Difference between revisions of "Installation guide"
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Revision as of 16:31, 6 February 2018
ro:Ghid de instalare
This document is a guide for installing Arch Linux from the live system booted with the official installation image. Before installing, it would be advised to view the FAQ. For conventions used in this document, see Help:Reading. In particular, code examples may contain placeholders (formatted in
italics) that must be replaced manually.
For more detailed instructions, see the respective ArchWiki articles or the various programs' man pages, both linked from this guide. For interactive help, the IRC channel and the forums are also available.
Arch Linux should run on any x86_64-compatible machine with a minimum of 512 MB RAM. A basic installation with all packages from the group should take less than 800 MB of disk space. As the installation process needs to retrieve packages from a remote repository, this guide assumes a working internet connection is available.
- 1 Pre-installation
- 2 Installation
- 3 Configure the system
- 4 Reboot
- 5 Post-installation
Download and boot the installation medium as explained in Category:Getting and installing Arch. You will be logged in on the first virtual console as the root user, and presented with a Zsh shell prompt; common commands such as can be tab-completed.
Set the keyboard layout
The default console keymap is US. To list available layouts, run
ls /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/**/*.map.gz. To modify the layout, append a corresponding file name to , omitting path and file extension. For example, run
loadkeys de-latin1 to set a German keyboard layout.
Console fonts are located in
/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/ and can likewise be set with .
Verify the boot mode
# ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
If the directory does not exist, the system may be booted in BIOS or CSM mode. Refer to your motherboard's manual for details.
Connect to the Internet
# ping archlinux.org
If no connection is available, stop the dhcpcd service with
systemctl stop dhcpcd@ and pressing
Tab. Proceed with Network configuration for wired devices or Wireless network configuration for wireless devices.
Update the system clock
Useto ensure the system clock is accurate:
# timedatectl set-ntp true
To check the service status, use
Partition the disks
When recognized by the live system, disks are assigned to a block device such as
/dev/sda. To identify these devices, use lsblk or fdisk.
# fdisk -l
Results ending in
airoot may be ignored.
The following partitions (shown with a numerical suffix) are required for a chosen device:
# fdisk /dev/sda
See Partitioning for more information.
Format the partitions
Once the partitions have been created, each must be formatted with an appropriate file system. For example, to format the root partition on
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
If you created a partition for swap (for example
/dev/sda3), initialize it with mkswap:
# mkswap /dev/sda3 # swapon /dev/sda3
See File systems#Create a file system for details.
Mount the file systems
Mount the file system on the root partition to
/mnt, for example:
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
Create mount points for any remaining partitions and mount them accordingly:
# mkdir /mnt/boot # mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/boot
genfstab will later detect mounted file systems and swap space.
Select the mirrors
Packages to be installed must be downloaded from mirror servers, which are defined in
/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist. On the live system, all mirrors are enabled, and sorted by their synchronization status and speed at the time the installation image was created.
The higher a mirror is placed in the list, the more priority it is given when downloading a package. You may want to edit the file accordingly, and move the geographically closest mirrors to the top of the list, although other criteria should be taken into account.
This file will later be copied to the new system by pacstrap, so it is worth getting right.
Install the base packages
Use the pacstrap script to install the package group:
# pacstrap /mnt base
This group does not include all tools from the live installation, such as packages.both for comparison.or specific wireless firmware; see
Configure the system
# genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
Check the resulting file in
/mnt/etc/fstab afterwards, and edit it in case of errors.
Change root into the new system:
# arch-chroot /mnt
Set the time zone:
# ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Region/City /etc/localtime
# hwclock --systohc
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8 and other needed localizations in
/etc/locale.gen, and generate them with:
LANG variable in accordingly, for example:
If you set the keyboard layout, make the changes persistent in :
Create the hostname file:
Add matching entries to:
127.0.0.1 localhost ::1 localhost 127.0.1.1 myhostname.localdomain myhostname
If the system has a permanent IP address, it should be used instead of
The newly installed environment has no network connection activated by default. See Network configuration#Network managers.
Creating a new initramfs is usually not required, because mkinitcpio was run on installation of the package with pacstrap.
For special configurations, modify thefile and recreate the initramfs image:
# mkinitcpio -p linux
Set the root password:
A Linux-capable boot loader must be installed in order to boot Arch Linux. See Category:Boot loaders for available choices.
If you have an Intel CPU, install the enable microcode updates.package in addition, and
Exit the chroot environment by typing
exit or pressing
Optionally manually unmount all the partitions with
umount -R /mnt: this allows noticing any "busy" partitions, and finding the cause with .
Finally, restart the machine by typing
reboot: any partitions still mounted will be automatically unmounted by systemd. Remember to remove the installation media and then login into the new system with the root account.
See General recommendations for system management directions and post-installation tutorials (like setting up a graphical user interface, sound or a touchpad).
For a list of applications that may be of interest, see List of applications.