Difference between revisions of "Java"

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[[Category:Programming language]]
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[[cs:Java]]
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[[it:Java]]
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[[pt:Java]]
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[[ru:Java]]
 
[[tr:Java]]
 
[[tr:Java]]
{{i18n|Java}}
 
[[fr:Java]]
 
 
 
{{Article summary start}}
 
{{Article summary start}}
 
{{Article summary text|This article explains how to install and configure JRE/JDK.}}
 
{{Article summary text|This article explains how to install and configure JRE/JDK.}}
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== Installation ==
 
== Installation ==
 
The only JVM implementation in supported repositories is the open source [http://openjdk.java.net/ OpenJDK]. Additional Java implementations are available via the [[AUR]]. Keep in mind that the open-source and closed-source versions cannot be installed simultaneously. The open-source version is nearly perfect at the time of writing, and there is mostly no need anymore to install Oracle's proprietary version of Java.
 
The only JVM implementation in supported repositories is the open source [http://openjdk.java.net/ OpenJDK]. Additional Java implementations are available via the [[AUR]]. Keep in mind that the open-source and closed-source versions cannot be installed simultaneously. The open-source version is nearly perfect at the time of writing, and there is mostly no need anymore to install Oracle's proprietary version of Java.
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{{Note|After installation, the Java environment will need recognized by the shell ({{Ic|$PATH}} variable and {{Ic|$JAVA_HOME}}).  This can be done from the command line by sourcing {{Ic|/etc/profile}}, and for Desktop Environments it is likely a logout/login will be necessary.}}
  
 
=== OpenJDK JVM ===
 
=== OpenJDK JVM ===
To be able to run Java programs, you can install [[Wikipedia:JRE|Java runtime]] with the package {{Pkg|jre7-openjdk}}, available in the [[official repositories]]. There is also a [[Wikipedia:JDK|Java Development Kit]] in {{Pkg|jdk7-openjdk}}. For those interested in the old Java v6, both JRE6 and JDK6 can be found in {{Pkg|openjdk6}}.
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To be able to run Java programs, you can install [[Wikipedia:JRE|Java runtime]] with the package {{Pkg|jre7-openjdk}}, available in the [[official repositories]]. There is also a [[Wikipedia:JDK|Java Development Kit]] in {{Pkg|jdk7-openjdk}}. As of [https://mailman.archlinux.org/pipermail/arch-general/2013-February/032930.html March 2013] {{Ic|openjdk6}} is no longer available.
  
You will likely need the {{Pkg|icedtea-web-java7}} package for Java functionality in browsers, namely [[Wikipedia:Java applet|applets]] and [[Wikipedia:Java Web Start|Web Start]] (for more details see [[Browser Plugins#Java]]).
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You will likely need the {{Pkg|icedtea-web-java7}} package for Java functionality in browsers, namely [[Wikipedia:Java applet|applets]] and [[Wikipedia:Java Web Start|Web Start]] (for more details see [[Browser Plugins#Java (IcedTea)]]).
  
{{Note|If you use a non-reparenting window manager and Java 6, you should uncomment the corresponding line in {{Ic|/etc/profile.d/openjdk6.sh}}}}
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==== Flagging OpenJDK packages as out-of-date ====
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Please flag packages {{Pkg|jre7-openjdk-headless}}, {{Pkg|jre7-openjdk}} and {{Pkg|jdk7-openjdk}} as out-of-date based on their [http://icedtea.wildebeest.org/download/source IcedTea version] (2.3.4) rather than on their Oracle version (u9).
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IcedTea-web projects (packages {{Pkg|icedtea-web}} and {{Pkg|icedtea-web-java7}}) have version numbers that are independant from the IcedTea one (packages {{Pkg|jre7-openjdk-headless}}, {{Pkg|jre7-openjdk}} and {{Pkg|jdk7-openjdk}}) so please flag each package based on its right version number.
  
 
=== Oracle JVM ===
 
=== Oracle JVM ===
Prior to the [http://mailman.archlinux.org/pipermail/arch-general/2011-August/021671.html retirement of the Oracle DLJ], it was possible to simply install the {{Ic|jre}} and {{Ic|jdk}} packages from the repositories. However, now Arch Linux (and any other GNU/Linux distribution) can no longer package the Oracle implementation of Java. The OpenJDK packages are the recommended providers of {{Ic|java-runtime}} and {{Ic|java-environment}}.
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Prior to the [https://mailman.archlinux.org/pipermail/arch-general/2011-August/021671.html retirement of the Oracle DLJ], it was possible to simply install the {{AUR|jre}} and {{AUR|jdk}} packages from the repositories. However, now Arch Linux (and any other GNU/Linux distribution) can no longer package the Oracle implementation of Java. The OpenJDK packages are the recommended providers of {{Ic|java-runtime}} and {{Ic|java-environment}}.
 
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AUR contains packages for {{AUR|jre}} and {{AUR|jdk}}, the Oracle implementations of Java.
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{{Note|You will need to ensure that {{Ic|/opt/java/jre/bin/}} is in your {{Ic|$PATH}} variable, and that {{Ic|$JAVA_HOME}} points to the correct position (generally {{Ic|/opt/java}}). You can do this by either logging out and in again, or by sourcing {{Ic|/etc/profile}}.}}
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=== Oracle JVM (Java 6) ===
 
=== Oracle JVM (Java 6) ===
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AUR contains package for {{AUR|jre6}} and {{AUR|jdk6}}, which are the Oracle implementations of Java SE 6.  These packages conflict with the other java packages, so there are also {{AUR|jre6-compat}} and {{AUR|jdk6-compat}} which can be used along side other java installations.
  
Seeing as how {{AUR|jre}} and {{AUR|jdk}} have been updated to Java SE 7, the installation of Java SE 6, the older reference implementation of Java can't be installed through the AUR. However, it can be installed manually. To do so, consult the article [[Java SE 6]] for instructions on how to do so manually.
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=== Kaffe (Discontinued) ===
 
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=== Apache Harmony ===
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[http://harmony.apache.org/ Apache Harmony] is a clean room re-implementation of the Java language and comes under the Free Apache license. A binary re-distribution of the Harmony JRE can be found in the AUR: {{AUR|apache-harmony-jre}}.
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=== Kaffe ===
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[http://www.kaffe.org/ Kaffe] is another clean-room implementation of a Java VM without official endorsement from Sun/Oracle. A [[git]] package of Kaffe can be found in the [[AUR]] here: {{AUR|kaffe-git}}. The Kaffe VM is redistributed according to the GPL license.
 
[http://www.kaffe.org/ Kaffe] is another clean-room implementation of a Java VM without official endorsement from Sun/Oracle. A [[git]] package of Kaffe can be found in the [[AUR]] here: {{AUR|kaffe-git}}. The Kaffe VM is redistributed according to the GPL license.
  
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=== VMkit LLVM-based JIT VM ===
 
=== VMkit LLVM-based JIT VM ===
[http://vmkit.llvm.org/index.html VMkit] is an LLVM-based framework for JIT virtual machines. J3 is a JVM running on VMkit. A broken build for VMkit can be found in the [[AUR]] here: {{AUR|vmkit-svn}}. J3 depends on the GNU classpath libraries, but may also work with the Apache class path libraries.
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[http://vmkit.llvm.org/index.html VMkit] is an LLVM-based framework for JIT virtual machines. J3 is a JVM running on VMkit. The webpage can be found here: [[http://vmkit.llvm.org/get_started.html vmkit]]. J3 depends on the GNU classpath libraries, but may also work with the Apache class path libraries.
  
 
=== Parrot VM ===
 
=== Parrot VM ===
The [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/?q=parrot Parrot VM] offers experimental [http://trac.parrot.org/parrot/wiki/Languages support for Java] through two different methods: Either as a [http://code.google.com/p/parrot-jvm/ Java VM bytecode translator] or as a [https://github.com/chrisdolan/perk Java compiler targeting the Parrot VM]. Available in the AUR package {{AUR|parrot-git}}.
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The [https://www.archlinux.org/packages/?q=parrot Parrot VM] offers experimental [http://trac.parrot.org/parrot/wiki/Languages support for Java] through two different methods: Either as a [http://code.google.com/p/parrot-jvm/ Java VM bytecode translator] or as a [https://github.com/chrisdolan/perk Java compiler targeting the Parrot VM]. Available in the AUR package {{AUR|parrot-git}}.
  
 
== Troubleshooting ==
 
== Troubleshooting ==
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You can also try replacing padsp with aoss, which can also fix it under standard ALSA as well as in Pulse, do what works best. I must warn everyone that these hacks sometimes work perfect, but are sometimes very unstable as well.
 
You can also try replacing padsp with aoss, which can also fix it under standard ALSA as well as in Pulse, do what works best. I must warn everyone that these hacks sometimes work perfect, but are sometimes very unstable as well.
 
=== Impersonate Another Window Manager ===
 
=== Impersonate Another Window Manager ===
You may use the {{pkg|wmname}} from [http://tools.suckless.org/wmname  suckless.org] to make the JVM believe you are running a different window manager. This may solve a rendering issue of Java GUIs occouring in window managers like [[Awesome]] or [[Dwm]].
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You may use the {{pkg|wmname}} from [http://tools.suckless.org/wmname  suckless.org] to make the JVM believe you are running a different window manager. This may solve a rendering issue of Java GUIs occuring in window managers like [[Awesome]] or [[Dwm]].
  
 
<pre>$ wmname LG3D</pre>
 
<pre>$ wmname LG3D</pre>
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This works because the JVM contains a hard-coded list of known non-re-parenting window managers.  For maximum irony, many users prefer to impersonate &ldquo;<code>LG3D</code>,&rdquo; the non-re-parenting window manager [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Looking_Glass written by Sun, in Java].
 
This works because the JVM contains a hard-coded list of known non-re-parenting window managers.  For maximum irony, many users prefer to impersonate &ldquo;<code>LG3D</code>,&rdquo; the non-re-parenting window manager [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Looking_Glass written by Sun, in Java].
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=== Fonts are Illegible ===
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In addition to the suggestions mentioned below in [[https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Java#Better_font_rendering| tips and tricks]] some fonts may still not be legible afterwards. If this is the case there is a good chance ms-fonts are being used. Install {{AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}} from the AUR.
  
 
== Tips and tricks ==
 
== Tips and tricks ==
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  export _JAVA_OPTIONS="-D'''<option 1>''' -D'''<option 2>'''..."
 
  export _JAVA_OPTIONS="-D'''<option 1>''' -D'''<option 2>'''..."
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For example, to use system anti-aliased fonts and make swing use the GTK look and feel:
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export _JAVA_OPTIONS='-Dawt.useSystemAAFontSettings=on -Dswing.aatext=true -Dswing.defaultlaf=com.sun.java.swing.plaf.gtk.GTKLookAndFeel'
  
 
=== Better font rendering ===
 
=== Better font rendering ===
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=== GTK LookAndFeel ===
 
=== GTK LookAndFeel ===
 
If your Java programs look ugly, you may want to set up the default look and feel for the swing components: {{Ic|1=swing.defaultlaf=com.sun.java.swing.plaf.gtk.GTKLookAndFeel}}.
 
If your Java programs look ugly, you may want to set up the default look and feel for the swing components: {{Ic|1=swing.defaultlaf=com.sun.java.swing.plaf.gtk.GTKLookAndFeel}}.
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Some stubborn Java programs insist on using the cross platform Metal look and feel.  In some of these cases you can force these apps to use the GTK look and feel by setting the following property:
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{{Ic|1=swing.crossplatformlaf=com.sun.java.swing.plaf.gtk.GTKLookAndFeel}}.
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=== Symlinks change ===
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Typically, OpenJDK installation creates symlinks in {{Ic|/usr/bin}} for java, javac ... etc. If you want to change these symlinks to any other JDK (e.g. if you installed environment-compat packages of Oracle JDK), [https://github.com/d1x/linux-utils/blob/master/replace-java-symlinks this] script might be handy for you.

Revision as of 12:37, 15 March 2013

Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary end

"Java is a programming language originally developed by Sun Microsystems and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++ but has a simpler object model and fewer low-level facilities. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture." — Wikipedia article

Installation

The only JVM implementation in supported repositories is the open source OpenJDK. Additional Java implementations are available via the AUR. Keep in mind that the open-source and closed-source versions cannot be installed simultaneously. The open-source version is nearly perfect at the time of writing, and there is mostly no need anymore to install Oracle's proprietary version of Java.

Note: After installation, the Java environment will need recognized by the shell ($PATH variable and $JAVA_HOME). This can be done from the command line by sourcing /etc/profile, and for Desktop Environments it is likely a logout/login will be necessary.

OpenJDK JVM

To be able to run Java programs, you can install Java runtime with the package jre7-openjdk, available in the official repositories. There is also a Java Development Kit in jdk7-openjdk. As of March 2013 openjdk6 is no longer available.

You will likely need the icedtea-web-java7 package for Java functionality in browsers, namely applets and Web Start (for more details see Browser Plugins#Java (IcedTea)).

Flagging OpenJDK packages as out-of-date

Please flag packages jre7-openjdk-headless, jre7-openjdk and jdk7-openjdk as out-of-date based on their IcedTea version (2.3.4) rather than on their Oracle version (u9). IcedTea-web projects (packages icedtea-web and icedtea-web-java7) have version numbers that are independant from the IcedTea one (packages jre7-openjdk-headless, jre7-openjdk and jdk7-openjdk) so please flag each package based on its right version number.

Oracle JVM

Prior to the retirement of the Oracle DLJ, it was possible to simply install the jreAUR and jdkAUR packages from the repositories. However, now Arch Linux (and any other GNU/Linux distribution) can no longer package the Oracle implementation of Java. The OpenJDK packages are the recommended providers of java-runtime and java-environment.

Oracle JVM (Java 6)

AUR contains package for jre6AUR and jdk6AUR, which are the Oracle implementations of Java SE 6. These packages conflict with the other java packages, so there are also jre6-compatAUR and jdk6-compatAUR which can be used along side other java installations.

Kaffe (Discontinued)

Kaffe is another clean-room implementation of a Java VM without official endorsement from Sun/Oracle. A git package of Kaffe can be found in the AUR here: kaffe-gitAUR. The Kaffe VM is redistributed according to the GPL license.

BEA JRockit JIT JVM (+JDK)

JRockit is JIT version of Java, provided by Oracle and available from the AUR here: jrockitAUR.

VMkit LLVM-based JIT VM

VMkit is an LLVM-based framework for JIT virtual machines. J3 is a JVM running on VMkit. The webpage can be found here: [vmkit]. J3 depends on the GNU classpath libraries, but may also work with the Apache class path libraries.

Parrot VM

The Parrot VM offers experimental support for Java through two different methods: Either as a Java VM bytecode translator or as a Java compiler targeting the Parrot VM. Available in the AUR package parrot-gitAUR.

Troubleshooting

MySQL

Due to the fact that the JDBC-drivers often use the port in the URL to establish a connection to the database, it is considered "remote" (i.e., MySQL does not listen to the port as per its default settings) despite the fact that they are possibly running on the same host, Thus, to use JDBC and MySQL you should enable remote access to MySQL, following instructions in MySQL article.

Java sound with Pulseaudio

Note: This procedure is likely to be relevant for previous version of Java (Java 6) only.

By default, Java and Pulseaudio do not get along very well with each other, but this is easy to fix using padsp.

(These paths are correct for Sun's Java, you will need to change the paths for OpenJDK)

First, rename the java binary to java.bin

# mv /opt/java/jre/bin/java /opt/java/jre/bin/java.bin

Then, create a new launcher script at /opt/java/jre/bin/java

#!/bin/sh
padsp /opt/java/jre/bin/java.bin "$@"

Finally, make the launcher script executable

# chmod +x /opt/java/jre/bin/java

You will need to redo this process on each update of Java.

You can also try replacing padsp with aoss, which can also fix it under standard ALSA as well as in Pulse, do what works best. I must warn everyone that these hacks sometimes work perfect, but are sometimes very unstable as well.

Impersonate Another Window Manager

You may use the wmname from suckless.org to make the JVM believe you are running a different window manager. This may solve a rendering issue of Java GUIs occuring in window managers like Awesome or Dwm.

$ wmname LG3D

(You must restart the application in question after issuing the wmname command.)

This works because the JVM contains a hard-coded list of known non-re-parenting window managers. For maximum irony, many users prefer to impersonate “LG3D,” the non-re-parenting window manager written by Sun, in Java.

Fonts are Illegible

In addition to the suggestions mentioned below in [tips and tricks] some fonts may still not be legible afterwards. If this is the case there is a good chance ms-fonts are being used. Install ttf-ms-fontsAUR from the AUR.

Tips and tricks

Note: Suggestions in this section are applicable to all applications, using explicitly installed (external) Java runtime. Some applications are bundled with own (private) runtime or use own mechanics for GUI, font rendering, etc., so none of written below is guaranteed to work.

Behavior of most Java applications can be controlled by supplying predefined variables to Java runtime. From this forum post, a way to do it consists of adding the following line in your ~/.bashrc (or /etc/profile.d/jre.sh to affect all users):

export _JAVA_OPTIONS="-D<option 1> -D<option 2>..."

For example, to use system anti-aliased fonts and make swing use the GTK look and feel:

export _JAVA_OPTIONS='-Dawt.useSystemAAFontSettings=on -Dswing.aatext=true -Dswing.defaultlaf=com.sun.java.swing.plaf.gtk.GTKLookAndFeel'

Better font rendering

Both closed source and open source implementations of Java are known to have improperly implemented anti-aliasing of fonts. This can be fixed with the following options: awt.useSystemAAFontSettings=on, swing.aatext=true

GTK LookAndFeel

If your Java programs look ugly, you may want to set up the default look and feel for the swing components: swing.defaultlaf=com.sun.java.swing.plaf.gtk.GTKLookAndFeel.

Some stubborn Java programs insist on using the cross platform Metal look and feel. In some of these cases you can force these apps to use the GTK look and feel by setting the following property:

swing.crossplatformlaf=com.sun.java.swing.plaf.gtk.GTKLookAndFeel.

Symlinks change

Typically, OpenJDK installation creates symlinks in /usr/bin for java, javac ... etc. If you want to change these symlinks to any other JDK (e.g. if you installed environment-compat packages of Oracle JDK), this script might be handy for you.