Difference between revisions of "Kernels (简体中文)"

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[[cs:Kernel Compilation]]
 
[[cs:Kernel Compilation]]
 
[[en:Kernels]]
 
[[en:Kernels]]
[[es:Kernel Compilation]]
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[[es:Kernels]]
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[[fr:Noyaux Linux]]
 
[[it:Kernels]]
 
[[it:Kernels]]
 +
[[ja:カーネル]]
 +
[[ru:Kernels]]
 +
{{Related articles start (简体中文)}}
 +
{{Related|Kernel modules (简体中文)}}
 +
{{Related|Kernel Panics (简体中文)}}
 +
{{Related|Linux-ck (简体中文)}}
 +
{{Related|sysctl}}
 +
{{Related articles end}}
 +
 
{{translateme (简体中文)}}
 
{{translateme (简体中文)}}
{{Article summary start|摘要}}
 
{{Article summary text|本文讨论 Arch 中的内核、内核补丁和内核编译。}}
 
{{Article summary heading|相关页面}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|Kernel modules (简体中文)}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|Kernel Panics (简体中文)}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|Linux-ck (简体中文)}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|sysctl}}
 
{{Article summary end}}
 
 
{{out of date|没有同步}}
 
{{out of date|没有同步}}
 +
 
来自 [[Wikipedia:Kernel (computing)|Wikipedia]]:
 
来自 [[Wikipedia:Kernel (computing)|Wikipedia]]:
 
:''内核是大多数计算机操作系统的主要组件。它是沟通应用程序和硬件层实际数据处理的桥梁。内核的任务包括管理系统的资源(软硬件之间的通信)。''
 
:''内核是大多数计算机操作系统的主要组件。它是沟通应用程序和硬件层实际数据处理的桥梁。内核的任务包括管理系统的资源(软硬件之间的通信)。''
  
There are various alternative kernels available for Arch Linux in addition to the mainline Linux kernel. This article lists some of the options available in the repositories with a brief description of each. There is also a description of patches that can be applied to the system's kernel. The article ends with an overview of custom kernel compilation with links to various methods.
+
在Arch Linux中,除了官方内核之外,还有许多各种各样的内核可供选择。这篇文章列出了这些内核和它们的简短介绍。这里还列出了一些可用的内核补丁的介绍。在文章的最后讲述了自己编译内核的方法的总览。
  
 
==预编译的内核==
 
==预编译的内核==
 
===官方软件包===
 
===官方软件包===
 
;{{Pkg|linux}}
 
;{{Pkg|linux}}
:The Linux kernel and modules from the [core] repository. Vanilla kernel with [https://projects.archlinux.org/svntogit/packages.git/tree/trunk?h=packages/linux&id=ef9aa5b9e58936788a9e65e364f00a3cf6497230 three patches applied] (as of 3.1.3-1).
+
:位于[core]仓库中,包含了对应的Linux内核和内核模块。官方原版内核再加 [https://projects.archlinux.org/svntogit/packages.git/tree/trunk?h=packages/linux 两个补丁] (到3.12.1为止).
  
 
;{{Pkg|linux-lts}}
 
;{{Pkg|linux-lts}}
:Long term support (LTS) Linux kernel and modules from the [core] repository.
+
:长期支持版 (LTS) 位于[core]仓库中,包含了对应的Linux内核和内核模块。
  
 
===AUR 软件包===
 
===AUR 软件包===
;{{AUR|linux-bfs}}
+
;{{AUR|linux-aufs_friendly}}
 +
:The aufs-compatible linux kernel and modules, useful when using [[docker]].
 +
 
 +
;{{AUR|linux-bfs}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|linux-bfs}}}}
 
:Linux kernel and modules with the [[Wikipedia:Brain_Fuck_Scheduler|Brain Fuck Scheduler]] (BFS) - created by Con Kolivas for desktop computers with fewer than 4096 cores, with BFQ I/O scheduler as optional.
 
:Linux kernel and modules with the [[Wikipedia:Brain_Fuck_Scheduler|Brain Fuck Scheduler]] (BFS) - created by Con Kolivas for desktop computers with fewer than 4096 cores, with BFQ I/O scheduler as optional.
  
 
;{{AUR|linux-ck}}
 
;{{AUR|linux-ck}}
 
:Linux Kernel built with Con Kolivas' ck1 patchset.
 
:Linux Kernel built with Con Kolivas' ck1 patchset.
:Additional options which can be toggled on/off in the [[PKGBUILD]] include: BFQ scheduler, nconfig, localmodconfig, uksm and use running kernel's config.
+
:Additional options which can be toggled on/off in the [[PKGBUILD]] include: BFQ scheduler, nconfig, localmodconfig and use running kernel's config.
 
:These are patches designed to improve system responsiveness with specific emphasis on the desktop, but suitable to any workload. The ck patches include BFS.
 
:These are patches designed to improve system responsiveness with specific emphasis on the desktop, but suitable to any workload. The ck patches include BFS.
 
:For further information and installation instructions, please read the [[linux-ck]] main article.
 
:For further information and installation instructions, please read the [[linux-ck]] main article.
 +
 +
;{{AUR|linux-eee-ck}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|linux-eee-ck}}}}
 +
:The Linux Kernel and modules for the Asus Eee PC 701, built with Con Kolivas' ck1 patchset.
  
 
;{{AUR|linux-fbcondecor}}
 
;{{AUR|linux-fbcondecor}}
:The Linux Kernel and modules with fbcondecor support.fbcondecor=Framebuffer Console Decorations. It is a kernel patch that adds eye-candy by making it possible to display pictures in the background of system consoles. In order for the patch to work properly, a userspace helper application called fbcondecor_helper has to be installed. This application is currently provided as a part of fbsplash.  
+
:The Linux Kernel and modules with [[Fbsplash|fbcondecor support]].  
  
;{{AUR|linux-grsec}}
+
;{{AUR|linux-mainline}}
:The Linux Kernel and modules with grsecurity and PaX patches for increased security.
+
:The Mainline Linux Kernel and modules.
 +
 
 +
;{{AUR|linux-pax}}
 +
:The Linux Kernel and modules with PaX patches for increased security.
  
 
;{{AUR|linux-ice}}
 
;{{AUR|linux-ice}}
:The Linux Kernel and modules with gentoo-sources patchset and TuxOnIce support.
+
:The Linux Kernel and modules with gentoo-sources patchset and [[TuxOnIce]] support.
  
 
;{{AUR|linux-lqx}}
 
;{{AUR|linux-lqx}}
:[http://liquorix.net Liquorix] is a distro kernel replacement built using the best configuration and kernel sources for desktop, multimedia, and gaming workloads, often used as a Debian Linux performance replacement kernel. damentz, the maintainer of the Liquorix patchset, is a developer for the Zen patchset as well, so many of the improvements there are found in this patchset.
+
:[http://liquorix.net Liquorix] is a distro kernel replacement built using a Debian-targeted configuration and the ZEN kernel sources. Designed for desktop, multimedia, and gaming workloads, it is often used as a Debian Linux performance replacement kernel. Damentz, the maintainer of the Liquorix patchset, is a developer for the ZEN patchset as well.
  
;{{AUR|linux-pax}}
+
;{{AUR|linux-lts34}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|linux-lts34}}}}
:The Linux Kernel and modules with PaX patches for increased security.
+
:The Linux 3.4 Long-Term Support Kernel and modules.
  
;{{AUR|linux-pf}}
+
;{{AUR|linux-lts310}}
:Linux kernel and modules with the [http://pf.natalenko.name/ pf-kernel] patchset [-ck patchset (BFS included), TuxOnIce, BFQ], aufs2 and squashfs-lzma.
+
:The Linux 3.10 Long-Term Support Kernel and modules.
  
;{{AUR|linux-vanilla}}
+
;{{AUR|linux-lts312}}
:The Linux vanilla kernel and modules without Arch Linux patches.
+
:The Linux 3.12 Long-Term Support Kernel and modules.
  
;{{AUR|linux-aircrack}}
+
;{{AUR|linux-pf}}
:Linux kernel and kernel headers - patched for the [http://aircrack-ng.org/ aircrack-ng] suite to work properly.
+
:Linux kernel and modules with the pf-kernel patch [-ck patchset (BFS included), TuxOnIce, BFQ] and aufs3.
  
;{{AUR|linux-zen}}
+
;{{Pkg|linux-zen}}
:The [http://zen-kernel.org Zen Kernel] is a the result of a collaborative effort of kernel hackers to provide the best Linux kernel possible for every day systems.
+
:The [http://zen-kernel.org ZEN Kernel] is the result of a collaborative effort of kernel hackers to provide the best Linux kernel possible for every day systems. Builds of a ZEN kernel are available [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=117157 in this repository].
  
;{{AUR|kernel-netbook}}
+
;{{AUR|linux-libre}}
 +
:The Linux Kernel without "binary blobs".
 +
 
 +
;{{AUR|kernel-netbook}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|kernel-netbook}}}}
 
:Static kernel for netbooks with Intel Atom N270/N280/N450/N550 such as the Eee PC with the add-on of external firmware ({{AUR|broadcom-wl}}) and patchset (BFS + TuxOnIce + BFQ optional) - Only Intel GPU
 
:Static kernel for netbooks with Intel Atom N270/N280/N450/N550 such as the Eee PC with the add-on of external firmware ({{AUR|broadcom-wl}}) and patchset (BFS + TuxOnIce + BFQ optional) - Only Intel GPU
 +
 +
;{{AUR|linux-tresor}}/{{AUR|linux-lts-tresor}}
 +
:The current/LTS Linux Kernel and modules with integrated [https://www1.informatik.uni-erlangen.de/tresor TRESOR]
 +
 +
;{{AUR|linux-git}}
 +
:Linux kernel and modules built using sources from [https://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git Linus Torvalds' Git repository].
 +
 +
;{{AUR|linux-chromebook}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|linux-chromebook}}}}
 +
:The Linux kernel with patches added to support chromebook hardware.
  
 
==补丁与补丁集==
 
==补丁与补丁集==
Line 76: Line 100:
 
===如何安装===
 
===如何安装===
  
The installation process of custom kernel packages relies on the Arch Build System (AUR). If you haven't built any custom packages yet you may consult the following articles: [[Arch Build System]] and [[Creating Packages]].
+
The installation process of custom kernel packages relies on the Arch Build System (AUR). If you haven't built any custom packages yet you may consult the following articles: [[Arch Build System]] and [[Creating packages]].
  
 
If you haven't actually patched or customized a kernel before it is not that hard and there are many PKGBUILDS on the forum for individual patchsets.  However, I would advise you to start from scratch with a bit of research on the benefits of each patchset rather than jumping on the nearest bandwagon!  This way you'll learn much more about what you are doing rather than just choosing a kernel at startup and wondering what it actually does.
 
If you haven't actually patched or customized a kernel before it is not that hard and there are many PKGBUILDS on the forum for individual patchsets.  However, I would advise you to start from scratch with a bit of research on the benefits of each patchset rather than jumping on the nearest bandwagon!  This way you'll learn much more about what you are doing rather than just choosing a kernel at startup and wondering what it actually does.
  
 
See [[#编译]].
 
See [[#编译]].
 +
 +
{{note|Don't forget to change the boot options in your bootloader, e.g. grub, to use the new kernel.}}
  
 
===主要补丁集===
 
===主要补丁集===
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patch at http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/projects/rt/
 
patch at http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/projects/rt/
 +
 +
====-bld====
 +
{{Warning|This scheduler is in development.}}
 +
BLD is best described as a O(1) CPU picking technique. Which is done by reordering CPU runqueues based on runqueue loads. In other words, it keeps the scheduler aware of the load changes, which helps scheduler to keep runqueues in an order. This technique doesn't depend on scheduler ticks. The two most simple things in this technique are: load tracking and runqueue ordering; these are relatively simpler operations. Load tracking will be done whenever a load change happens on the system and based on this load change runqueue will be ordered. So, if we have an ordered runqueue from lowest to highest, then picking the less (or even busiest) runqueue is easy. Scheduler can pick the lowest runqueue without calculation and comparison at the time of placing a task in a runqueue. And while trying to distribute load at sched_exec and sched_fork our best choice is to pick the lowest busiest runqueue of the system. And in this way, system remains balanced without doing any load balancing. At the time of try_to_wake_up picking the idlest runqueue is topmost priority but it has been done as per domain basis to utilize CPU cache properly and it's an area where more concentration is requires.
 +
 +
Google code Webpage: http://code.google.com/p/bld/
  
 
====-grsecurity====
 
====-grsecurity====
Line 119: Line 151:
 
Patch releases against the mainstream Linux kernel have been discontinued. The developers chose to focus on a few patches and spend their time trying to get them merged into the mainline kernel.
 
Patch releases against the mainstream Linux kernel have been discontinued. The developers chose to focus on a few patches and spend their time trying to get them merged into the mainline kernel.
  
===Individual patches===
+
====-pf====
 +
{{AUR|linux-pf}} is yet another Linux kernel fork which provides you with a handful of awesome features not merged into mainline. It is based on neither existing Linux fork nor patchset, although some unofficial ports may be used if required patches haven't been released officially.
 +
The most prominent patches of linux-pf are TuxOnIce, the CK patchset (most notably BFS), AUFS3, LinuxIMQ, l7 filter and BFQ.
 +
 
 +
===独立补丁===
  
These are patches which can be simply included in any build of a vanilla kernel or incorporated (probably with some major tweaking) into another patchset.  I have included some common ones for starters.
+
这里有一些补丁可以直接应用在任何一个主流内核中,或加入到其它补丁集中(可能需要一些调整)。I have included some common ones for starters.
  
 
====Reiser4====
 
====Reiser4====
Line 136: Line 172:
 
推荐使用 [[Arch Build System (简体中文)|Arch 构建系统]],这样可以充分利用已有的 {{Pkg|linux}} [[PKGBUILD]] 以及包管理系统。PKGBUILD 已经是结构化的,你可以在下载源代码之后配置内核。
 
推荐使用 [[Arch Build System (简体中文)|Arch 构建系统]],这样可以充分利用已有的 {{Pkg|linux}} [[PKGBUILD]] 以及包管理系统。PKGBUILD 已经是结构化的,你可以在下载源代码之后配置内核。
  
参见 [[Kernels/Compilation/Arch Build System (简体中文)|编译内核/Arch 构建系统]].
+
参见 [[Kernels/Arch Build System (简体中文)|编译内核/Arch 构建系统]].
  
 
===传统方式===
 
===传统方式===

Latest revision as of 13:18, 27 November 2015

Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.png本页面需要更新翻译,内容可能已经与英文脱节。要贡献翻译,请访问简体中文翻译组Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.png

附注: please use the first argument of the template to provide more detailed indications.

Tango-view-refresh-red.pngThis article or section is out of date.Tango-view-refresh-red.png

Reason: 没有同步 (Discuss in Talk:Kernels (简体中文)#)

来自 Wikipedia:

内核是大多数计算机操作系统的主要组件。它是沟通应用程序和硬件层实际数据处理的桥梁。内核的任务包括管理系统的资源(软硬件之间的通信)。

在Arch Linux中,除了官方内核之外,还有许多各种各样的内核可供选择。这篇文章列出了这些内核和它们的简短介绍。这里还列出了一些可用的内核补丁的介绍。在文章的最后讲述了自己编译内核的方法的总览。

预编译的内核

官方软件包

linux
位于[core]仓库中,包含了对应的Linux内核和内核模块。官方原版内核再加 两个补丁 (到3.12.1为止).
linux-lts
长期支持版 (LTS) 位于[core]仓库中,包含了对应的Linux内核和内核模块。

AUR 软件包

linux-aufs_friendlyAUR
The aufs-compatible linux kernel and modules, useful when using docker.
linux-bfsAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror]
Linux kernel and modules with the Brain Fuck Scheduler (BFS) - created by Con Kolivas for desktop computers with fewer than 4096 cores, with BFQ I/O scheduler as optional.
linux-ckAUR
Linux Kernel built with Con Kolivas' ck1 patchset.
Additional options which can be toggled on/off in the PKGBUILD include: BFQ scheduler, nconfig, localmodconfig and use running kernel's config.
These are patches designed to improve system responsiveness with specific emphasis on the desktop, but suitable to any workload. The ck patches include BFS.
For further information and installation instructions, please read the linux-ck main article.
linux-eee-ckAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror]
The Linux Kernel and modules for the Asus Eee PC 701, built with Con Kolivas' ck1 patchset.
linux-fbcondecorAUR
The Linux Kernel and modules with fbcondecor support.
linux-mainlineAUR
The Mainline Linux Kernel and modules.
linux-paxAUR
The Linux Kernel and modules with PaX patches for increased security.
linux-iceAUR
The Linux Kernel and modules with gentoo-sources patchset and TuxOnIce support.
linux-lqxAUR
Liquorix is a distro kernel replacement built using a Debian-targeted configuration and the ZEN kernel sources. Designed for desktop, multimedia, and gaming workloads, it is often used as a Debian Linux performance replacement kernel. Damentz, the maintainer of the Liquorix patchset, is a developer for the ZEN patchset as well.
linux-lts34AUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror]
The Linux 3.4 Long-Term Support Kernel and modules.
linux-lts310AUR
The Linux 3.10 Long-Term Support Kernel and modules.
linux-lts312AUR
The Linux 3.12 Long-Term Support Kernel and modules.
linux-pfAUR
Linux kernel and modules with the pf-kernel patch [-ck patchset (BFS included), TuxOnIce, BFQ] and aufs3.
linux-zen
The ZEN Kernel is the result of a collaborative effort of kernel hackers to provide the best Linux kernel possible for every day systems. Builds of a ZEN kernel are available in this repository.
linux-libreAUR
The Linux Kernel without "binary blobs".
kernel-netbookAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror]
Static kernel for netbooks with Intel Atom N270/N280/N450/N550 such as the Eee PC with the add-on of external firmware (broadcom-wlAUR) and patchset (BFS + TuxOnIce + BFQ optional) - Only Intel GPU
linux-tresorAUR/linux-lts-tresorAUR
The current/LTS Linux Kernel and modules with integrated TRESOR
linux-gitAUR
Linux kernel and modules built using sources from Linus Torvalds' Git repository.
linux-chromebookAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror]
The Linux kernel with patches added to support chromebook hardware.

补丁与补丁集

There are lots of reasons to patch your kernel, the major ones are for performance or support for non-mainline features such as reiser4 file system support. Other reasons might include fun and to see how it is done and what the improvements are.

However, it is important to note that the best way to increase the speed of your system is to first tailor your kernel to your system, especially the architecture and processor type. For this reason using pre-packaged versions of custom kernels with generic architecture settings is not recommended or really worth it. A further benefit is that you can reduce the size of your kernel (and therefore build time) by not including support for things you do not have or use. For example, I always start with the stock kernel config when a new kernel version is released and I remove support for things like bluetooth, video4linux, 1000Mbit ethernet, etc. Stuff I know I won't use before I build my next kernel! However, this page is not about customizing your kernel config but I would recommend that as a first step to be combined with a patchset later.

如何安装

The installation process of custom kernel packages relies on the Arch Build System (AUR). If you haven't built any custom packages yet you may consult the following articles: Arch Build System and Creating packages.

If you haven't actually patched or customized a kernel before it is not that hard and there are many PKGBUILDS on the forum for individual patchsets. However, I would advise you to start from scratch with a bit of research on the benefits of each patchset rather than jumping on the nearest bandwagon! This way you'll learn much more about what you are doing rather than just choosing a kernel at startup and wondering what it actually does.

See #编译.

Note: Don't forget to change the boot options in your bootloader, e.g. grub, to use the new kernel.

主要补丁集

First of all it is important to note that patchsets are developed by a variety of people. Some of these people are actually involved in the production of the linux kernel and others are hobbyists, which may reflect its level of reliability and stability.

It is also worth noting that some patchsets are built on the back of other patchsets (which may or may not be reflected in the title of the patch). Patchsets (and kernel updates) can be released very frequently and often it is not worth keeping up with ALL of them so do not go crazy, unless you make it your hobby!

You can search google for more sets - remember to use quotes "-nitro" for example otherwise google will deliberately NOT show the results you want!

Note: This section is for information only - clearly no guarantees of stability or reliability are implied by inclusion on this page.

-ck

These are patches designed to improve system responsiveness with specific emphasis on the desktop, but suitable to any workload. The patches are created and maintained by Con Kolivas, his site is at http://users.on.net/~ckolivas/kernel/. Con maintains a full set but also provides the patches broken down so you can add only those you prefer.

The -ck patches can be found at http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/ck/patches/2.6/

-rt

This patchset is maintained by a small group of core developers, led by Ingo Molnar. This patch allows nearly all of the kernel to be preempted, with the exception of a few very small regions of code ("raw_spinlock critical regions"). This is done by replacing most kernel spinlocks with mutexes that support priority inheritance, as well as moving all interrupt and software interrupts to kernel threads.

It further incorporates high resolution timers - a patch set, which is independently maintained.

[as said from the Real-Time Linux Wiki]

patch at http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/projects/rt/

-bld

Warning: This scheduler is in development.

BLD is best described as a O(1) CPU picking technique. Which is done by reordering CPU runqueues based on runqueue loads. In other words, it keeps the scheduler aware of the load changes, which helps scheduler to keep runqueues in an order. This technique doesn't depend on scheduler ticks. The two most simple things in this technique are: load tracking and runqueue ordering; these are relatively simpler operations. Load tracking will be done whenever a load change happens on the system and based on this load change runqueue will be ordered. So, if we have an ordered runqueue from lowest to highest, then picking the less (or even busiest) runqueue is easy. Scheduler can pick the lowest runqueue without calculation and comparison at the time of placing a task in a runqueue. And while trying to distribute load at sched_exec and sched_fork our best choice is to pick the lowest busiest runqueue of the system. And in this way, system remains balanced without doing any load balancing. At the time of try_to_wake_up picking the idlest runqueue is topmost priority but it has been done as per domain basis to utilize CPU cache properly and it's an area where more concentration is requires.

Google code Webpage: http://code.google.com/p/bld/

-grsecurity

Grsecurity is a security focused patchset. It adds numerous security related features such as Role-Based Access Control and utilizes features of the PaX project. It can be used on a desktop but a public server would receive the greatest benefit. Some applications are incompatible with the additional security measures implemented by this patchset. If this occurs, consider using a lower security level.

The -grsecurity patches can be found at http://grsecurity.net

Tiny-Patches

The goal of Linux Tiny is to reduce its memory and disk footprint, as well as to add features to aid working on small systems. Target users are developers of embedded system and users of small or legacy machines such as 386s.

Patch releases against the mainstream Linux kernel have been discontinued. The developers chose to focus on a few patches and spend their time trying to get them merged into the mainline kernel.

-pf

linux-pfAUR is yet another Linux kernel fork which provides you with a handful of awesome features not merged into mainline. It is based on neither existing Linux fork nor patchset, although some unofficial ports may be used if required patches haven't been released officially. The most prominent patches of linux-pf are TuxOnIce, the CK patchset (most notably BFS), AUFS3, LinuxIMQ, l7 filter and BFQ.

独立补丁

这里有一些补丁可以直接应用在任何一个主流内核中,或加入到其它补丁集中(可能需要一些调整)。I have included some common ones for starters.

Reiser4

Reiser4

Gensplash/fbsplash

Gensplash - http://dev.gentoo.org/~spock/projects/

编译

Arch Linux 提供了多种内核构建方式。

使用 Arch 构建系统(ABS)(推荐)

推荐使用 Arch 构建系统,这样可以充分利用已有的 linux PKGBUILD 以及包管理系统。PKGBUILD 已经是结构化的,你可以在下载源代码之后配置内核。

参见 编译内核/Arch 构建系统.

传统方式

另外,也可以不使用 Arch 构建系统 编译内核(传统方式)。这个方法需要手动下载内核源代码包,然后在自己的主目录里以普通用户的权限编译。一旦完成配置之后,有两种编译(安装)方式:传统的安装和适用makepkg/pacman 的安装。

使用传统方式的一个优点是在其他发行版中也可以使用。

参见 传统方式 .

NVIDIA 闭源驱动

参见 定制内核 查看详细关于在自定义内核中使用 Nvidia 闭源驱动的方法。

参见