Difference between revisions of "Installing Arch Linux on ZFS"

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This tutorial will show you how to install your root partition (/) of Arch Linux on ZFS.
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[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
 +
{{Article summary start}}
 +
{{Article summary text|This article describes the necessary procedures for installing Arch Linux onto a ZFS root filesystem.}}
 +
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
 +
{{Article summary wiki|ZFS}}
 +
{{Article summary wiki|ZFS on FUSE}}
 +
{{Article summary end}}
  
== Installing Arch Linux on a regular filesystem ==
+
{{Merge|ZFS|This article has too much duplicate installation information from the Beginners Guide.}}
1. Install Arch Linux to wherever you want with the default partition settings, select base-devel when selecting the packages to install, select '''[[syslinux]]''' as the bootloader, and boot into your new install. <br/>
+
2. Install some applications that we will be using:
+
# pacman -S git pbzip2
+
  
3. Installing the SPL/ZFS module<br/>
+
The [[Wikipedia:ZFS|Zettabyte File System (ZFS)]] is an advanced [[Wikipedia:Copy-on-write|copy-on-write]] filesystem designed to preserve data integrity from a multitude of possible corruption scenarios as well as provide simple administration features. ZFS makes disk administration effortless with support ZFS storage pools (zpools) and automatic mount handling. First released in 2005 for Solaris OS, ZFS has since become the flag bearer for next generation filesystems.
  
Install required packages (used by cower)
+
ZFS was first developed and released by Sun (now owned by Oracle) as [[Wikipedia:Open source software|Open Source Software]] licensed under the [[Wikipedia:Common Development and Distribution License|Common Development and Distribution License]] (CDDL) which is famously [http://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2010/06/uptake-of-native-linux-zfs-port-hampered-by-license-conflict/ incompatible with the GNU Public License]. This incompatibility prevents ZFS from being merged into the mainline kernel, and generally presents some obstacles for users that want to use ZFS in Linux.
# pacman -S yajl
+
  
Make a temp dir in your home folder (You will probably want to keep the resulting binaries)
+
[http://zfsonlinux.org/ ZFSonLinux.org] is a project funded by the [https://www.llnl.gov/ Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory] to develop a native Linux kernel module for its massive storage requirements and super computers.
# mkdir ~/tmp
+
# cd ~/tmp
+
  
Download cower
+
==Notes before installation==
# git clone git://github.com/falconindy/cower.git
+
# cd cower
+
  
Compile and install cower
+
* This guide uses the unofficial archzfs repository hosted at http://demizerone.com/demz-repo-core. This repository is maintained by Jesus Alvarez and is signed with his PGP key: [http://pgp.mit.edu:11371/pks/lookup?op=vindex&search=0x5E1ABF240EE7A126 0EE7A126].
# make cower
+
# make install
+
  
Download ZFS/SPL
+
* The ZFS packages are tied to the kernel version they were built against. This means it will not be possible to perform kernel updates until new packages (or package sources) are released by the ZFS package maintainer.
# cd ~/tmp && cower -d zfs spl
+
  
Install SPL
+
==Boot from the installation media==
# cd spl && makepkg -s
+
# pacman -U *.tar.xz
+
  
Install ZFS
+
It is a good idea make an installation media with the needed software included. Otherwise, you will need the latest archiso installation media burned to a CD or a USB key.  
# cd ../zfs && makepkg -s
+
# pacman -U *.tar.xz
+
  
=== Configuring the environment ===
+
To embed {{ic|zfs}} in the archiso, from an existing install, download the {{ic|archiso}} package.
1. Add the '''zfs''' hook to your '''HOOKS''' array in '''/etc/mkinitcpio.conf''' before '''filesystems''' and after '''sata''', and make a new initramfs with '''mkinitcpio'''.
+
  # pacman -S archiso
  # vim /etc/mkinitcpio.conf
+
HOOKS="...sata zfs filesytems ..."
+
 
+
# mkinitcpio -p linux
+
  
2. Edit your fstab to only mount things not managed by ZFS (/boot, swap, cdrom?)
+
Start the process:
  # vim /etc/fstab
+
  # cp -r /usr/share/archiso/configs/releng /root/media
  
3. Add '''zfs''' to your '''DAEMONS''' array in '''/etc/rc.conf''':
+
Edit the {{ic|packages.x86_64}} file adding those lines:
  # vim /etc/rc.conf
+
  spl-utils
  DAEMONS="syslog-ng zfs network ..."
+
  spl
 +
zfs-utils
 +
zfs
  
and that's it for the setup portion.
+
Edit the {{ic|pacman.conf}} file adding those lines (TODO, correctly embed keys in the installation media?):
 +
[demz-repo-archiso]
 +
SigLevel = Never
 +
Server = <nowiki>http://demizerone.com/$repo/$arch</nowiki>
  
=== Backing up Arch Linux ===
+
Add other packages in {{ic|packages.both}}, {{ic|packages.i686}}, or {{ic|packages.x86_64}} if needed and create the image.
Make a temporary directory to bind '''/''' to only backup the / without any other mountpoints:
+
  # ./build.sh -v
  # mkdir /tmp/zfs
+
# mount -o bind / /tmp/zfs
+
# mount -o bind /boot /tmp/zfs/boot
+
# cd /tmp/zfs
+
# tar --exclude arch-zfs.tar --exclude var/cache/pacman/pkg -cvpf arch-zfs.tar .
+
  
Compress the tarball with '''[[pbzip2]]''' (dont use [[bzip2]].. it will take a much longer time since it's single-threaded, use pbzip2 if you have a multithreaded system)
+
The image will be in the {{ic|/root/media/out}} directory.
# pbzip2 arch-zfs.tar
+
  
Save this file somewhere because we will be moving it to our new installation afterwards ('''arch-zfs.tar.bz2''')
+
More informations about the process can be read in [http://kroweer.wordpress.com/2011/09/07/creating-a-custom-arch-linux-live-usb/ this guide] or in the [[Archiso]] article.
  
== New install with ZFS as the filesystem ==
+
If you are installing onto a UEFI system, see [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#Create UEFI bootable USB from ISO]] for creating UEFI compatible installation media.
  
In order to partition the system, I was using '''System Rescue CD v2.5.1'''. The reason I'm using 2.5.1 is because it's the last version that had the
+
==Setup pacman==
native ZFS on Linux modules. Any version before or later does not have them. Since the link for 2.5.1 was removed from the author's website, I recommend you
+
to use the Gentoo Live DVD 2012. http://torrents.gentoo.org/ , download the `livedvd-amd64-multilib-2012.1`.
+
  
{{Note|If anyone knows of another live cd that like sysresccd that has the ZFS on Linux modules, definitely feel free to add it here}}
+
Activate the required network connection and then edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}} and configure the mirrors for pacman to use.  Once that is done, edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} and add the archzfs repository:
  
=== Partitioning ===
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/pacman.conf|<nowiki>
Our system will be using GPT as the base and extlinux as the bootloader.
+
[demz-repo-core]
 +
Server = http://demizerone.com/$repo/$arch</nowiki>
 +
}}
  
Let's create a directory to hold out zfs pool
+
{{Note|You should change the repo name from 'demz-repo-core' to 'demz-repo-archiso' if you are using the standard Arch ISOs to install (didn't build your own, above)}}
# mkdir /mnt/pool
+
  
The layout will look like this:
+
Next, add the archzfs maintainer's PGP key to the local trust:
/dev/sda1 8300 Linux FS 250M # This will be our /boot partition
+
/dev/sda2 8200 Linux Swap <YOUR_RAM * 1.5> # or w/e calculations you use
+
/dev/sda3 bf01 Rest of Disk # This will be the ZFS pool
+
  
{{Warning|You cannot put the swap inside the ZFS pool yet because it will have problems. This will probably be fixed in a future upstream version.}}
+
    # pacman-key -r 0EE7A126
 +
    # pacman-key --lsign-key 0EE7A126
  
# Format the '''/boot''' partition as ext4 (or ext2-3)
+
Finally, update the pacman databases,
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
+
  
# Make the swap and turn it on
+
    # pacman -Syy
# mkswap /dev/sda2
+
# swapon
+
  
Load up the spl/zfs modules (if needed)
+
==Install needed packages==
# modprobe spl zfs
+
  
Create ZFS Pool and Mountpoints
+
This is also the best time to install your favorite text editor, otherwise nano will have to be used.
# zpool create -o ashift=12 -o cachefile= -O normalization=formD -R /mnt/pool rpool /dev/sda3
+
# zfs create -o mountpoint=none rpool/ROOT
+
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/ rpool/ROOT/arch
+
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/home rpool/HOME
+
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/root rpool/HOME/root
+
  
Mount your '''/boot''' partition
+
    # pacman -S archzfs dosfstools gptfdisk vim
# mkdir /mnt/pool/boot
+
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/pool/boot
+
  
Move the '''arch-zfs.tar.bz2''' file to your system. You can use scp if it's over the network, or a flash drive if you are within walking distance.
+
==Partition the destination drive==
# scp /arch-zfs.tar.bz2 root@<ip_of_new_computer>:/mnt/pool
+
  
Extract the Arch backup (Preloaded with ZFS modules and configured for ZFS)
+
===UEFI systems===
# cd /mnt/pool
+
# tar -xjpvf arch-zfs.tar.bz2 .
+
  
=== Install Extlinux bootloader ===
+
Use the cgdisk partition utility and create a GPT partition table:
Bind a few mountpoints in the chroot env before chroot so that '''[[extlinux]]''' can find the correct device
+
# mount --bind /proc ./proc
+
# mount --bind /dev ./dev
+
# mount --bind /sys ./sys
+
# env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . /bin/bash --login
+
 
+
# The below commands are executed within the chroot environment
+
+
# mkdir /boot/extlinux
+
# extlinux --install /boot/extlinux
+
  
Set correct boot flags in the [[GPT]] legacy bios and then flash gptmbr
+
  Part    Size  Type
# sgdisk /dev/sda --attributes=1:set:2
+
  ====    =====  =============
# sgdisk /dev/sda --atributes=1:show
+
      1    512M  EFI (ef00)
  # dd count=1 bs=440 conv=notrunc if=/usr/lib/syslinux/gptmbr.bin of=/dev/sda
+
      2    512M  Ext4 (8300)
 +
      2    XXXG  Solaris Root (bf00)
  
Make an '''extlinux.conf'''
+
{{Note|The EFI partion will be formatted to FAT32 and contain the UEFI boot loader. The Ext4 partition will contain the boot partition and kernel images.}}
# cd /boot/extlinux
+
# vim extlinux.conf
+
  
Inside '''extlinux.conf''' put the following
+
{{Note|The filesystem type codes for cgdisk are indicated in the parenthesis after the filesystem name.}}
  
PROMPT 0
+
{{Warning|The EFI partition must be at least 512MB specified by the UEFI standard.}}
TIMEOUT 50
+
UI menu.c32
+
+
MENU TITLE Boot Menu
+
DEFAULT arch
+
+
LABLE Arch
+
    MENU LABEL Arch Linux
+
    LINUX /vmlinuz-linux
+
    INITRD /initramfs-linux.img
+
    APPEND zfs=rpool/ROOT/arch zfs_force=1
+
  
and save it.
+
===BIOS systems===
  
That's it, restart your computer and you should be inside Arch on ZFS :)!
+
  Part    Size  Type
 +
  ====    =====  =============
 +
      2    1007K  BIOS Boot Partition (ef02)
 +
      1    512M  Ext4 (8300)
 +
      3    XXXG  Solaris Root (bf00)
 +
 
 +
{{Note|You will have to create the ext4 partition first due to cgdisk's disk alignment policies. Start it at sector 2048 to leave room for the BIOS parition.}}
 +
 
 +
==Format the destination disk==
 +
 
 +
===UEFI systems===
 +
 
 +
Format the EFI partition to FAT32
 +
 
 +
    mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1 -n EFIBOOT
 +
 
 +
Format the Ext4 boot partition
 +
 
 +
    mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda2 -L BOOT
 +
 
 +
===BIOS systems===
 +
 
 +
Format the Ext4 boot partition
 +
   
 +
    mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1 -L BOOT
 +
 
 +
{{Note|The boot filesystem is {{ic|sda1}} because of the order we created the partitions}}
 +
 
 +
The BIOS partition does not need a filesystem.
 +
 
 +
==Setup the ZFS filesystem==
 +
 
 +
First, make sure the ZFS modules are loaded,
 +
 
 +
    # modprobe zfs
 +
 
 +
===Create the root zpool===
 +
 
 +
    # zpool create zroot /dev/disk/by-id/<id-to-partition>
 +
 
 +
{{Warning|Always use id names when working with ZFS, otherwise import errors will occur.}}
 +
 
 +
===Create necessary filesystems===
 +
 
 +
If so desired, sub-filesystem mount points such as /home and /root can be created with the following commands:
 +
 
 +
    # zfs create zroot/home
 +
    # zfs create zroot/root
 +
<!-- Taken the following Swap info from https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/ZFS -->
 +
=== Swap partition ===
 +
 
 +
ZFS does not allow to use swapfiles, but you can use a ZFS volume as swap partition. It is importart to set the ZVOL block size to match the system page size, for x86_64 systems that is 4k.
 +
 
 +
Create a 8gb zfs volume:
 +
 
 +
  # zfs create -V 8G -b 4K <pool>/swap
 +
 
 +
Prepare it as swap partition:
 +
 
 +
  # mkswap /dev/zvol/<pool>/swap
 +
 
 +
Enable swap:
 +
 
 +
  # swapon /dev/zvol/<pool>/swap
 +
 
 +
To make it permament you need to edit your {{ic|/mnt/etc/fstab}} after pacstraping the system:
 +
 
 +
Add a line to {{ic|/mnt/etc/fstab}}:
 +
 
 +
  /dev/zvol/<pool>/swap none swap defaults 0 0
 +
 
 +
For safety, unmount all zfs filesystems if they are mounted:
 +
 
 +
    # zfs umount -a
 +
 
 +
===Configure the root filesystem===
 +
 
 +
Now it is time to set the mount point of the root filesystem:
 +
 
 +
    # zfs set mountpoint=/ zroot
 +
 
 +
and optionally, any sub-filesystems:
 +
 
 +
    # zfs set mountpoint=/home zroot/home
 +
    # zfs set mountpoint=/root zroot/root
 +
 
 +
Set the bootfs property on the descendant root filesystem so the boot loader knows where to find the operating system.
 +
 
 +
    # zpool set bootfs=zroot zroot
 +
 
 +
Export the pool,
 +
 
 +
    # zpool export zroot
 +
 
 +
{{Warning|Don't skip this, otherwise you will be required to use -f when importing your pools. This unloads the imported pool.}}
 +
{{Note|This might fail if you added a swap partition above. Need to turn it off with the ''swapoff'' command.}}
 +
 
 +
Finally, re-import the pool,
 +
 
 +
    # zpool import -d /dev/disk/by-id -R /mnt zroot
 +
 
 +
{{Note|"-d" is not the actual device id, but the /dev/by-id directory containing the symlinks.}}
 +
 
 +
If there is an error in this step, you can export the pool to redo the command. The ZFS filesystem is now ready to use.
 +
 
 +
==Mount the boot partitions==
 +
 
 +
===UEFI systems===
 +
 
 +
    # mkdir /mnt/boot
 +
    # mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/boot
 +
    # mkdir /mnt/boot/efi
 +
    # mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot/efi
 +
 
 +
===BIOS systems===
 +
 
 +
    # mkdir /mnt/boot
 +
    # mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot
 +
 
 +
==Install and configure the Arch Linux installation==
 +
 
 +
Install the base packages
 +
 
 +
    # pacstrap -i /mnt base base-devel
 +
 
 +
    The other packages will be installed in the chrooted environment
 +
Generate the fstab,
 +
 
 +
    # genfstab -U -p /mnt | grep boot >> /mnt/etc/fstab
 +
 
 +
{{Note|ZFS auto mounts its own partitions, so we do not need ZFS partitions in fstab file.}}
 +
 
 +
If installing on a UEFI system, you will need to load the efivars kernel module before chrooting into the installation:
 +
 
 +
    # modprobe efivars
 +
 
 +
Chroot into the installation
 +
 
 +
    # arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash
 +
 
 +
Next, follow the [[Beginners' Guide]] from the "Locale" section to the "Configure Pacman Section". Once done, edit {{ic|pacman.conf}}, add the archzfs repo (change it to {{ic|[demz-repo-core]}} now if you were using {{ic|[demz-repo-archiso]}} earlier), and update the pacman database,
 +
 
 +
    # pacman -Syy
 +
    # pacman -Su --ignore filesystem,bash
 +
    # pacman -S bash
 +
    # pacman -Su
 +
   
 +
    Now lets install the other needed packages.
 +
    # pacman -S gnupg vim archzfs
 +
 
 +
Re-create the initramfs, edit {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} and add {{ic|zfs}} before filesystems. Also, move {{ic|keyboard}} hook before {{ic|zfs}} so you can type in console if something goes wrong. You may also remove fsck. Your HOOKS line should look something like this:{{hc|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf|<nowiki>
 +
HOOKS="base udev autodetect modconf block keyboard zfs filesystems"
 +
</nowiki>
 +
}}
 +
Regenerate the initramfs with the command:
 +
 
 +
    # mkinitcpio -p linux
 +
 
 +
Finally, set root password and add a regular user.
 +
 
 +
==Setup the bootloader==
 +
 
 +
===UEFI systems===
 +
 
 +
Use EFISTUB and rEFInd for the UEFI boot loader. See [[Beginners' Guide#For UEFI motherboards]].  The kernel parameters in refind_linux.conf for zfs should include "zfs=bootfs", or "zfs=zroot", so the system can boot from ZFS.  The 'root' and 'rootfstype' parameters aren't needed.
 +
 
 +
===BIOS systems===
 +
 
 +
Follow the [[Grub2#BIOS_systems_2]] wiki. {{ic|grub-mkconfig}} fails for me, so I edited {{ic|grub.cfg}} manually.
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/boot/grub/grub.cfg|<nowiki>
 +
set timeout=2
 +
set default=0
 +
 
 +
# (0) Arch Linux
 +
menuentry "Arch Linux" {
 +
    set root=(hd0,1)
 +
    linux /vmlinuz-linux zfs=zroot
 +
    initrd /initramfs-linux.img
 +
}
 +
</nowiki>
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
==Unmount and restart==
 +
 
 +
This is it, we are done!
 +
 
 +
    # exit
 +
    # umount /mnt/boot
 +
    # zfs umount -a
 +
    # zpool export zroot
 +
    # reboot
 +
 
 +
{{Warning|If you do not properly export the zpool, the pool will refuse to import in the ramdisk environment and you will be stuck at the busybox terminal.}}
 +
 
 +
==Troubleshooting==
 +
 
 +
If the new installation does not boot because the zpool cannot be imported, you will need to chroot into the installation and properly export the zpool. See [[ZFS#Emergency chroot repair with archzfs]].
 +
 
 +
Once inside the chroot environment, load the ZFS module and force import the zpool,
 +
 
 +
    # zpool import -a -f
 +
 
 +
now export the pool:
 +
 
 +
    # zpool export <pool>
 +
 
 +
To see your available pools, use,
 +
 
 +
    # zpool status
 +
 
 +
It is necessary to export a pool because of the way ZFS uses the hostid to track the system the zpool was created on. The hostid is generated partly based on your network setup. During the installation in the archiso your network configuration could be different generating a different hostid than the one contained in your new installation. Once the zfs filesystem is exported and then re-imported in the new installation, the hostid is reset. See [http://osdir.com/ml/zfs-discuss/2011-06/msg00227.html Re: Howto zpool import/export automatically? - msg#00227].
 +
 
 +
If ZFS complains about "pool may be in use" after every reboot, you should properly export pool as described above, and then rebuild ramdisk in normally booted system:
 +
 
 +
    # mkinitcpio -p linux
 +
 
 +
==See also==
 +
 
 +
* [https://github.com/dajhorn/pkg-zfs/wiki/HOWTO-install-Ubuntu-to-a-Native-ZFS-Root-Filesystem HOWTO install Ubuntu to a Native ZFS Root]
 +
* [http://lildude.co.uk/zfs-cheatsheet ZFS Cheatsheet]

Revision as of 19:49, 15 July 2013

Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary end

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with ZFS.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: This article has too much duplicate installation information from the Beginners Guide. (Discuss in Talk:Installing Arch Linux on ZFS#)

The Zettabyte File System (ZFS) is an advanced copy-on-write filesystem designed to preserve data integrity from a multitude of possible corruption scenarios as well as provide simple administration features. ZFS makes disk administration effortless with support ZFS storage pools (zpools) and automatic mount handling. First released in 2005 for Solaris OS, ZFS has since become the flag bearer for next generation filesystems.

ZFS was first developed and released by Sun (now owned by Oracle) as Open Source Software licensed under the Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) which is famously incompatible with the GNU Public License. This incompatibility prevents ZFS from being merged into the mainline kernel, and generally presents some obstacles for users that want to use ZFS in Linux.

ZFSonLinux.org is a project funded by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop a native Linux kernel module for its massive storage requirements and super computers.

Notes before installation

  • The ZFS packages are tied to the kernel version they were built against. This means it will not be possible to perform kernel updates until new packages (or package sources) are released by the ZFS package maintainer.

Boot from the installation media

It is a good idea make an installation media with the needed software included. Otherwise, you will need the latest archiso installation media burned to a CD or a USB key.

To embed zfs in the archiso, from an existing install, download the archiso package.

# pacman -S archiso

Start the process:

# cp -r /usr/share/archiso/configs/releng /root/media

Edit the packages.x86_64 file adding those lines:

spl-utils
spl
zfs-utils
zfs

Edit the pacman.conf file adding those lines (TODO, correctly embed keys in the installation media?):

[demz-repo-archiso]
SigLevel = Never
Server = http://demizerone.com/$repo/$arch

Add other packages in packages.both, packages.i686, or packages.x86_64 if needed and create the image.

# ./build.sh -v

The image will be in the /root/media/out directory.

More informations about the process can be read in this guide or in the Archiso article.

If you are installing onto a UEFI system, see Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#Create UEFI bootable USB from ISO for creating UEFI compatible installation media.

Setup pacman

Activate the required network connection and then edit /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist and configure the mirrors for pacman to use. Once that is done, edit /etc/pacman.conf and add the archzfs repository:

# nano /etc/pacman.conf
[demz-repo-core]
Server = http://demizerone.com/$repo/$arch
Note: You should change the repo name from 'demz-repo-core' to 'demz-repo-archiso' if you are using the standard Arch ISOs to install (didn't build your own, above)

Next, add the archzfs maintainer's PGP key to the local trust:

   # pacman-key -r 0EE7A126
   # pacman-key --lsign-key 0EE7A126

Finally, update the pacman databases,

   # pacman -Syy

Install needed packages

This is also the best time to install your favorite text editor, otherwise nano will have to be used.

   # pacman -S archzfs dosfstools gptfdisk vim

Partition the destination drive

UEFI systems

Use the cgdisk partition utility and create a GPT partition table:

  Part     Size   Type
  ====     =====  =============
     1     512M   EFI (ef00)
     2     512M   Ext4 (8300)
     2     XXXG   Solaris Root (bf00)
Note: The EFI partion will be formatted to FAT32 and contain the UEFI boot loader. The Ext4 partition will contain the boot partition and kernel images.
Note: The filesystem type codes for cgdisk are indicated in the parenthesis after the filesystem name.
Warning: The EFI partition must be at least 512MB specified by the UEFI standard.

BIOS systems

  Part     Size   Type
  ====     =====  =============
     2     1007K  BIOS Boot Partition (ef02)
     1     512M   Ext4 (8300)
     3     XXXG   Solaris Root (bf00)
Note: You will have to create the ext4 partition first due to cgdisk's disk alignment policies. Start it at sector 2048 to leave room for the BIOS parition.

Format the destination disk

UEFI systems

Format the EFI partition to FAT32

   mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1 -n EFIBOOT

Format the Ext4 boot partition

   mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda2 -L BOOT

BIOS systems

Format the Ext4 boot partition

   mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1 -L BOOT
Note: The boot filesystem is sda1 because of the order we created the partitions

The BIOS partition does not need a filesystem.

Setup the ZFS filesystem

First, make sure the ZFS modules are loaded,

   # modprobe zfs

Create the root zpool

   # zpool create zroot /dev/disk/by-id/<id-to-partition>
Warning: Always use id names when working with ZFS, otherwise import errors will occur.

Create necessary filesystems

If so desired, sub-filesystem mount points such as /home and /root can be created with the following commands:

   # zfs create zroot/home
   # zfs create zroot/root

Swap partition

ZFS does not allow to use swapfiles, but you can use a ZFS volume as swap partition. It is importart to set the ZVOL block size to match the system page size, for x86_64 systems that is 4k.

Create a 8gb zfs volume:

 # zfs create -V 8G -b 4K <pool>/swap

Prepare it as swap partition:

 # mkswap /dev/zvol/<pool>/swap

Enable swap:

 # swapon /dev/zvol/<pool>/swap

To make it permament you need to edit your /mnt/etc/fstab after pacstraping the system:

Add a line to /mnt/etc/fstab:

 /dev/zvol/<pool>/swap none swap defaults 0 0

For safety, unmount all zfs filesystems if they are mounted:

   # zfs umount -a

Configure the root filesystem

Now it is time to set the mount point of the root filesystem:

   # zfs set mountpoint=/ zroot

and optionally, any sub-filesystems:

   # zfs set mountpoint=/home zroot/home
   # zfs set mountpoint=/root zroot/root

Set the bootfs property on the descendant root filesystem so the boot loader knows where to find the operating system.

   # zpool set bootfs=zroot zroot

Export the pool,

   # zpool export zroot
Warning: Don't skip this, otherwise you will be required to use -f when importing your pools. This unloads the imported pool.
Note: This might fail if you added a swap partition above. Need to turn it off with the swapoff command.

Finally, re-import the pool,

   # zpool import -d /dev/disk/by-id -R /mnt zroot
Note: "-d" is not the actual device id, but the /dev/by-id directory containing the symlinks.

If there is an error in this step, you can export the pool to redo the command. The ZFS filesystem is now ready to use.

Mount the boot partitions

UEFI systems

   # mkdir /mnt/boot
   # mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/boot
   # mkdir /mnt/boot/efi
   # mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot/efi

BIOS systems

   # mkdir /mnt/boot
   # mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot

Install and configure the Arch Linux installation

Install the base packages

   # pacstrap -i /mnt base base-devel
   The other packages will be installed in the chrooted environment

Generate the fstab,

   # genfstab -U -p /mnt | grep boot >> /mnt/etc/fstab
Note: ZFS auto mounts its own partitions, so we do not need ZFS partitions in fstab file.

If installing on a UEFI system, you will need to load the efivars kernel module before chrooting into the installation:

   # modprobe efivars

Chroot into the installation

   # arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash

Next, follow the Beginners' Guide from the "Locale" section to the "Configure Pacman Section". Once done, edit pacman.conf, add the archzfs repo (change it to [demz-repo-core] now if you were using [demz-repo-archiso] earlier), and update the pacman database,

   # pacman -Syy
   # pacman -Su --ignore filesystem,bash
   # pacman -S bash
   # pacman -Su
   
   Now lets install the other needed packages.
   # pacman -S gnupg vim archzfs
Re-create the initramfs, edit /etc/mkinitcpio.conf and add zfs before filesystems. Also, move keyboard hook before zfs so you can type in console if something goes wrong. You may also remove fsck. Your HOOKS line should look something like this:
/etc/mkinitcpio.conf
 
HOOKS="base udev autodetect modconf block keyboard zfs filesystems"

Regenerate the initramfs with the command:

   # mkinitcpio -p linux

Finally, set root password and add a regular user.

Setup the bootloader

UEFI systems

Use EFISTUB and rEFInd for the UEFI boot loader. See Beginners' Guide#For UEFI motherboards. The kernel parameters in refind_linux.conf for zfs should include "zfs=bootfs", or "zfs=zroot", so the system can boot from ZFS. The 'root' and 'rootfstype' parameters aren't needed.

BIOS systems

Follow the Grub2#BIOS_systems_2 wiki. grub-mkconfig fails for me, so I edited grub.cfg manually.

/boot/grub/grub.cfg
set timeout=2
set default=0

# (0) Arch Linux
menuentry "Arch Linux" {
    set root=(hd0,1)
    linux /vmlinuz-linux zfs=zroot
    initrd /initramfs-linux.img
}

Unmount and restart

This is it, we are done!

   # exit
   # umount /mnt/boot
   # zfs umount -a
   # zpool export zroot
   # reboot
Warning: If you do not properly export the zpool, the pool will refuse to import in the ramdisk environment and you will be stuck at the busybox terminal.

Troubleshooting

If the new installation does not boot because the zpool cannot be imported, you will need to chroot into the installation and properly export the zpool. See ZFS#Emergency chroot repair with archzfs.

Once inside the chroot environment, load the ZFS module and force import the zpool,

   # zpool import -a -f

now export the pool:

   # zpool export <pool>

To see your available pools, use,

   # zpool status

It is necessary to export a pool because of the way ZFS uses the hostid to track the system the zpool was created on. The hostid is generated partly based on your network setup. During the installation in the archiso your network configuration could be different generating a different hostid than the one contained in your new installation. Once the zfs filesystem is exported and then re-imported in the new installation, the hostid is reset. See Re: Howto zpool import/export automatically? - msg#00227.

If ZFS complains about "pool may be in use" after every reboot, you should properly export pool as described above, and then rebuild ramdisk in normally booted system:

   # mkinitcpio -p linux

See also