Difference between revisions of "Installation Chroot"

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(Configure the partitions: improved the English and the general comprehensibility of the section)
(seeing as how this is now the "official" way to do things, there's zero need for this article; redirect)
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[[Category:Getting and installing Arch (English)]]
#REDIRECT[[Installation Guide]]
{{i18n|Installation Chroot}}
This article will detail the installation of Arch Linux from another GNU/Linux (kernel >= 2.6.27) with a chroot.
This article was originally published in the [http://wiki.archlinux.fr/Install_chroot ArchLinux.fr wiki].
A script doing all the steps described in this page is available at: [http://calimeroteknik.free.fr/arch-guide/install-chroot.sh install-chroot.sh] <br />
It is recommended to read the article.
== Requirement ==
To install ArchLinux you need some data :
{| class="wikitable"
|You have to mount in this directory all the partitions that will be part of your system
|Architecture of the system: (we can only install i686 from a i686 system)
|i686 or x86_64
|Miror of download: the list is available [http://archlinux.org/download/ here]
|Actual version of '''pacman-mirrorlist''', see [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/pacman-mirrorlist here].
<br />
You also need a minimal '''chroot'''. You can find an archive matching your achitecture [http://mir.archlinux.fr/~tuxce/chroot/ here].<br />
You can export variable with this command, for example :
export install_path="/mnt/newarch"
{{warning|This method works only to install a system with the same architecture as the host system or to install a 32 bits system with a 64 bits host system.}}
Before we begin, we will crete the {{filename|tmp}} directory in the new architecture in order to put it temporary files. In {{codeline|$install_path}}:
mkdir tmp
chmod 1777 tmp
== Base system creation ==
We need to download the archive and the package {{filename|pacman-mirrorlist}}:
cd "$install_path"/tmp
wget "$mirror/core/os/$arch/pacman-mirrorlist-$pacman_mirrorlist_ver-any.pkg.tar.gz"
wget "http://mir.archlinux.fr/~tuxce/chroot/archlinux.chroot.$arch.tgz"
cd ..
tar zxvf tmp/pacman-mirrorlist-$pacman_mirrorlist_ver-any.pkg.tar.gz
tar zxvf tmp/archlinux.chroot.$arch.tgz
The mirror configuration file ({{filename|etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}}) have all its lines commented, you have to uncomment at least one line, for example :
Server = http://mir.archlinux.fr/$repo/os/$arch
== Chroot preparation ==
=== The network ===
In order to have dns resolution, copy your {{Codeline|/etc/resolv.conf}} from the host system to the chroot :
cp /etc/resolv.conf etc/resolv.conf
=== Mount special file ===
We need to mount the special file system {{filename|/dev}}, {{filename|/proc}} and {{filename|/sys}} :
mount -o bind /proc "$install_path"/proc
mount -o bind /dev "$install_path"/dev
mount -o bind /sys "$install_path"/sys
=== Register the mount partitions ===
Mount partition are list in {{filename|/etc/mtab}}, we need to copy it contents :
grep -v rootfs /proc/mounts > etc/mtab
=== In the chroot ===
The ''chroot'' is ready, enter it :
chroot "$install_path" /bin/bash
== Base system installation ==
pacman -Syf base
== Configure the new system ==
=== Configure /etc/rc.conf ===
One of the central file in the ArchLinux system. You'll find everything you need [[rc.conf|here]].
=== Partition configuration ===
To specify what partitions will be used by your operating system you need to edit the file {{filename|/etc/fstab}}. This file lists the partitions, where they will be mounted, the type of the file system and some other options. Be sure to check [[fstab|this page]] for more information. Here is a quick example of the {{filename|/etc/fstab}} file:
# /etc/fstab: static file system information
# <file system>    <dir>        <type>    <options>          <dump> <pass>
devpts            /dev/pts      devpts    defaults            0      0
shm                /dev/shm      tmpfs    nodev,nosuid        0      0
/dev/sda5          swap          swap      defaults            0      0
/dev/sda6          /            ext4      defaults            0      1
/dev/sda7          /home        ext4      defaults            0      2
To see the list of partitions on your hard disk run the command {{filename|fdisk -l}} (l is a '''lowercase L''', NOT the digit) as root.
=== Grub ===
Perhaps you'll need [[GRUB]] now. You'll find information [[grub|here]]
=== Users ===
==== Root password ====
The root password is empty by default, you may want to set one :
passwd root
==== Main user ====
A basic configuration is :
useradd -G wheel,audio,optical,storage,video,power -m nom_utilisateur
passwd nom_utilisateur
You'll find more information [[Groups|here]]
==== sudo configuration ====
See [[sudo|here]].

Revision as of 04:02, 9 December 2012

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