Difference between revisions of "Installation guide"

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[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
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[[Category:Installation process]]
 
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[[sk:Installation guide]]
 
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[[th:Installation guide]]
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[[zh-hant:Installation guide]]
This document is a guide for installing [[Arch Linux]] from the live system booted with the official installation image. Before installing, it would be advised to view the [[FAQ]]. For conventions used in this document, see [[Help:Reading]].  
+
This document is a guide for installing [[Arch Linux]] from the live system booted with the official installation image. Before installing, it would be advised to view the [[FAQ]]. For conventions used in this document, see [[Help:Reading]]. In particular, code examples may contain placeholders (formatted in {{ic|''italics''}}) that must be replaced manually.
  
For more detailed instructions, see the respective [[ArchWiki:About|ArchWiki]] articles (accessible from the installation environment with [[ELinks]]), or the various programs' [[man page]]s; see [https://projects.archlinux.org/svntogit/packages.git/tree/filesystem/trunk/archlinux.7.txt archlinux(7)] for an overview of the configuration. For interactive help, the [[IRC channel]] and the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/ forums] are also available.
+
For more detailed instructions, see the respective [[ArchWiki]] articles or the various programs' [[man page]]s, both linked from this guide. For interactive help, the [[IRC channel]] and the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/ forums] are also available.
 +
 
 +
Arch Linux should run on any [[Wikipedia:X86-64|x86_64]]-compatible machine with a minimum of 512 MiB RAM. A basic installation with all packages from the {{Grp|base}} group should take less than 800 MiB of disk space. As the installation process needs to retrieve packages from a remote repository, this guide assumes a working internet connection is available.
  
 
== Pre-installation ==
 
== Pre-installation ==
  
Arch Linux should run on any [[Wikipedia:P6 (microarchitecture)|i686]] compatible machine with a minimum of 256 MB RAM. A basic installation with all packages from the {{Grp|base}} group should take less than 800 MB of disk space.
+
The installation media and their [[GnuPG]] signatures can be acquired from the [https://archlinux.org/download/ Download] page.
 +
 
 +
=== Verify signature ===
 +
 
 +
It is recommended to verify the image signature before use, especially when downloading from an ''HTTP mirror'', where downloads are generally prone to be intercepted to [https://www2.cs.arizona.edu/stork/packagemanagersecurity/attacks-on-package-managers.html serve malicious images].
 +
 
 +
On a system with [[GnuPG]] installed, do this by downloading the ''PGP signature'' (under ''Checksums'') to the ISO directory, and [[GnuPG#Verify a signature|verifying]] it with:
  
Download and boot the installation medium as explained in [[:Category:Getting and installing Arch]]. You will be logged in as the root user, and presented with a [[Zsh]] shell prompt; common commands such as ''systemctl'' can be [[w:Command-line_completion|tab-completed]]. To [[edit]] configuration files, [[nano#Usage|nano]], ''vi'' and [[vim#Usage|vim]] are available.
+
$ gpg --keyserver-options auto-key-retrieve --verify archlinux-''version''-x86_64.iso.sig
  
The installation process needs to retrieve packages from a remote repository, therefore a working internet connection is required.
+
Alternatively, from an existing Arch Linux installation run:
  
=== Verify the boot mode ===
+
$ pacman-key -v archlinux-''version''-x86_64.iso.sig
 +
 
 +
{{Note|
 +
* The signature itself could be manipulated if it is downloaded from a mirror site, instead of from [https://archlinux.org/download/ archlinux.org] as above. In this case, ensure that the public key, which is used to decode the signature, is signed by another, trustworthy key. The {{ic|gpg}} command will output the fingerprint of the public key.
 +
* Another method to verify the authenticity of the signature is to ensure that the public key's fingerprint is identical to the key fingerprint of the [https://www.archlinux.org/people/developers/ Arch Linux developer] who signed the ISO-file. See [[Wikipedia:Public-key cryptography]] for more information on the public-key process to authenticate keys.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
=== Boot the live environment ===
 +
 
 +
The live environment can be booted from a [[USB flash installation media|USB flash drive]], an [[Optical disc drive#Burning|optical disc]] or a network with [[PXE]]. For alternative means of installation, see [[:Category:Installation process]].
  
As instructions differ for [[UEFI]] systems, verify the boot mode by checking [[efivars]]:
+
* Pointing the current boot device to a drive containing the Arch installation media is typically achieved by pressing a key during the [[Wikipedia:Power-on self test|POST]] phase, as indicated on the splash screen. Refer to your motherboard's manual for details.
 +
* When the Arch menu appears, select ''Boot Arch Linux'' and press {{ic|Enter}} to enter the installation environment.
 +
* See [https://projects.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/docs/README.bootparams README.bootparams] for a list of [[Kernel parameters#Configuration|boot parameters]], and [https://git.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/packages.x86_64 packages.x86_64] for a list of included packages.
 +
* You will be logged in on the first [[Wikipedia:Virtual console|virtual console]] as the root user, and presented with a [[Zsh]] shell prompt.
  
# ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
+
To switch to a different console—for example, to view this guide with [[ELinks]] alongside the installation—use the {{ic|Alt+''arrow''}} [[Keyboard shortcuts|shortcut]]. To [[textedit|edit]] configuration files, [[nano#Usage|nano]], [[Wikipedia:vi|vi]] and [[vim#Usage|vim]] are available.
  
 
=== Set the keyboard layout ===
 
=== Set the keyboard layout ===
  
The default [[Keyboard_configuration_in_console|console keymap]] is [[Wikipedia:File:KB United States-NoAltGr.svg|US]]. Available choices can be listed with {{ic|ls /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/**/*.map.gz}}.
+
The default [[console keymap]] is [[Wikipedia:File:KB United States-NoAltGr.svg|US]]. Available layouts can be listed with:
  
The layout can be changed with ''loadkeys'', appending a file name (path and file extension can be omitted). For example:
+
# ls /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/**/*.map.gz
  
# loadkeys ''de-latin1''
+
To modify the layout, append a corresponding file name to {{man|1|loadkeys}}, omitting path and file extension. For example, to set a [[Wikipedia:File:KB Germany.svg|German]] keyboard layout:
  
[[Console fonts]] are located in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}}, and can likewise be set with ''setfont''.
+
# loadkeys de-latin1
  
=== Connect to the Internet ===
+
[[Console fonts]] are located in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}} and can likewise be set with {{man|8|setfont}}.
  
Internet service via [[dhcpcd]] is enabled on boot for supported wired devices; check the connection using a tool such as ''ping''.
+
=== Verify the boot mode ===
  
For other [[network configuration]], [[systemd-networkd]] and [[netctl]] are included; for examples, see {{ic|systemd.network(5)}} and {{ic|netctl.profile(7)}}, respectively. When using a different networking service, [[stop]] {{ic|dhcpcd@''interface''.service}} first:
+
If UEFI mode is enabled on an [[UEFI]] motherboard, [[Archiso]] will [[boot]] Arch Linux accordingly via [[systemd-boot]]. To verify this, list the [[UEFI#UEFI variables|efivars]] directory:
  
  # systemctl stop dhcpcd@''interface''.service
+
  # ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
 +
 
 +
If the directory does not exist, the system may be booted in [[Wikipedia:BIOS|BIOS]] or CSM mode. Refer to your motherboard's manual for details.
 +
 
 +
=== Connect to the internet ===
 +
 
 +
To set up a network connection, go through the following steps:
 +
 
 +
# Ensure your [[network interface]] is listed and enabled, for example with {{man|8|ip-link}}: {{bc|# ip link}}
 +
# Connect to the network. Plug in the Ethernet cable or [[Wireless network configuration|connect to the wireless LAN]].
 +
# Configure your network connection:
 +
#* [[Network configuration#Static IP address|Static IP address]]
 +
#* Dynamic IP address: use [[DHCP]].
 +
#:{{Note|The installation image enables [[dhcpcd]] ({{ic|dhcpcd@''interface''.service}}) for [https://git.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/airootfs/etc/udev/rules.d/81-dhcpcd.rules wired network devices] on boot.}}
 +
# The connection may be verified with [[Wikipedia:ping|ping]]: {{bc|# ping archlinux.org}}
  
 
=== Update the system clock ===
 
=== Update the system clock ===
  
Use [[systemd-timesyncd]] to ensure the system clock is accurate:
+
Use {{man|1|timedatectl}} to ensure the system clock is accurate:
  
 
  # timedatectl set-ntp true
 
  # timedatectl set-ntp true
Line 73: Line 107:
 
=== Partition the disks ===
 
=== Partition the disks ===
  
Identify the disk names with {{ic|lsblk}} (results ending in {{ic|rom}}, {{ic|loop}} or {{ic|airoot}} can be ignored), and print existing [[partition table]]s with {{ic|fdisk -l ''/dev/sda'' print}}. To modify tables, use [[fdisk]] or [[parted]] for both [[MBR]] and [[GPT]], or [[gdisk]] for GPT only.
+
When recognized by the live system, disks are assigned to a [[block device]] such as {{ic|/dev/sda}} or {{ic|/dev/nvme0n1}}. To identify these devices, use [[lsblk]] or ''fdisk''.
 +
 
 +
# fdisk -l
 +
 
 +
Results ending in {{ic|rom}}, {{ic|loop}} or {{ic|airoot}} may be ignored.
 +
 
 +
The following [[partition]]s are '''required''' for a chosen device:
 +
 
 +
* One partition for the root directory {{ic|/}}.
 +
* If [[UEFI]] is enabled, an [[EFI system partition]].
 +
 
 +
If you want to create any stacked block devices for [[LVM]], [[dm-crypt|system encryption]] or [[RAID]], do it now.
 +
 
 +
==== Example layouts ====
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!colspan="5" | BIOS with [[MBR]]
 +
|-
 +
! Mount point
 +
! Partition
 +
! [[Wikipedia:Partition type|Partition type]]
 +
! Suggested size
 +
|-
 +
| {{ic|/mnt}}
 +
| {{ic|/dev/sd''X''1}}
 +
| Linux
 +
| Remainder of the device
 +
|-
 +
| [SWAP]
 +
| {{ic|/dev/sd''X''2}}
 +
| Linux swap
 +
| More than 512 MiB
 +
|-
 +
!colspan="5" | UEFI with [[GPT]]
 +
|-
 +
! Mount point
 +
! Partition
 +
! [[Wikipedia:GUID Partition Table#Partition type GUIDs|Partition type]]
 +
! Suggested size
 +
|-
 +
| {{ic|/mnt/boot}} or {{ic|/mnt/efi}}
 +
| {{ic|/dev/sd''X''1}}
 +
| [[EFI system partition]]
 +
| 260–512 MiB
 +
|-
 +
| {{ic|/mnt}}
 +
| {{ic|/dev/sd''X''2}}
 +
| Linux x86-64 root (/)
 +
| Remainder of the device
 +
|-
 +
| [SWAP]
 +
| {{ic|/dev/sd''X''3}}
 +
| Linux swap
 +
| More than 512 MiB
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
At the minimum, a partition must be available for the {{ic|/}} directory; [[UEFI]] systems additionally require an [[EFI System Partition]]. Other partitions may be needed, such as a [[GRUB#GUID Partition Table (GPT) specific instructions|GRUB BIOS boot partition]].
+
See also [[Partitioning#Example layouts]].
  
If wanting to create any stacked block devices for [[LVM]], [[disk encryption]] or [[RAID]], do it now.
+
{{Note|
 +
* Use [[fdisk]] or [[parted]] to modify partition tables, for example {{ic|fdisk /dev/sd''X''}}.
 +
* [[Swap]] space can be set on a [[swap file]] for file systems supporting it.
 +
}}
  
 
=== Format the partitions ===
 
=== Format the partitions ===
  
See [[File systems#Create a file system|File systems]] and optionally [[Swap]] for details.
+
Once the partitions have been created, each must be formatted with an appropriate [[file system]]. For example, if the root partition is on {{ic|/dev/sd''X''1}} and will contain the {{ic|''ext4''}} file system, run:
 +
 
 +
# mkfs.''ext4'' /dev/sd''X1''
 +
 
 +
If you created a partition for swap, initialize it with ''mkswap'':
 +
 
 +
# mkswap /dev/sd''X2''
 +
# swapon /dev/sd''X2''
  
=== Mount the partitions ===
+
See [[File systems#Create a file system]] for details.
  
Mount the root partition on {{ic|/mnt}}. After that, create directories for and mount any other partitions ({{ic|/mnt/boot}}, {{ic|/mnt/home}}, ...) and activate your ''swap'' partition if you want them to be detected later by ''genfstab''.
+
=== Mount the file systems ===
 +
 
 +
[[Mount]] the file system on the root partition to {{ic|/mnt}}, for example:
 +
 
 +
# mount /dev/sd''X1'' /mnt
 +
 
 +
Create any remaining mount points (such as {{ic|/mnt/efi}}) and mount their corresponding partitions.
 +
 
 +
[https://git.archlinux.org/arch-install-scripts.git/tree/genfstab.in genfstab] will later detect mounted file systems and swap space.
  
 
== Installation ==
 
== Installation ==
Line 91: Line 198:
 
=== Select the mirrors ===
 
=== Select the mirrors ===
  
Edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}} and select a download mirror(s). Regional mirrors usually work best; however, other criteria may be necessary to discern, read more on [[Mirrors]]. This copy of the {{ic|mirrorlist}} file will later be copied on the new system by ''pacstrap'', so it is worth getting it right.
+
Packages to be installed must be downloaded from [[Mirrors|mirror servers]], which are defined in {{ic|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}}. On the live system, all mirrors are enabled, and sorted by their synchronization status and speed at the time the installation image was created.
 +
 
 +
The higher a mirror is placed in the list, the more priority it is given when downloading a package. You may want to edit the file accordingly, and move the geographically closest mirrors to the top of the list, although other criteria should be taken into account.
 +
 
 +
This file will later be copied to the new system by ''pacstrap'', so it is worth getting right.
  
 
=== Install the base packages ===
 
=== Install the base packages ===
  
Use the [https://projects.archlinux.org/arch-install-scripts.git/tree/pacstrap.in pacstrap] script to install the {{Grp|base}} group:
+
Use the [https://projects.archlinux.org/arch-install-scripts.git/tree/pacstrap.in pacstrap] script to install the {{Grp|base}} package group:
  
 
  # pacstrap /mnt base
 
  # pacstrap /mnt base
  
To [[install]] other packages or groups to the new system, such as {{Pkg|btrfs-progs}} or a [[boot loader]], append their names to ''pacstrap'' (space separated) or to individual ''pacman'' commands after [[#Chroot|changing root]].
+
This group does not include all tools from the live installation, such as {{Pkg|btrfs-progs}} or specific wireless firmware; see [https://projects.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/packages.x86_64 packages.x86_64] for comparison.
 +
 
 +
To [[install]] packages and other groups such as {{Grp|base-devel}}, append the names to ''pacstrap'' (space separated) or to individual [[pacman]] commands after the [[#Chroot]] step.
  
 
== Configure the system ==
 
== Configure the system ==
Line 105: Line 218:
 
=== Fstab ===
 
=== Fstab ===
  
Generate an [[fstab]] file (use {{ic|-U}} or {{ic|-L}} to define by [[UUID]] or labels):
+
Generate an [[fstab]] file (use {{ic|-U}} or {{ic|-L}} to define by [[UUID]] or labels, respectively):
  
  # genfstab -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
+
  # genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
  
 
Check the resulting file in {{ic|/mnt/etc/fstab}} afterwards, and edit it in case of errors.
 
Check the resulting file in {{ic|/mnt/etc/fstab}} afterwards, and edit it in case of errors.
Line 121: Line 234:
 
Set the [[time zone]]:
 
Set the [[time zone]]:
  
  # ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/''zone''/''subzone'' /etc/localtime
+
  # ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/''Region''/''City'' /etc/localtime
  
Run ''hwclock'' to generate {{ic|/etc/adjtime}}. If the [[time standard]] is set to [[w:UTC|UTC]], other operating systems should be configured accordingly.
+
Run {{man|8|hwclock}} to generate {{ic|/etc/adjtime}}:
  
  # hwclock --systohc --''utc''
+
  # hwclock --systohc
  
=== Locale ===
+
This command assumes the hardware clock is set to [[Wikipedia:UTC|UTC]]. See [[System time#Time standard]] for details.
  
Uncomment the needed [[locale]]s in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}, then generate them with:
+
=== Localization ===
 +
 
 +
Uncomment {{ic|en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8}} and other needed [[locale]]s in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}, and generate them with:
  
 
  # locale-gen
 
  # locale-gen
  
Add {{ic|1=LANG=''your_locale''}} to {{ic|/etc/locale.conf}}, and console [[keymap]] and [[Fonts#Console_fonts|font]] preferences to {{ic|/etc/vconsole.conf}}.
+
Create the {{man|5|locale.conf}} file, and set the {{ic|LANG}} [[variable]] accordingly:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|1=/etc/locale.conf|2=
 +
LANG=''en_US.UTF-8''
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
If you [[#Set the keyboard layout|set the keyboard layout]], make the changes persistent in {{man|5|vconsole.conf}}:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|1=/etc/vconsole.conf|2=
 +
KEYMAP=''de-latin1''
 +
}}
  
 
=== Network configuration ===
 
=== Network configuration ===
  
[[Create]] the [[/etc/hostname]] file.
+
Create the [[hostname]] file:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/hostname|
 +
''myhostname''
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Add matching entries to {{man|5|hosts}}:
  
Configure the network for the newly installed environment: see [[Network configuration]] and [[Wireless network configuration]].
+
{{hc|/etc/hosts|
 +
127.0.0.1 localhost
 +
::1 localhost
 +
127.0.1.1 ''myhostname''.localdomain ''myhostname''
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
If the system has a permanent IP address, it should be used instead of {{ic|127.0.1.1}}.
 +
 
 +
Complete the [[network configuration]] for the newly installed environment.
  
 
=== Initramfs ===
 
=== Initramfs ===
  
When making configuration changes to [[mkinitcpio|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf]], create a new initial RAM disk with:
+
Creating a new ''initramfs'' is usually not required, because [[mkinitcpio]] was run on installation of the {{Pkg|linux}} package with ''pacstrap''.
 +
 
 +
For [[LVM#Configure mkinitcpio|LVM]], [[dm-crypt|system encryption]] or [[RAID#Configure mkinitcpio|RAID]], modify {{man|5|mkinitcpio.conf}} and recreate the initramfs image:
  
 
  # mkinitcpio -p linux
 
  # mkinitcpio -p linux
Line 155: Line 296:
 
=== Boot loader ===
 
=== Boot loader ===
  
See [[:Category:Boot loaders]] for available choices and configurations. Choices include [[GRUB]] (BIOS/UEFI), [[systemd-boot]] (UEFI) and [[syslinux]] (BIOS).
+
Choose and install a Linux-capable [[Arch boot process#Boot loader|boot loader]]. If you have an Intel or AMD CPU, enable [[microcode]] updates in addition.
 
 
If you have an Intel CPU, in addition to installing a boot loader, install the {{Pkg|intel-ucode}} package and [[Microcode#Enabling_Intel_microcode_updates|enable microcode updates]].
 
  
 
== Reboot ==
 
== Reboot ==
  
Exit the chroot environment by typing {{ic|exit}} or pressing {{ic|Ctrl+D}}.
+
Exit the chroot environment by typing {{ic|exit}} or pressing {{ic|Ctrl+d}}.
  
Optionally manually unmount all the partitions with {{ic|umount -R /mnt}}: this allows noticing any "busy" partitions, and finding the cause with [[Wikipedia:fuser_(Unix)|fuser]].
+
Optionally manually unmount all the partitions with {{ic|umount -R /mnt}}: this allows noticing any "busy" partitions, and finding the cause with {{man|1|fuser}}.
  
 
Finally, restart the machine by typing {{ic|reboot}}: any partitions still mounted will be automatically unmounted by ''systemd''. Remember to remove the installation media and then login into the new system with the root account.
 
Finally, restart the machine by typing {{ic|reboot}}: any partitions still mounted will be automatically unmounted by ''systemd''. Remember to remove the installation media and then login into the new system with the root account.

Latest revision as of 09:26, 1 August 2019

This document is a guide for installing Arch Linux from the live system booted with the official installation image. Before installing, it would be advised to view the FAQ. For conventions used in this document, see Help:Reading. In particular, code examples may contain placeholders (formatted in italics) that must be replaced manually.

For more detailed instructions, see the respective ArchWiki articles or the various programs' man pages, both linked from this guide. For interactive help, the IRC channel and the forums are also available.

Arch Linux should run on any x86_64-compatible machine with a minimum of 512 MiB RAM. A basic installation with all packages from the base group should take less than 800 MiB of disk space. As the installation process needs to retrieve packages from a remote repository, this guide assumes a working internet connection is available.

Pre-installation

The installation media and their GnuPG signatures can be acquired from the Download page.

Verify signature

It is recommended to verify the image signature before use, especially when downloading from an HTTP mirror, where downloads are generally prone to be intercepted to serve malicious images.

On a system with GnuPG installed, do this by downloading the PGP signature (under Checksums) to the ISO directory, and verifying it with:

$ gpg --keyserver-options auto-key-retrieve --verify archlinux-version-x86_64.iso.sig

Alternatively, from an existing Arch Linux installation run:

$ pacman-key -v archlinux-version-x86_64.iso.sig
Note:
  • The signature itself could be manipulated if it is downloaded from a mirror site, instead of from archlinux.org as above. In this case, ensure that the public key, which is used to decode the signature, is signed by another, trustworthy key. The gpg command will output the fingerprint of the public key.
  • Another method to verify the authenticity of the signature is to ensure that the public key's fingerprint is identical to the key fingerprint of the Arch Linux developer who signed the ISO-file. See Wikipedia:Public-key cryptography for more information on the public-key process to authenticate keys.

Boot the live environment

The live environment can be booted from a USB flash drive, an optical disc or a network with PXE. For alternative means of installation, see Category:Installation process.

  • Pointing the current boot device to a drive containing the Arch installation media is typically achieved by pressing a key during the POST phase, as indicated on the splash screen. Refer to your motherboard's manual for details.
  • When the Arch menu appears, select Boot Arch Linux and press Enter to enter the installation environment.
  • See README.bootparams for a list of boot parameters, and packages.x86_64 for a list of included packages.
  • You will be logged in on the first virtual console as the root user, and presented with a Zsh shell prompt.

To switch to a different console—for example, to view this guide with ELinks alongside the installation—use the Alt+arrow shortcut. To edit configuration files, nano, vi and vim are available.

Set the keyboard layout

The default console keymap is US. Available layouts can be listed with:

# ls /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/**/*.map.gz

To modify the layout, append a corresponding file name to loadkeys(1), omitting path and file extension. For example, to set a German keyboard layout:

# loadkeys de-latin1

Console fonts are located in /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/ and can likewise be set with setfont(8).

Verify the boot mode

If UEFI mode is enabled on an UEFI motherboard, Archiso will boot Arch Linux accordingly via systemd-boot. To verify this, list the efivars directory:

# ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars

If the directory does not exist, the system may be booted in BIOS or CSM mode. Refer to your motherboard's manual for details.

Connect to the internet

To set up a network connection, go through the following steps:

  1. Ensure your network interface is listed and enabled, for example with ip-link(8):
    # ip link
  2. Connect to the network. Plug in the Ethernet cable or connect to the wireless LAN.
  3. Configure your network connection:
    Note: The installation image enables dhcpcd (dhcpcd@interface.service) for wired network devices on boot.
  4. The connection may be verified with ping:
    # ping archlinux.org

Update the system clock

Use timedatectl(1) to ensure the system clock is accurate:

# timedatectl set-ntp true

To check the service status, use timedatectl status.

Partition the disks

When recognized by the live system, disks are assigned to a block device such as /dev/sda or /dev/nvme0n1. To identify these devices, use lsblk or fdisk.

# fdisk -l

Results ending in rom, loop or airoot may be ignored.

The following partitions are required for a chosen device:

If you want to create any stacked block devices for LVM, system encryption or RAID, do it now.

Example layouts

BIOS with MBR
Mount point Partition Partition type Suggested size
/mnt /dev/sdX1 Linux Remainder of the device
[SWAP] /dev/sdX2 Linux swap More than 512 MiB
UEFI with GPT
Mount point Partition Partition type Suggested size
/mnt/boot or /mnt/efi /dev/sdX1 EFI system partition 260–512 MiB
/mnt /dev/sdX2 Linux x86-64 root (/) Remainder of the device
[SWAP] /dev/sdX3 Linux swap More than 512 MiB

See also Partitioning#Example layouts.

Note:
  • Use fdisk or parted to modify partition tables, for example fdisk /dev/sdX.
  • Swap space can be set on a swap file for file systems supporting it.

Format the partitions

Once the partitions have been created, each must be formatted with an appropriate file system. For example, if the root partition is on /dev/sdX1 and will contain the ext4 file system, run:

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdX1

If you created a partition for swap, initialize it with mkswap:

# mkswap /dev/sdX2
# swapon /dev/sdX2

See File systems#Create a file system for details.

Mount the file systems

Mount the file system on the root partition to /mnt, for example:

# mount /dev/sdX1 /mnt

Create any remaining mount points (such as /mnt/efi) and mount their corresponding partitions.

genfstab will later detect mounted file systems and swap space.

Installation

Select the mirrors

Packages to be installed must be downloaded from mirror servers, which are defined in /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist. On the live system, all mirrors are enabled, and sorted by their synchronization status and speed at the time the installation image was created.

The higher a mirror is placed in the list, the more priority it is given when downloading a package. You may want to edit the file accordingly, and move the geographically closest mirrors to the top of the list, although other criteria should be taken into account.

This file will later be copied to the new system by pacstrap, so it is worth getting right.

Install the base packages

Use the pacstrap script to install the base package group:

# pacstrap /mnt base

This group does not include all tools from the live installation, such as btrfs-progs or specific wireless firmware; see packages.x86_64 for comparison.

To install packages and other groups such as base-devel, append the names to pacstrap (space separated) or to individual pacman commands after the #Chroot step.

Configure the system

Fstab

Generate an fstab file (use -U or -L to define by UUID or labels, respectively):

# genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab

Check the resulting file in /mnt/etc/fstab afterwards, and edit it in case of errors.

Chroot

Change root into the new system:

# arch-chroot /mnt

Time zone

Set the time zone:

# ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Region/City /etc/localtime

Run hwclock(8) to generate /etc/adjtime:

# hwclock --systohc

This command assumes the hardware clock is set to UTC. See System time#Time standard for details.

Localization

Uncomment en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8 and other needed locales in /etc/locale.gen, and generate them with:

# locale-gen

Create the locale.conf(5) file, and set the LANG variable accordingly:

/etc/locale.conf
LANG=en_US.UTF-8

If you set the keyboard layout, make the changes persistent in vconsole.conf(5):

/etc/vconsole.conf
KEYMAP=de-latin1

Network configuration

Create the hostname file:

/etc/hostname
myhostname

Add matching entries to hosts(5):

/etc/hosts
127.0.0.1	localhost
::1		localhost
127.0.1.1	myhostname.localdomain	myhostname

If the system has a permanent IP address, it should be used instead of 127.0.1.1.

Complete the network configuration for the newly installed environment.

Initramfs

Creating a new initramfs is usually not required, because mkinitcpio was run on installation of the linux package with pacstrap.

For LVM, system encryption or RAID, modify mkinitcpio.conf(5) and recreate the initramfs image:

# mkinitcpio -p linux

Root password

Set the root password:

# passwd

Boot loader

Choose and install a Linux-capable boot loader. If you have an Intel or AMD CPU, enable microcode updates in addition.

Reboot

Exit the chroot environment by typing exit or pressing Ctrl+d.

Optionally manually unmount all the partitions with umount -R /mnt: this allows noticing any "busy" partitions, and finding the cause with fuser(1).

Finally, restart the machine by typing reboot: any partitions still mounted will be automatically unmounted by systemd. Remember to remove the installation media and then login into the new system with the root account.

Post-installation

See General recommendations for system management directions and post-installation tutorials (like setting up a graphical user interface, sound or a touchpad).

For a list of applications that may be of interest, see List of applications.