Difference between revisions of "Installation guide"
(remove --utc from hwclock command and mention this is the default, see talk)
(→Mount the file systems: we link to the pacstrap source, let's do with genfstab also)
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# mount /dev/''sda2'' /mnt/''boot''
# mount /dev/''sda2'' /mnt/''boot''
genfstabwill later detect mounted file systems and activated swap space.
== Installation ==
== Installation ==
Revision as of 02:34, 8 October 2016
zh-cn:Installation guide zh-tw:Installation guide This document is a guide for installing Arch Linux from the live system booted with the official installation image. Before installing, it would be advised to view the FAQ. For conventions used in this document, see Help:Reading.
For more detailed instructions, see the respective ArchWiki articles or the various programs' man pages, both linked from this guide. See for an overview of the configuration. For interactive help, the IRC channel and the forums are also available.
- 1 Pre-installation
- 2 Installation
- 3 Configure the system
- 4 Reboot
- 5 Post-installation
Arch Linux should run on any i686 or x86_64 compatible machine with a minimum of 256 MB RAM. A basic installation with all packages from the group should take less than 800 MB of disk space. As the installation process needs to retrieve packages from a remote repository, a working internet connection is required.
Download and boot the installation medium as explained in Category:Getting and installing Arch. You will be logged in on the first virtual console as the root user, and presented with a Zsh shell prompt; common commands such as can be tab-completed.
Set the keyboard layout
To modify the layout, append a file name to
loadkeys de-latin1 to set a German keyboard layout.
Console fonts are located in
/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/ and can likewise be set with .
Verify the boot mode
# ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
If the directory does not exist, the system is booted in BIOS (or CSM) mode.
Connect to the Internet
# ping archlinux.org
Update the system clock
Useto ensure the system clock is accurate:
# timedatectl set-ntp true
To check the service status, use
Partition the disks
Present disks are assigned a device file such as
/dev/sda. To identify these devices, use lsblk or fdisk — results ending in
airoot may be ignored:
# fdisk -l
The following partitions (shown with a numerical suffix) are required for a chosen device:
- One partition for the root directory
- If UEFI is enabled, an EFI System Partition.
- Swap space can be set on a separate partition or a swap file.
Format the partitions
Once the partitions have been created, each must be formatted with an appropriate file system. For example, to format the root partition on
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
See File systems#Create a file system for details.
Mount the file systems
Mount the file system on the root partition to
/mnt, for example:
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
Create mount points for any remaining partitions and mount them accordingly, for example:
# mkdir /mnt/boot # mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/boot
genfstab will later detect mounted file systems and activated swap space.
Select the mirrors
Packages to be installed must be downloaded from mirror servers, which are defined in
/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist. On the live system, all mirrors are enabled, and sorted by their synchronization status and speed at the time the installation image was created.
The higher a mirror is placed in the list, the more priority it is given when downloading a package. You may want to edit the file accordingly, and move the geographically closest mirrors to the top of the list, although other criteria should be taken into account.
This file will later be copied to the new system by pacstrap, so it is worth getting right.
Install the base packages
Use the pacstrap script to install the package group:
# pacstrap /mnt base
This group does not include all tools from the live installation, such as packages.both for comparison.or specific wireless firmware; see
Configure the system
# genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
Check the resulting file in
/mnt/etc/fstab afterwards, and edit it in case of errors.
Change root into the new system:
# arch-chroot /mnt
Set the time zone:
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Region/City /etc/localtime
# hwclock --systohc
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8 and other needed localizations in
/etc/locale.gen, and generate them with:
LANG variable in accordingly, for example:
If you set the keyboard layout, make the changes persistent in :
Create the hostname:file with the desired
Consider adding a matching entry to
127.0.1.1 myhostname.localdomain myhostname
Configure the network for the newly installed environment: see Network configuration.
When making configuration changes to mkinitcpio.conf, create a new initial RAM disk with:
# mkinitcpio -p linux
Set the root password:
If you have an Intel CPU, install the enable microcode updates.package in addition, and
Exit the chroot environment by typing
exit or pressing
Optionally manually unmount all the partitions with
umount -R /mnt: this allows noticing any "busy" partitions, and finding the cause with .
Finally, restart the machine by typing
reboot: any partitions still mounted will be automatically unmounted by systemd. Remember to remove the installation media and then login into the new system with the root account.
See General recommendations for system management directions and post-installation tutorials (like setting up a graphical user interface, sound or a touchpad).
For a list of applications that may be of interest, see List of applications.