysfs none /mnt/sys
# mount -o bind /dev /mnt/dev
# mount -o bind /dev/pts /mnt/dev/pts # important for pacman (for signature check)

Now everything is prepared to chroot into your newly installed Arch environment

# chroot /mnt bash

Before you can use pacman you have to initialize its keyring as explained below, in #Fix the Pacman Signature Keyring.

From here on proceed with Installation Guide#Install the base system, but remember, you are already working in your final system, thus no need for pacstrap, simply use pacman. So the next command you are most likely to execute will be

 # pacman -S base # and evtl. also base-devel

Credit goes to Arnau Sanchez alias tokland, the author of the arch-bootstrap script.

Method 2: Chroot into LiveCD-image

It is possible to mount the root image of the latest Archlinux installation media and then chroot into it. This method has the advantage of providing you with a working Arch Linux installation right within your host system without the need to prepare it by installing specific packages.

Note: Before proceeding, make sure the latest version of squashfs-tools is installed on the host system. Otherwise you will get errors like: FATAL ERROR aborting: uncompress_inode_table: failed to read block.
  • Mount the Live CD image:
# mount -o loop archlinux-{date}-dual.iso /mnt
  • The root image exists in squashfs format on the Live CD. The squashfs format is not editable as such. Hence, we unsquash the root image and then mount it.

To unsquash the x86_64 (or i686 respectively) root image, run

# unsquashfs -d /squashfs-root /mnt/arch/x86_64/root-image.fs.sfs
  • Now you can unmount and remove the iso image
# umount /mnt
# rm archlinux-{date}-dual.iso
  • Now you can loop mount the root image
# mount -o loop /squashfs-root/root-image.fs /arch
  • Before chrooting to it, we need to set up some mount points.
# mount -t proc none /arch/proc
# mount -t sysfs none /arch/sys
# mount -o bind /dev /arch/dev
# mount -o bind /dev/pts /arch/dev/pts # important for pacman (for signature check)
  • Now everything is prepared to chroot into your newly installed Arch environment
# chroot /arch bash

This chroot is able to execute the arch install scripts. The destination partitions should be mounted under the /mnt directory from this chroot.

Method 3: Bootstrapping the arch installation scripts

Contrary to the other methods, this method is one-step only; you only have to execute the script below and thats it.

This method can be considered an hybrid between Method 1 and Method 2. It provides a chroot enviroment from where to execute the arch install scripts (similar to Method 2), by using a bootstrapping script (similar to Method 1).

The script below is going to create a directory called archinstall-pkg and download the required packages there. Then, is going to extract them into the archinstall-chroot directory. Finally, is going to prepare mount points, configure pacman and enter into a chroot.

This chroot is able to execute the arch install scripts. The destination partitions should be mounted under the /mnt directory from this chroot.

archinstall-bootstrap.sh
#!/bin/bash
# This script is inspired on the archbootstrap script.

PACKAGES=(acl attr bzip2 curl expat glibc gpgme libarchive libassuan libgpg-error libssh2 openssl pacman xz zlib pacman-mirrorlist coreutils bash grep gawk file tar ncurses readline libcap util-linux pcre arch-install-scripts)
# Change the mirror as necessary
MIRROR='http://mirrors.kernel.org/archlinux' 
# You can set the ARCH variable to i686 or x86_64
ARCH=`uname -m`
LIST=`mktemp`
CHROOT_DIR=archinstall-chroot
DIR=archinstall-pkg
mkdir -p "$DIR"
mkdir -p "$CHROOT_DIR"
# Create a list with urls for the arch packages
for REPO in core community extra; do  
        wget -q -O- "$MIRROR/$REPO/os/$ARCH/" |sed  -n "s|.*href=\"\\([^\"]*\\).*|$MIRROR\\/$REPO\\/os\\/$ARCH\\/\\1|p"|grep -v 'sig$'|uniq >> $LIST  
done
# Download and extract each package.
for PACKAGE in ${PACKAGES[*]}; do
        URL=`grep "$PACKAGE-[0-9]" $LIST|head -n1`
        FILE=`echo $URL|sed 's/.*\/\([^\/][^\/]*\)$/\1/'`
        wget "$URL" -c -O "$DIR/$FILE" 
        xz -dc "$DIR/$FILE" | tar x -k -C "$CHROOT_DIR"
done
# Create mount points
mkdir -p "$CHROOT_DIR/dev" "$CHROOT_DIR/proc" "$CHROOT_DIR/sys" "$CHROOT_DIR/mnt"
mount -t proc proc "$CHROOT_DIR/proc/"
mount -t sysfs sys "$CHROOT_DIR/sys/"
mount -o bind /dev "$CHROOT_DIR/dev/"
mkdir -p "$CHROOT_DIR/dev/pts"
mount -t devpts pts "$CHROOT_DIR/dev/pts/"

# Hash for empty password  Created by doing: openssl passwd -1 -salt ihlrowCo and entering an empty password (just press enter)
echo 'root:$1$ihlrowCo$sF0HjA9E8up9DYs258uDQ0:10063:0:99999:7:::' > "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/shadow"
echo "root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash" > "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/passwd" 
touch "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/group"
echo "myhost" > "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/hostname"
test -e "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/mtab" || echo "rootfs / rootfs rw 0 0" > "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/mtab"
[ -f "/etc/resolv.conf" ] && cp "/etc/resolv.conf" "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/"
sed -ni '/^[ \t]*CheckSpace/ !p' "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/pacman.conf"
sed -i "s/^[ \t]*SigLevel[ \t].*/SigLevel = Never/" "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/pacman.conf"
echo "Server = $MIRROR/\$repo/os/$ARCH" >> "$CHROOT_DIR/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist"

chroot $CHROOT_DIR /usr/bin/pacman -Sy 
chroot $CHROOT_DIR /bin/bash

Method 4: Install pacman natively on non-arch distro (advanced)

Warning: This method is potentially difficult, your mileage may vary from distro to distro. If you just want to do an arch installation from another distro and you are not interested in have pacman as a regular program under such distro, is better to use a different method.

This method is about installing pacman and the arch install scripts directly under another distro, so they become regular programs on that distro.

This is really useful if you are planning to use another distro regularly to install arch linux, or do fancy things like updating packages of an arch installation using another distro. This is the only method that not imply creating a chroot to be able to execute pacman and the arch install scripts. (but since part of the installation includes entering inside a chroot, you'll end using a chroot anyway)

Download pacman source code and pacman packages

Visit the pacman homepage: https://www.archlinux.org/pacman/#_releases and download the latest release.

Now, download the following packages:

Install dependencies

Using your distribution mechanisms, install the required packages for pacman and the arch install scripts. libcurl, libarchive, fakeroot, xz, asciidoc, wget, and sed are among them. Of course, gcc, make and maybe some other "devel" packages are necessary too.

Compile pacman

  • Decompress the pacman source code and cd inside.
  • Execute configure, adapting the paths as necessary:
     ./configure --prefix=/usr --sysconfdir=/etc --localstatedir=/var --enable-doc

If you get errors here, chances are you are missing dependencies, or your current libcurl, libarchive or others, are too old. Install the dependencies missing using your distro options, or if they are too old, compile them from source.

  • Compile
    make
  • If there were no errors, install the files
    make install
  • You may need to manually call ldconfig to make your distro detect libalpm.

Prepare configuration files

Now is time to extract the configuration files. Change the x86_64 as necessary.

  • Extract the pacman.conf and makepkg.conf files from the pacman package, and disable signature checking:
    tar xJvf pacman-*-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz etc -C / ; sed -i 's/SigLevel.*/SigLevel = Never/g' /etc/pacman.conf
  • Extract the mirror list:
    tar xJvf pacman-mirrorlist-*-any.pkg.tar.xz -C /
  • Enable some mirrors on /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
  • Extract the arch-install-scripts
    tar xJvf arch-install-scripts-*-any.pkg.tar.xz -C /

Another option is using the alien tool to convert the pacman-mirrorlist and arch-install-scripts (but no pacman) to native packages of your distro.


Fix the Pacman Signature Keyring

It is necessary to initialize pacman's keyring for signature checking.

This is done using

# pacman-key --init # read the note below!
# pacman-key --populate archlinux

However, when connected via SSH you might run out of entropy. In this case you can try something like

# cat /usr/bin/* > /dev/null &
# find / > /dev/null &

before executing pacman-key --init.

It might take some time. If nevertheless all this does help install haveged and run prior to pacman-key --init

# /usr/sbin/haveged -w 1024 -v 1


Setup the target system

At this point, follow the normal steps of Installation Guide. Remember to mount the destination partition under the /mnt of the chroot.

# pacstrap /mnt base base-devel
# # ...

Edit the fstab file

Probably the genfstab script won't work. In that case, you'll need to edit the /mnt/etc/fstab file by hand. You can use the content of /etc/mtab as reference.

Finish the Installation

Now just do the rest of the steps normally.

Tips and tricks

  • In case you want to replace an existing system, but can for some reason not use a LiveCD, since, e.g., you have no physical access to the computer, the following tip might help: If you manage to get ~500MB of free space somewhere on the disk (e.g. by partitioning a swap partition) you can install the new Archlinux system there, reboot into the newly created system and rsync the entire system to the primary partition. Finally don't forget to fix the bootloader configuration before rebooting.