Difference between revisions of "Install from existing Linux"

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Instructions for [[GRUB]] and [[LILO]] are available on this wiki.  
 
Instructions for [[GRUB]] and [[LILO]] are available on this wiki.  
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===Finishing Touches===
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[[http://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Beginners_Guide Configure your System]]
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Skip down to 2.10 Configure Your System.  You can ignore 2.11, but the rest of that guide should be of use to you in post-installation configuration of your system.
 
   
 
   
 
===Install Complete===  
 
===Install Complete===  

Revision as of 18:16, 9 July 2008


This guide is intended to combine and update the three previously existing and highly similar alternative install guides on this wiki. This guide intended for anybody who wants to install ArchLinux from any other running Linux -- be it off a LiveCD or a pre-existing install of a different distro.

Install From Existing Linux

Overview

Archlinux's Pacman can be configured (-r) to perform operations in any directory you like, using that as the context of "root" while running.

The pacman package available from the mirrors includes a static-linked version of the binary (pacman.static) which should run in most any modern linux environment, without the need of dependencies.

This is useful for building up new Archlinux systems from scratch from other LiveCDs or different systems running another Linux environment, creating new chroot environments on a "host" system, maintaining a "golden-master" for development & distribution, or other fun topics like rootfs-over-NFS for diskless machines.

In the case of an x86_64 host, it is even possible to use i686-pacman to build a 32-bit chroot environment. See Arch64 Install bundled 32bit system.

Throughout this guide, we will refer to partitions as /dev/hdxx or /dev/sdxx. This refers to whatever dev entry you have on your system for the partition in question. The convention is: Drive 1, Partition 1: /dev/hda1 or /dev/sda1 Drive 1, Partition 2: /dev/hda2 or /dev/sda2 Drive 2, Partiiton 1: /dev/hdb1 or /dev/sdb1 etc...

We will refer to it as /dev/sdxx whenever possible, but realize depending on your system it could be /dev/hdxx

Setup host system

Install pacman within the host distro. The simplest way is to grab the latest pacman package, which matches the install-host.

ftp://ftp.archlinux.org/core/os/i686 (i686 host) 
ftp://ftp.archlinux.org/core/os/x86_64 (x86_64 host) 

Since we will use pacman.static for the initial setup, we only need a few files installed into the host:

/etc/pacman.conf 
/etc/pacman.d/* 
/usr/bin/pacman.static 
 

If you don't mind to litter your install-host, you can just cd to /, and extract the pacman.pkg.tar.gz you downloaded.

Configure your /etc/pacman.conf to your liking, and perhaps set a mirror in /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist.

If you're installing from a LiveCD, and you have a system with a low amount of combined RAM and swap (< 1 GB), be sure to set the cachedir in /etc/pacman.conf to be in new arch partition (e.g. - /newarch/var/cache/pacman/pkg). Otherwise you could exhaust memory between the overhead of the existing distro and downloading necessary packages to install.

Prepare disk for Arch

Prepare the new Arch system's filesystems and then mount them. If your host system has any gui tools for this, such as gparted, cfdisk, or mandrakes diskdrake, feel free to use them.

To format a partition as ext3, you run (where /dev/sdxx is the partition you want to setup):

# mkfs.ext3 /dev/sdxx 

as reiserfs:

# mkreiserfs /dev/sdxx 

swap:

# mkswap /dev/sdxx 

Most other filesystems can be setup with their own mkfs variant, take a look with tab completion. Available filesystems depend entirely on your host system.

Once you have setup the filesystems, mount them. Throughout this, We will reference the new Arch / at /newarch, however you can put it wherever you like.

# mkdir /newarch 
# mount /dev/sdxx /newarch 

It is also possible to build the root filesystem in a normal directory on the install-host, for transfer to a target system over the network, or to create a master tarball etc.

Install Base System

Update pacman, you may have to create the /newarch/var/lib/pacman folder for it to work

# mkdir -p /newarch/var/lib/pacman 
# pacman.static -Sy -r /newarch 
# pacman.static -S pacman -r /newarch 

Install all of base. I put a list of base packages in a file called 'packages' which is at the end of this page.

# pacman.static -S `cat packages` -r /newarch 

or you can just do

# pacman.static -Sy base -r /newarch 

as arch groups the entire collection of base packages into the 'base' group.

Prepare System

First, ensure the correct /dev nodes have been made for udev:

# cd /newarch/dev 
# mknod -m 660 console c 5 1 
# mknod -m 660 null c 1 3 

Mount various filesystems into the new Arch system.

# mount -o bind /dev /newarch/dev
# mount -t proc none /newarch/proc
# mount -o bind /sys /newarch/sys

In order for DNS to work properly you need to edit /newarch/etc/resolv.conf or replace it with the resolv.conf from your running distribution

# cp /etc/resolv.conf /newarch/etc/ 

Chroot into the new system

# chroot /newarch /bin/bash

Install The Rest

Install your preferred kernel, and any other packages you may wish to install.

# pacman -S kernel26 
# pacman -S kernel26beyond 
# pacman -S kernel26mm 

If you wish to install extra packages now, you may do so with:

# pacman -S packagename 

Configure System

Edit your /etc/fstab, remembering to add /, swap and any other partitions you may wish to use. Be sure to use the /dev/sd* (sda1, sda2, sdb1, etc) for the partitions instead of /dev/hd*, as Arch uses the sdxx convention for all drives.

Edit your rc.conf to your liking

Edit /etc/locale.gen, uncommenting any locales you wish to have available, and build the locales

# locale-gen 

Setup Grub

Allow grub-install t- run properly while chrooted:

# grep -v rootfs /proc/mounts > /etc/mtab  

Also, if you want to keep grub from your existing install, you may use grub-install from the Arch chroot, then redo a grub-install from your existing installation. If grub-install fails, you can manually install:

# grub 
grub> find /boot/grub/stage1     (You should see some results here if you have done everything right so far.   If not, back up and retrace your steps.)
grub> root (hd0,X) 
grub> setup (hd0) 
grub> quit 

Double check your /boot/grub/menu.lst when done if installing from a LiveCD. Depending on the host, it could need correcting from hda to sda, and a prefix of /boot as well in the paths.

Instructions for GRUB and LILO are available on this wiki.

Finishing Touches

[Configure your System] Skip down to 2.10 Configure Your System. You can ignore 2.11, but the rest of that guide should be of use to you in post-installation configuration of your system.

Install Complete

Reboot to your new system!

Package list

You can get an up to date list by using below command:

# wget ftp://ftp.archlinux.org/current/os/i686/packages.txt or 
# wget <Your preferred CURRENT mirror server>/packages.txt 
# cat packages.txt | grep "base" | cut -c 6- | awk -F "-[0-9]" '{print $1}' > packages 

Troubleshooting

Kernel Panic

If when you reboot into your new system you get a kernel panic saying console couldn't open:

kinit: couldn't open console, no such file... 

This means you didn't follow the instructions above. Follow the steps to create basic device nodes at the beginning of preparation.

Root device '/dev/sd??' doesn't exist

If when you reboot into your new system you get a error messages like this:

Root device '/dev/sda1' doesn't exist, attempting to create it... etc. 

This means the drives are showing up as "hda1" instead of "sda1" In which case change your GRUB or LILO settings to use "hd??" or try the following.

Edit /etc/mkinitcpio.conf and change "ide" to "pata" in the "HOOKS=" line. Then regenerate your initrd. (Make sure you have chroot'ed into the new system first.)

mkinitcpio -p kernel26