Difference between revisions of "Intel graphics"

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[[pacman|Install]] the {{Pkg|xf86-video-intel}} package which is available in the [[Official Repositories|official repositories]]. It provides the DDX driver for 2D acceleration and an [[XvMC]] driver for video decoding on older GPUs. It pulls in {{Pkg|intel-dri}} as a dependency, providing the DRI driver for 3D acceleration.
 
[[pacman|Install]] the {{Pkg|xf86-video-intel}} package which is available in the [[Official Repositories|official repositories]]. It provides the DDX driver for 2D acceleration and an [[XvMC]] driver for video decoding on older GPUs. It pulls in {{Pkg|intel-dri}} as a dependency, providing the DRI driver for 3D acceleration.
  
If you want to use hardware accelerated video decoding/encoding on newer GPUs, install the [[VA-API]] driver provided by {{Pkg|libva-intel-driver}} package also, available in the official repositories.
+
Hardware accelerated video decoding/encoding on newer GPUs is possible through the [[VA-API]] driver provided by {{Pkg|libva-intel-driver}} package also, available in the official repositories.
  
You may need to install {{Pkg|lib32-intel-dri}} in 64-bit systems to use 3D acceleration in 32-bit programs.
+
{{Note|User ''may'' need to install {{Pkg|lib32-intel-dri}} in 64-bit systems to use 3D acceleration in 32-bit programs.}}
  
 
== Configuration ==
 
== Configuration ==
Line 42: Line 42:
  
 
== KMS (Kernel Mode Setting) ==
 
== KMS (Kernel Mode Setting) ==
 +
 +
{{Tip|If you have problems with the resolution, check [[Kernel_Mode_Setting#Forcing_modes_and_EDID|this page]].}}
  
 
[[KMS]] is required in order to run X and a desktop environment such as [[GNOME]], [[KDE]], [[Xfce]], [[LXDE]], etc. KMS is supported by Intel chipsets that use the i915 DRM driver and is enabled by default as of kernel v2.6.32. Versions 2.10 and newer of the {{Pkg|xf86-video-intel}} driver no longer support UMS (except for the very old 810 chipset family), making the use of KMS mandatory<sup>[https://www.archlinux.org/news/484/]</sup>. KMS is typically initialized after the kernel is bootstrapped. It is possible, however, to enable KMS during bootstrap itself, allowing the entire boot process to run at the native resolution.
 
[[KMS]] is required in order to run X and a desktop environment such as [[GNOME]], [[KDE]], [[Xfce]], [[LXDE]], etc. KMS is supported by Intel chipsets that use the i915 DRM driver and is enabled by default as of kernel v2.6.32. Versions 2.10 and newer of the {{Pkg|xf86-video-intel}} driver no longer support UMS (except for the very old 810 chipset family), making the use of KMS mandatory<sup>[https://www.archlinux.org/news/484/]</sup>. KMS is typically initialized after the kernel is bootstrapped. It is possible, however, to enable KMS during bootstrap itself, allowing the entire boot process to run at the native resolution.
  
{{Note|You '''must''' remove any deprecated references to {{ic|vga}} or {{ic|nomodeset}} from your boot configuration.}}
+
{{Note|Users '''must''' remove any deprecated references to {{ic|vga}} or {{ic|nomodeset}} from boot configuration.}}
  
 
To proceed, add the {{ic|i915}} module to the {{ic|MODULES}} line in {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}}:
 
To proceed, add the {{ic|i915}} module to the {{ic|MODULES}} line in {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}}:
  
 
  MODULES="'''i915'''"
 
  MODULES="'''i915'''"
 +
 +
If you are using a custom EDID file, you should embed it into initramfs as well:
 +
 +
{{hc|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf|
 +
2=FILES="/lib/firmware/edid/your_edid.bin"}}
  
 
Now, regenerate the initramfs:
 
Now, regenerate the initramfs:
Line 69: Line 76:
  
 
=== Choose acceleration method ===
 
=== Choose acceleration method ===
 +
*UXA - (Unified Acceleration Architecture) is the mature backend that was introduced to support the GEM driver model.
 +
*SNA - (Sandybridge's New Acceleration) is the faster successor for hardware supporting it.
  
The DDX driver allows to preset your desired acceleration method. The default method is UXA, which is more stable but slower than SNA. SNA has improved performance, but still considered experimental. Check benchmarks done by Phoronix [http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=MTEzOTE]. These can be found [http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=article&item=intel_glamor_first&num=1 here for Sandy Bridge] and [http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=article&item=intel_ivy_glamor&num=1 here for Ivy Bridge]. UXA is still a solid option, if experiencing trouble with SNA.
+
The default method is UXA, which is more stable but slower than SNA. SNA has improved performance, but still considered experimental. Check benchmarks done by Phoronix [http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=MTEzOTE]. These can be found [http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=article&item=intel_glamor_first&num=1 here for Sandy Bridge] and [http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=article&item=intel_ivy_glamor&num=1 here for Ivy Bridge]. UXA is still a solid option, if experiencing trouble with SNA. If you are having trouble with UXA though you might have better luck with SNA.
  
If you want to use the new SNA method, create {{ic|/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf}} with the following content:
+
To use the new SNA method, create {{ic|/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf}} with the following content:
  
 
{{hc|/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf|
 
{{hc|/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf|
Line 93: Line 102:
 
* {{ic|full_aspect}}: scale the resolution to the maximum possible but keep the aspect ratio.
 
* {{ic|full_aspect}}: scale the resolution to the maximum possible but keep the aspect ratio.
  
If it does not work, you can try:
+
If it does not work, try:
  
 
  $ xrandr --output LVDS1 --set "scaling mode" param
 
  $ xrandr --output LVDS1 --set "scaling mode" param
Line 101: Line 110:
 
=== KMS Issue: console is limited to small area ===
 
=== KMS Issue: console is limited to small area ===
  
One of the low-resolution video ports may be enabled on boot which is causing the terminal to utilize a small area of the screen. To fix, explicitly disable the port with an i915 module setting with {{ic|1=video=SVIDEO-1:d}} as you kernel command line parameter in your bootloader. See [[Kernel parameters]] for more info.
+
One of the low-resolution video ports may be enabled on boot which is causing the terminal to utilize a small area of the screen. To fix, explicitly disable the port with an i915 module setting with {{ic|1=video=SVIDEO-1:d}} in the kernel command line parameter in the bootloader. See [[Kernel parameters]] for more info.
  
If that does not work, you may also try disabling TV1 or VGA1 instead of SVIDEO-1.
+
If that does not work, try disabling TV1 or VGA1 instead of SVIDEO-1.
  
 
=== H.264 decoding on GMA 4500 ===
 
=== H.264 decoding on GMA 4500 ===
  
The {{Pkg|libva-driver-intel}} package provides MPEG-2 decoding only for GMA 4500 series GPUs. The H.264 decoding support is maintained in a separated g45-h264 branch, which can be used by installing {{AUR|libva-driver-intel-g45-h264}} package, available in the [[Arch User Repository]]. Note however that this support is experimental and not currently in active development. Using the VA-API with this driver on a GMA 4500 series GPU will offload the CPU but may not result in as smooth a playback as non-accelerated playback. Tests using mplayer showed that using vaapi to play back an H.264 encoded 1080p video halved the CPU load (compared to the XV overlay) but resulted in very choppy playback, while 720p worked reasonably well [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=150550]. This is echoed by other experiences [http://www.emmolution.org/?p=192&cpage=1#comment-12292].
+
The {{Pkg|libva-intel-driver}} package provides MPEG-2 decoding only for GMA 4500 series GPUs. The H.264 decoding support is maintained in a separated g45-h264 branch, which can be used by installing {{AUR|libva-driver-intel-g45-h264}} package, available in the [[Arch User Repository]]. Note however that this support is experimental and not currently in active development. Using the VA-API with this driver on a GMA 4500 series GPU will offload the CPU but may not result in as smooth a playback as non-accelerated playback. Tests using mplayer showed that using vaapi to play back an H.264 encoded 1080p video halved the CPU load (compared to the XV overlay) but resulted in very choppy playback, while 720p worked reasonably well [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=150550]. This is echoed by other experiences [http://www.emmolution.org/?p=192&cpage=1#comment-12292].
  
 
=== Setting gamma and brightness ===
 
=== Setting gamma and brightness ===
Line 126: Line 135:
  
 
== Troubleshooting ==
 
== Troubleshooting ==
 
=== Glxgears shows low performance results ===
 
 
{{Note|{{ic|glxgears}} is not a benchmark tool for performance comparison between multiple systems.}}
 
 
If you run {{ic|glxgears}} in order to check your system's graphics performance, you may notice it showing results around 60 FPS. For example:
 
 
[...]
 
311 frames in 5.0 seconds = 61.973 FPS
 
311 frames in 5.0 seconds = 62.064 FPS
 
311 frames in 5.0 seconds = 62.026 FPS
 
[...]
 
 
That is not caused by performance regression, but because the system graphics are using [[Wikipedia:Analog television#Vertical synchronization|vertical synchronization]], which is your display's native frames per second.
 
 
==== Disable VSYNC ====
 
 
To disable VSYNC just add in your {{ic|/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf}} in {{ic|Section "Device"}} the string {{ic|Option "SwapbuffersWait" "false"}}.
 
 
Alternatively, set {{ic|vblank_mode}} to {{ic|0}} in {{ic|~/.drirc}} and make sure that {{ic|driver}} is set to {{ic|dri2}}:
 
 
{{hc|~/.drirc|2=
 
<device screen="0" driver="dri2">
 
  <application name="Default">
 
  <option name="vblank_mode" value="0"/>
 
  </application>
 
</device>}}
 
  
 
=== Blank screen during boot, when "Loading modules" ===
 
=== Blank screen during boot, when "Loading modules" ===
  
If you are using "late start" KMS and the screen goes blank when "Loading modules", it may help to add {{ic|i915}} and {{ic|intel_agp}} to the initramfs. See [[Intel#KMS (Kernel Mode Setting)|the above]] KMS section.
+
If using "late start" KMS and the screen goes blank when "Loading modules", it may help to add {{ic|i915}} and {{ic|intel_agp}} to the initramfs. See [[Intel#KMS (Kernel Mode Setting)|the above]] KMS section.
  
 
Alternatively, appending the following [[Kernel parameters|kernel parameter]] seems to work as well:
 
Alternatively, appending the following [[Kernel parameters|kernel parameter]] seems to work as well:
Line 164: Line 146:
 
=== Tear-free video ===
 
=== Tear-free video ===
  
If you are using the SNA acceleration method, you can get rid of video tearing by adding the following to the {{ic|Device}} section of {{ic|/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf}}:
+
If using the SNA acceleration method, ablate video tearing by adding the following to the {{ic|Device}} section of {{ic|/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf}}:
  
 
  Option "TearFree" "true"
 
  Option "TearFree" "true"
 +
 +
{{Note|This option may not work when {{ic|SwapbuffersWait}} is {{ic|false}}.}}
  
 
=== X freeze/crash with intel driver ===
 
=== X freeze/crash with intel driver ===
  
If you have issue with X crashing, GPU hang or problem with frozen X, then the fix may be to disable the GPU usage with the {{ic|NoAccel}} option:
+
Some issues with X crashing, GPU hanging, or problems with X freezing, can be fixed by disabling the GPU usage with the {{ic|NoAccel}} option:
  
 
{{hc|/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf|
 
{{hc|/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf|
Line 179: Line 163:
 
EndSection}}
 
EndSection}}
  
Alternatively, you could try to disable the 3D acceleration only with the {{ic|DRI}} option:
+
Alternatively, try to disable the 3D acceleration only with the {{ic|DRI}} option:
 
{{hc|/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf|
 
{{hc|/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf|
 
Section "Device"
 
Section "Device"
Line 186: Line 170:
 
   Option "DRI" "False"
 
   Option "DRI" "False"
 
EndSection}}
 
EndSection}}
 +
 +
If you experience crashes and have
 +
 +
Option "TearFree" "true"
 +
Option "AccelMethod" "sna"
 +
 +
in your config file, in most cases these can be fixed by adding
 +
 +
i915.semaphores=1
 +
 +
to your boot parameters.
  
 
=== Adding undetected resolutions ===
 
=== Adding undetected resolutions ===
Line 196: Line 191:
  
 
=== Black textures in video games ===
 
=== Black textures in video games ===
 
+
Users experiencing black textures in video games may find a solution by enabling S3TC texture compression support.   
If you are experiencing black textures in your video games the solution may be enabling S3TC texture compression support.   
+
 
It can be enabled through {{Pkg|driconf}} or by installing {{Pkg|libtxc_dxtn}}.
 
It can be enabled through {{Pkg|driconf}} or by installing {{Pkg|libtxc_dxtn}}.
  
 
This "issue" will be fixed very soon in the [http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=MTIwOTg newer drivers]
 
This "issue" will be fixed very soon in the [http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=MTIwOTg newer drivers]
  
You can read more about S3TC at:  
+
Read more about S3TC at:  
 
http://dri.freedesktop.org/wiki/S3TC
 
http://dri.freedesktop.org/wiki/S3TC
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S3_Texture_Compression
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S3_Texture_Compression
  
One of the games that is affected by this issue is [http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=article&item=unigine_oilrush_gold&num=2 Oil Rush]
+
One of the games that is affected by this issue is [http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=article&item=unigine_oilrush_gold&num=2 Oil Rush] and World of Warcraft using Wine.
 +
 
 +
=== Weathered colors (colorspace problem) ===
 +
{{Note|This problem is related to the changes in the kernel 3.9}}
 +
Kernel 3.9 contains the Intel driver changes allowing easy RGB Limited range settings which can cause weathered colors in some cases. It is related to the new "Automatic" mode for the "Broadcast RGB" property.
 +
One can force mode e.g. {{ic|xrandr --output HDMI1 --set "Broadcast RGB" "Full"}} using apropriate output device if other than HDMI1.
 +
 
 +
Also there are other related problems which can be fixed editing GPU registers. More information can be found [http://lists.freedesktop.org/archives/intel-gfx/2012-April/016217.html] and [http://github.com/OpenELEC/OpenELEC.tv/commit/09109e9259eb051f34f771929b6a02635806404c]
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
  
* http://intellinuxgraphics.org/documentation.html (includes a list of supported hardware)
+
* https://01.org/linuxgraphics/documentation (includes a list of supported hardware)
 
* [[KMS]] &mdash; Arch wiki article on kernel mode setting
 
* [[KMS]] &mdash; Arch wiki article on kernel mode setting
* [[Xrandr]] &mdash; If you have problems setting the resolution
+
* [[Xrandr]] &mdash; Problems setting the resolution
 
* Arch Linux forums: [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=522665#p522665 Intel 945GM, Xorg, Kernel - performance]
 
* Arch Linux forums: [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=522665#p522665 Intel 945GM, Xorg, Kernel - performance]

Revision as of 21:33, 6 May 2013

Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary end

Since Intel provides and supports open source drivers, Intel graphics are now essentially plug-and-play.

For a comprehensive list of Intel GPU models and corresponding chipsets and CPUs, see this comparison on wikipedia.

Note: PowerVR-based graphics (GMA 500 and GMA 3600 series) are not supported by open source drivers.

Installation

Prerequisite: Xorg

Install the xf86-video-intel package which is available in the official repositories. It provides the DDX driver for 2D acceleration and an XvMC driver for video decoding on older GPUs. It pulls in intel-dri as a dependency, providing the DRI driver for 3D acceleration.

Hardware accelerated video decoding/encoding on newer GPUs is possible through the VA-API driver provided by libva-intel-driver package also, available in the official repositories.

Note: User may need to install lib32-intel-dri in 64-bit systems to use 3D acceleration in 32-bit programs.

Configuration

There is no need for any kind of configuration to get the X.Org running (an xorg.conf is unneeded, but needs to be configured correctly if present).

For the list of options, type man intel.

KMS (Kernel Mode Setting)

Tip: If you have problems with the resolution, check this page.

KMS is required in order to run X and a desktop environment such as GNOME, KDE, Xfce, LXDE, etc. KMS is supported by Intel chipsets that use the i915 DRM driver and is enabled by default as of kernel v2.6.32. Versions 2.10 and newer of the xf86-video-intel driver no longer support UMS (except for the very old 810 chipset family), making the use of KMS mandatory[1]. KMS is typically initialized after the kernel is bootstrapped. It is possible, however, to enable KMS during bootstrap itself, allowing the entire boot process to run at the native resolution.

Note: Users must remove any deprecated references to vga or nomodeset from boot configuration.

To proceed, add the i915 module to the MODULES line in /etc/mkinitcpio.conf:

MODULES="i915"

If you are using a custom EDID file, you should embed it into initramfs as well:

/etc/mkinitcpio.conf
FILES="/lib/firmware/edid/your_edid.bin"

Now, regenerate the initramfs:

# mkinitcpio -p linux

and reboot the system. Everything should work now.

Module-based Powersaving Options

The i915 kernel module allows for configuration via /etc/modprobe.d/i915.conf wherein users can define powersavings options. A listing of options is available via the following command:

$ modinfo i915 | grep power

An example /etc/modprobe.d/i915.conf:

options i915 i915_enable_rc6=7 i915_enable_fbc=1 lvds_downclock=1

Tips and tricks

Choose acceleration method

  • UXA - (Unified Acceleration Architecture) is the mature backend that was introduced to support the GEM driver model.
  • SNA - (Sandybridge's New Acceleration) is the faster successor for hardware supporting it.

The default method is UXA, which is more stable but slower than SNA. SNA has improved performance, but still considered experimental. Check benchmarks done by Phoronix [2]. These can be found here for Sandy Bridge and here for Ivy Bridge. UXA is still a solid option, if experiencing trouble with SNA. If you are having trouble with UXA though you might have better luck with SNA.

To use the new SNA method, create /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf with the following content:

/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf
Section "Device"
   Identifier  "Intel Graphics"
   Driver      "intel"
   Option      "AccelMethod"  "sna"
EndSection

Setting scaling mode

This can be useful for some full screen applications:

$ xrandr --output LVDS1 --set PANEL_FITTING param

where param can be:

  • center: resolution will be kept exactly as defined, no scaling will be made,
  • full: scale the resolution so it uses the entire screen or
  • full_aspect: scale the resolution to the maximum possible but keep the aspect ratio.

If it does not work, try:

$ xrandr --output LVDS1 --set "scaling mode" param

where param is one of "Full", "Center" or "Full aspect".

KMS Issue: console is limited to small area

One of the low-resolution video ports may be enabled on boot which is causing the terminal to utilize a small area of the screen. To fix, explicitly disable the port with an i915 module setting with video=SVIDEO-1:d in the kernel command line parameter in the bootloader. See Kernel parameters for more info.

If that does not work, try disabling TV1 or VGA1 instead of SVIDEO-1.

H.264 decoding on GMA 4500

The libva-intel-driver package provides MPEG-2 decoding only for GMA 4500 series GPUs. The H.264 decoding support is maintained in a separated g45-h264 branch, which can be used by installing libva-driver-intel-g45-h264AUR package, available in the Arch User Repository. Note however that this support is experimental and not currently in active development. Using the VA-API with this driver on a GMA 4500 series GPU will offload the CPU but may not result in as smooth a playback as non-accelerated playback. Tests using mplayer showed that using vaapi to play back an H.264 encoded 1080p video halved the CPU load (compared to the XV overlay) but resulted in very choppy playback, while 720p worked reasonably well [3]. This is echoed by other experiences [4].

Setting gamma and brightness

Intel offers no way to adjust these at the driver level. Luckily these can be set with xgamma and xrandr.

Gamma can be set with:

$ xgamma -gamma 1.0

or:

$ xrandr --output VGA1 --gamma 1.0:1.0:1.0

Brightness can be set with:

$ xrandr --output VGA1 --brightness 1.0

Troubleshooting

Blank screen during boot, when "Loading modules"

If using "late start" KMS and the screen goes blank when "Loading modules", it may help to add i915 and intel_agp to the initramfs. See the above KMS section.

Alternatively, appending the following kernel parameter seems to work as well:

video=SVIDEO-1:d

Tear-free video

If using the SNA acceleration method, ablate video tearing by adding the following to the Device section of /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf:

Option "TearFree" "true"
Note: This option may not work when SwapbuffersWait is false.

X freeze/crash with intel driver

Some issues with X crashing, GPU hanging, or problems with X freezing, can be fixed by disabling the GPU usage with the NoAccel option:

/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf
Section "Device"
   Identifier "Intel Graphics"
   Driver "intel"
   Option "NoAccel" "True"
EndSection

Alternatively, try to disable the 3D acceleration only with the DRI option:

/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf
Section "Device"
   Identifier "Intel Graphics"
   Driver "intel"
   Option "DRI" "False"
EndSection

If you experience crashes and have

Option "TearFree" "true"
Option "AccelMethod" "sna"

in your config file, in most cases these can be fixed by adding

i915.semaphores=1

to your boot parameters.

Adding undetected resolutions

This issue is covered on the Xrandr page.

Slowness after an upgrade to libGL 9 and Intel-DRI 9

Downgrade to Intel-DRI 8 and libGL 8.

Black textures in video games

Users experiencing black textures in video games may find a solution by enabling S3TC texture compression support. It can be enabled through driconf or by installing libtxc_dxtn.

This "issue" will be fixed very soon in the newer drivers

Read more about S3TC at: http://dri.freedesktop.org/wiki/S3TC http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S3_Texture_Compression

One of the games that is affected by this issue is Oil Rush and World of Warcraft using Wine.

Weathered colors (colorspace problem)

Note: This problem is related to the changes in the kernel 3.9

Kernel 3.9 contains the Intel driver changes allowing easy RGB Limited range settings which can cause weathered colors in some cases. It is related to the new "Automatic" mode for the "Broadcast RGB" property. One can force mode e.g. xrandr --output HDMI1 --set "Broadcast RGB" "Full" using apropriate output device if other than HDMI1.

Also there are other related problems which can be fixed editing GPU registers. More information can be found [5] and [6]

See also