Difference between revisions of "Installation Chroot"

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[[Category:Getting and installing Arch (English)]]
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#REDIRECT[[Installation Guide]]
{{i18n|Installation Chroot}}
 
This article will detail the installation of Arch Linux from another GNU/Linux (kernel >= 2.6.27) with a chroot.
 
 
 
This article was originally published in the [http://wiki.archlinux.fr/Install_chroot ArchLinux.fr wiki].
 
A script doing all the steps described in this page is available at: [http://calimeroteknik.free.fr/arch-guide/install-chroot.sh install-chroot.sh] <br />
 
It is recommended to read the article.
 
 
 
== Requirement ==
 
 
 
To install ArchLinux you need some data :
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Variable
 
!Description
 
!Example
 
|-
 
|install_path
 
|You have to mount in this directory all the partitions that will be part of your system
 
|/mnt/newarch
 
|-
 
|arch
 
|Architecture of the system: (we can only install i686 from a i686 system)
 
|i686 or x86_64
 
|-
 
|mirror
 
|Miror of download: the list is available [http://archlinux.org/download/ here]
 
|http://mir.archlinux.fr
 
|-
 
|pacman_mirrorlist_ver
 
|Actual version of '''pacman-mirrorlist''', see [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/pacman-mirrorlist here].
 
|20110703-1
 
|}
 
<br />
 
You also need a minimal '''chroot'''. You can find an archive matching your achitecture [http://mir.archlinux.fr/~tuxce/chroot/ here].<br />
 
 
You can export variable with this command, for example :
 
export install_path="/mnt/newarch"
 
 
 
{{warning|This method works only to install a system with the same architecture as the host system or to install a 32 bits system with a 64 bits host system.}}
 
 
 
Before we begin, we will crete the {{filename|tmp}} directory in the new architecture in order to put it temporary files. In {{codeline|$install_path}}:
 
mkdir tmp
 
chmod 1777 tmp
 
 
 
== Base system creation ==
 
 
 
We need to download the archive and the package {{filename|pacman-mirrorlist}}:
 
cd "$install_path"/tmp
 
wget "$mirror/core/os/$arch/pacman-mirrorlist-$pacman_mirrorlist_ver-any.pkg.tar.gz"
 
wget "http://mir.archlinux.fr/~tuxce/chroot/archlinux.chroot.$arch.tgz"
 
cd ..
 
tar zxvf tmp/pacman-mirrorlist-$pacman_mirrorlist_ver-any.pkg.tar.gz
 
tar zxvf tmp/archlinux.chroot.$arch.tgz
 
 
 
The mirror configuration file ({{filename|etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}}) have all its lines commented, you have to uncomment at least one line, for example :
 
Server = http://mir.archlinux.fr/$repo/os/$arch
 
 
 
== Chroot preparation ==
 
 
 
=== The network ===
 
 
 
In order to have dns resolution, copy your {{Codeline|/etc/resolv.conf}} from the host system to the chroot :
 
cp /etc/resolv.conf etc/resolv.conf
 
 
 
=== Mount special file ===
 
 
 
We need to mount the special file system {{filename|/dev}}, {{filename|/proc}} and {{filename|/sys}} :
 
mount -o bind /proc "$install_path"/proc
 
mount -o bind /dev "$install_path"/dev
 
mount -o bind /sys "$install_path"/sys
 
 
 
=== Register the mount partitions ===
 
 
 
Mount partition are list in {{filename|/etc/mtab}}, we need to copy it contents :
 
grep -v rootfs /proc/mounts > etc/mtab
 
 
 
=== In the chroot ===
 
 
 
The ''chroot'' is ready, enter it :
 
chroot "$install_path" /bin/bash
 
 
 
== Base system installation ==
 
 
pacman -Syf base
 
 
 
== Configure the new system ==
 
 
 
 
 
=== Configure /etc/rc.conf ===
 
 
 
One of the central file in the ArchLinux system. You'll find everything you need [[rc.conf|here]].
 
 
 
=== Configure partitions ===
 
 
 
You have to fill the {{filename|/etc/fstab}}. This file list the partition that will be use by your new system. Your file must look like this :
 
 
#
 
# /etc/fstab: static file system information
 
#
 
# <file system>    <dir>        <type>    <options>          <dump> <pass>
 
devpts            /dev/pts      devpts    defaults            0      0
 
shm                /dev/shm      tmpfs    nodev,nosuid        0      0
 
 
/dev/sda5          swap          swap      defaults            0      0
 
/dev/sda6          /            ext4      defaults            0      1
 
/dev/sda7          /home        ext4      defaults            0      2
 
 
 
Be carefull to check the existenve of the mount point.
 
Additionnal information can be found [[fstab|here]]
 
 
 
=== Grub ===
 
 
 
Perhaps you'll need [[GRUB]] now. You'll find information [[grub|here]]
 
 
 
=== Users ===
 
 
 
==== Root password ====
 
 
 
The root password is empty by default, you may want to set one :
 
passwd root
 
 
 
==== Main user ====
 
 
 
A basic configuration is :
 
 
useradd -G wheel,audio,optical,storage,video,power -m nom_utilisateur
 
passwd nom_utilisateur
 
 
 
You'll find more information [[Groups|here]]
 
 
 
==== sudo configuration ====
 
 
 
See [[sudo|here]].
 

Revision as of 04:02, 9 December 2012

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