Difference between revisions of "Kernel parameters (Русский)"

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[[Category:Kernel]]
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[[Category:Kernel (Русский)]]
 
[[en:Kernel parameters]]
 
[[en:Kernel parameters]]
 
[[es:Kernel parameters]]
 
[[es:Kernel parameters]]
[[ja:Kernel parameters]]
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[[ja:カーネルパラメータ]]
[[zh-CN:Kernel parameters]]
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[[zh-hans:Kernel parameters]]
 
{{unmaintained (Русский)}}
 
{{unmaintained (Русский)}}
 
{{Translateme (Русский)|переведено лишь частично}}
 
{{Translateme (Русский)|переведено лишь частично}}
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Kernel parameters can be set either temporarily by editing the boot menu when it shows up, or by modifying the boot loader's configuration file.
 
Kernel parameters can be set either temporarily by editing the boot menu when it shows up, or by modifying the boot loader's configuration file.
  
Here we are adding the parameters {{ic|quiet}} and {{ic|splash}} to [[Syslinux]], [[GRUB]], [[GRUB Legacy]], [[LILO]], [[Gummiboot]] and [[rEFInd]].
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Here we are adding the parameters {{ic|quiet}} and {{ic|splash}} to [[Syslinux]], [[GRUB]], [[GRUB Legacy]], [[LILO]], [[gummiboot (Русский)]] and [[rEFInd (Русский)]].
  
 
==== Syslinux ====
 
==== Syslinux ====
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{{Note (Русский)|If you have not set a value for menu timeout, you will need to hold {{ic|Space}} while booting for the Gummiboot menu to appear.}}
 
{{Note (Русский)|If you have not set a value for menu timeout, you will need to hold {{ic|Space}} while booting for the Gummiboot menu to appear.}}
  
* To make the change persistent after reboot, edit {{ic|/boot/loader/entries/arch.conf}} (assuming you set up your [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#EFI System Partition|EFI System Partition]] and configuration files according to the instructions in the [[Beginners' guide#Gummiboot|Beginners' Guide]]) and add them to the {{ic|options}} line:
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* To make the change persistent after reboot, edit {{ic|/boot/loader/entries/arch.conf}} (assuming you set up your [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#EFI System Partition|EFI System Partition]]{{Broken section link}} and configuration files according to the instructions in the [[systemd-boot]] and add them to the {{ic|options}} line:
  
 
: {{bc|1=options root=/dev/sda2 rw ''quiet splash''}}
 
: {{bc|1=options root=/dev/sda2 rw ''quiet splash''}}
  
Полная информация по настройке [[Gummiboot]].
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Полная информация по настройке [[gummiboot (Русский)]].
  
 
==== rEFInd ====
 
==== rEFInd ====
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| systemd.unit=rescue || Загрузка в однопользовательском режиме (root).
 
| systemd.unit=rescue || Загрузка в однопользовательском режиме (root).
 
|-
 
|-
| nomodeset || Disable [[Kernel Mode Setting]].
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| nomodeset || Disable [[Kernel mode setting]].
 
|-
 
|-
 
| zswap.enabled || Enable [[Zswap]].
 
| zswap.enabled || Enable [[Zswap]].
 
|}
 
|}
  
<sup>1</sup> [[mkinitcpio]] uses {{ic|ro}} as default value when neither {{ic|rw}} or {{ic|ro}} is set by the [[Boot loaders|boot loader]]. Boot loaders may set the value to use, for example GRUB uses {{ic|rw}} by default (see {{Bug|36275}} as a reference).
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<sup>1</sup> [[mkinitcpio]] uses {{ic|ro}} as default value when neither {{ic|rw}} or {{ic|ro}} is set by the [[boot loader]]. Boot loaders may set the value to use, for example GRUB uses {{ic|rw}} by default (see {{Bug|36275}} as a reference).
  
 
Полный список всех опций смотрите в [https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt документации].
 
Полный список всех опций смотрите в [https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt документации].
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* [[Power saving#Kernel parameters]]
 
* [[Power saving#Kernel parameters]]
 
* [http://files.kroah.com/lkn/lkn_pdf/ch09.pdf List of kernel parameters with further explanation and grouped by similar options]
 
* [http://files.kroah.com/lkn/lkn_pdf/ch09.pdf List of kernel parameters with further explanation and grouped by similar options]
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* [http://ipxe.org/ iPXE - open source boot firmware]

Revision as of 09:58, 28 September 2018

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Статья не гарантирует актуальность информации. Помогите русскоязычному сообществу поддержкой подобных страниц. См. Команда переводчиков ArchWiki

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Примечания: переведено лишь частично (обсуждение: Talk:Kernel parameters (Русский)#)

Существует три способа передачи параметров ядру и контроля над ним:

  1. При сборке ядра. Полная информация Kernel Compilation.
  2. При запуске ядра (через системный загрузчик).
  3. На этапе выполнения (через файлы в /proc и /sys). Более подробно смотрите документацию по утилите sysctl.

This page now explains in more detail the second method and shows a list of most used kernel parameters in Arch Linux.

Настройка

Примечание: You can check the parameters your system was booted up with by running $ cat /proc/cmdline and see if it includes your changes.

Kernel parameters can be set either temporarily by editing the boot menu when it shows up, or by modifying the boot loader's configuration file.

Here we are adding the parameters quiet and splash to Syslinux, GRUB, GRUB Legacy, LILO, gummiboot (Русский) and rEFInd (Русский).

Syslinux

  • Press Tab when the menu shows up and add them at the end of the string:
linux /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/sda3 initrd=/boot/initramfs-linux.img quiet splash
Press Enter to boot with these parameters.
  • To make the change persistent after reboot, edit /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg and add them to the APPEND line:
APPEND root=/dev/sda3 quiet splash

For more information on configuring Syslinux, see the Syslinux article.

GRUB

  • Нажмите e в момент показа загрузочного меню и добавьте в строку, содержащую linux:
linux /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=UUID=978e3e81-8048-4ae1-8a06-aa727458e8ff quiet splash
Нажмите b для загрузки с этими параметрами.
  • To make the change persistent after reboot, while you could manually edit /boot/grub/grub.cfg with the exact line from above, for beginners it's recommended to:
Edit /etc/default/grub and append your kernel options to the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT line:
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet splash"
And then automatically re-generate the grub.cfg file with:
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

Полная информация по настройке GRUB.

GRUB Legacy

  • Press e when the menu shows up and add them on the kernel line:
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/sda3 quiet splash
Press b to boot with these parameters.
  • To make the change persistent after reboot, edit /boot/grub/menu.lst and add them to the kernel line, exactly like above.

Полная информация по настройке GRUB Legacy.

iPXE

#!ipxe

kernel http://mirror.yandex.ru/archlinux/iso/2014.11.01/arch/boot/x86_64/vmlinuz archiso_http_srv=http://mirror.yandex.ru/archlinux/iso/2014.11.01/ archisobasedir=arch checksum=y ip=dhcp
initrd http://mirror.yandex.ru/archlinux.iso/2014.11.01/arch/boot/x86_64/archiso.img
boot

Полная информация по настройке iPXE - open source boot firmware.

LILO

  • Добавить /etc/lilo.conf:
image=/boot/vmlinuz-linux
        ...
        quiet splash

Полная информация по настройке LILO.

Gummiboot

  • Press e when the menu appears and add the parameters to the end of the string:
initrd=\initramfs-linux.img root=/dev/sda2 rw quiet splash
Press Enter to boot with these parameters.
Примечание: If you have not set a value for menu timeout, you will need to hold Space while booting for the Gummiboot menu to appear.
  • To make the change persistent after reboot, edit /boot/loader/entries/arch.conf (assuming you set up your EFI System Partition[broken link: invalid section] and configuration files according to the instructions in the systemd-boot and add them to the options line:
options root=/dev/sda2 rw quiet splash

Полная информация по настройке gummiboot (Русский).

rEFInd

  • To make the change persistent after reboot, edit /boot/EFI/arch/refind_linux.conf (ie. refind_linux.conf in the folder your kernel is located in) and append them to all/required lines, for example:
"Boot to X"   "root=PARTUUID=978e3e81-8048-4ae1-8a06-aa727458e8ff ro rootfstype=ext4 quiet splash
  • If you've disabled auto-detection of OS's in rEFInd and are defining OS stanzas instead in /boot/EFI/refind/refind.conf to load your OS's, you can edit it like:
menuentry "Arch" {
	loader /EFI/arch/vmlinuz-arch.efi
	options "quiet splash ro root=PARTUUID=978e3e81-8048-4ae1-8a06-aa727458e8ff"

Полная информация по настройке Менеджер загрузки rEFInd

Список параметров

Parameters always come in parameter or parameter=value. All of these parameters are case-sensitive.

Примечание: Not all of the listed options are always available. Most are associated with subsystems and work only if the kernel is configured with those subsystems built in. They also depend on the presence of the hardware they are associated with.
Параметр Описание
root= Корневая файловая система.
ro При загрузке монтировать корневую ФС только в режиме чтения (default1).
rw При загрузке монтировать корневую ФС в режиме чтения/записи.
initrd= Путь образа-инициализатора.
init= Запустить процесс пользовательского режима /sbin/init (ссылка на systemd в Arch).
init=/bin/sh Boot to shell.
systemd.unit=
systemd.unit=multi-user Boot to a specified runlevel.
systemd.unit=rescue Загрузка в однопользовательском режиме (root).
nomodeset Disable Kernel mode setting.
zswap.enabled Enable Zswap.

1 mkinitcpio uses ro as default value when neither rw or ro is set by the boot loader. Boot loaders may set the value to use, for example GRUB uses rw by default (see FS#36275 as a reference).

Полный список всех опций смотрите в документации.

Ссылки