Installing Arch Linux on a USB key
|Summary help replacing me|
|Guide to installing, configuring and using a full-featured Arch Linux system on a USB flash drive.|
This page explains how to perform a regular Arch installation onto a USB key (or "flash drive"). In contrast to having a LiveUSB as covered in USB Installation Media, the result will be a persistent installation identical to normal installation to HDD, but on a USB flash drive.
- 1 Preparation
- 2 Installation
- 3 Configuration
- 4 Tips
- 5 See also
There are various ways of installing Arch on a USB stick, the simplest being from within Arch itself:
- If you are already running Arch, simply install and proceed with the Installation Guide just like you would from the iso, but you will not be using /dev/sda. Use
$ lsblkto get the /dev/sd* name of your USB key prior to installation.
- An Arch Linux CD/USB can be used to install Arch onto the USB key, via booting the CD/USB and following the Installation Guide. If booting from a Live USB, the installation will have to be made on a different USB stick.
- Or, if you have another Linux computer available (it need not be Arch), you can follow the instructions to install from existing Linux, and then skip to the configuration section.
Follow the Installation Guide as you normally would, with these exceptions:
- If cfdisk fails with "Partition ends in the final partial cylinder" fatal error, the only way to proceed is to kill all partitions on the drive. Open another terminal (
sdXis your usb drive), print partition table (p), check that it's ok, delete it (d) and write changes (w). Now return to cfdisk.
- It is highly recommended to review the Tips for Minimizing SSD Read/Writes on the SSD wiki article prior to selecting a filesystem. To sum up, ext4 without a journal should be fine. Recognize that flash has a limited number of writes, and a journaling file system will take some of these as the journal is updated. For this same reason, it is best to forgo a swap partition. Note that this does not affect installing onto a USB hard drive.
- Before creating the initial RAM disk
# mkinitcpio -p linux, in
blockhook to the hooks array right after udev. This is necessary for appropriate module loading in early userspace.
- If you want to be able to continue to use the thumb stick as a cross-platform removable drive, this can be accomplished by creating a partition housing an appropriate file system (most likely NTFS). Note that the data partition must be the first partition on the stick, as Windows assumes that there can only be one partition on a removable device, and will happily automount an EFI system partition otherwise. Remember to install and .
- Make sure that
/etc/fstabincludes the correct partition information for
/, and for any other partitions on the USB key. If the usb key is to be booted on several machines, it is quite likely that devices and number of available hard disks vary. So it is advised to use UUID or label:
To get the proper UUIDs for your partitions issue blkid
menu.lst, the GRUB legacy configuration file, should be edited to (loosely) match the following:
With the static /dev/sdaX:
root (hd0,0) kernel /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/sda1 ro initrd /boot/initramfs-linux.img
When using label your menu.lst should look like this:
root (hd0,0) kernel /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/disk/by-label/Arch ro initrd /boot/initramfs-linux.img
And for UUID, it should be like this:
root (hd0,0) kernel /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/disk/by-uuid/3a9f8929-627b-4667-9db4-388c4eaaf9fa ro initrd /boot/initramfs-linux.img
With the static /dev/sdaX
LABEL Arch MENU LABEL Arch Linux LINUX ../vmlinuz-linux APPEND root=/dev/sdax ro INITRD ../initramfs-linux.img
Using your UUID:
LABEL Arch MENU LABEL Arch Linux LINUX ../vmlinuz-linux APPEND root=UUID=3a9f8929-627b-4667-9db4-388c4eaaf9fa ro INITRD ../initramfs-linux.img
Using your USB install on multiple machines
For the most versatile compatibility it is recommended that you install the x86_64 architecture with multilib support because it will run on both 32 and 64 bit architectures.
For laptop use (or use with a tactile screen) you will need thepackage for the touchpad/touchscreen to work.
For instructions on fine tuning or troubleshooting touchpad issues, see the Touchpad Synaptics article.
The recommended video drivers are:.
For the most versatile compatibility install all of the open source video drivers include their multilib counterparts:.
Persistent block device naming
Alternatively, you may create udev rule to create custom symlink for your usb key. Then use this symlink in fstab and bootloader configuration. See udev#Setting static device names for details.
You may want to disable KMS for various reasons, such as getting a blank screen or a "no signal" error from the display, when using some Intel video cards, etc. To disable KMS, add
nomodeset as a kernel parameter. See Kernel parameters for more info.
The fallback image should be used for maximum compatibility.
Optimizing for the lifespan of flash memory
- Again, it is highly recommended to review the Tips for Minimizing SSD Read/Writes on the SSD wiki article.