Difference between revisions of "Kexec"

From ArchWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
m
(Separate /boot partition: Only working solution is needed.)
 
(17 intermediate revisions by 13 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
[[Category:Boot process]]
 
[[Category:Boot process]]
 
[[Category:Kernel]]
 
[[Category:Kernel]]
{{Article summary start}}
+
[[ja:Kexec]]
{{Article summary text|Covers how to install and configure kexec.}}
+
{{Related articles start}}
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
+
{{Related|Systemd}}
{{Article summary wiki|Systemd}}
+
{{Related articles end}}
{{Article summary end}}
+
'''Kexec''' is a system call that enables you to load and boot into another kernel from the currently running kernel. This is useful for kernel developers or other people who need to reboot very quickly without waiting for the whole BIOS boot process to finish. Note that kexec may not work correctly for you due to devices ''not'' fully re-initializing when using this method, however this is rarely the case.
  
'''Kexec''' is a system call that enables you to load and boot into another
+
== Installation ==
kernel from the currently running kernel. This is useful for kernel developers
+
or other people who need to reboot very quickly without waiting for the whole
+
BIOS boot process to finish. Note that there may appear some problems and kexec
+
may not work correctly for you because the devices ''won't'' fully reinitiate
+
when using this method.
+
  
==Installation==
+
[[Install]] the {{pkg|kexec-tools}} package.
  
To install kexec, [[pacman|install]] the {{pkg|kexec-tools}} package which is available in the [[Official Repositories|official repositories]].
+
== Rebooting using kexec ==
  
==Rebooting using kexec==
+
=== Manually ===
  
===Systemd===
+
You can manually invoke kexec using:
  
You will need to create a new unit file, {{ic|kexec-load@.service}}, that will load the specified kernel to be kexec'ed<sup>[[#Foot1|<nowiki>[1]</nowiki>]]</sup>.
+
# kexec -l /boot/vmlinuz-linux --initrd=/boot/initramfs-linux.img --reuse-cmdline
 +
# kexec -e
  
{{hc|# vim /etc/systemd/system/kexec-load@.service|2=
+
{{Warning|Running {{ic|kexec -e}} directly will not unmount active filesystems or terminate any running services gracefully.}}
 +
 
 +
It is also possible to load kernel manually and then let systemd handle service shutdown and kexec for you:
 +
 
 +
# kexec -l /boot/vmlinuz-linux --initrd=/boot/initramfs-linux.img --reuse-cmdline
 +
# systemctl kexec
 +
=== Systemd ===
 +
 
 +
You will need to create a new unit file, {{ic|kexec-load@.service}}, that will load the specified kernel to be kexec'ed:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/kexec-load@.service|2=
 
[Unit]
 
[Unit]
 
Description=load %i kernel into the current kernel
 
Description=load %i kernel into the current kernel
Line 40: Line 46:
 
Then enable the service file for the kernel you want to load, for example simply the default kernel {{ic|linux}}:
 
Then enable the service file for the kernel you want to load, for example simply the default kernel {{ic|linux}}:
  
{{hc|# systemctl enable kexec-load@linux|2=
+
{{hc|# systemctl enable kexec-load@linux|
 
ln -s '/etc/systemd/system/kexec-load@.service' '/etc/systemd/system/kexec.target.wants/kexec-load@linux.service'}}
 
ln -s '/etc/systemd/system/kexec-load@.service' '/etc/systemd/system/kexec.target.wants/kexec-load@linux.service'}}
  
Line 47: Line 53:
 
Then to kexec
 
Then to kexec
  
{{bc|# systemctl kexec}}
+
# systemctl kexec
  
 
If you wish to load a different kernel for the next kexec, for example {{ic|linux-lts}}, disable the service for the current kernel and enable the one for the new kernel:
 
If you wish to load a different kernel for the next kexec, for example {{ic|linux-lts}}, disable the service for the current kernel and enable the one for the new kernel:
 
   
 
   
{{bc|# systemctl disable kexec-load@linux
+
# systemctl disable kexec-load@linux
# systemctl enable kexec-load@linux-lts}}
+
# systemctl enable kexec-load@linux-lts
  
====Separate /boot partition====
+
==== Separate /boot partition ====
  
The above systemd unit file will fail if /boot is not on the root file system, as systemd will likely unmount /boot before it runs the kexec-load unit file. An alternative approach is to load a "hook" unit file that does nothing on startup and invokes kexec upon termination. By making this unit file conflict with kexec.target and only kexec.target, you can ensure the new kernel gets loaded early enough and only after a "systemctl kexec" command. Here is an alternate {{ic|/etc/systemd/system/kexec-load@.service}} file that follows this strategy:
+
The above systemd unit file will fail if /boot is not on the root file system, as systemd will likely unmount /boot before it runs the kexec-load unit file. An alternative approach is to load a "hook" unit file that does nothing on startup and invokes kexec upon termination. By making this unit file conflict with kexec.target and only kexec.target, you can ensure the new kernel gets loaded early enough and only after a "systemctl kexec" command. Here is an alternate {{ic|/etc/systemd/system/kexec-load@.service}} file that follows this strategy:
  
 
{{bc|1=
 
{{bc|1=
Line 63: Line 69:
 
Documentation=man:kexec(8)
 
Documentation=man:kexec(8)
 
DefaultDependencies=no
 
DefaultDependencies=no
RequiresMountsFor=/boot/vmlinuz-%i
+
Requires=sysinit.target
Conflicts=kexec.target
+
After=sysinit.target
  
 
[Service]
 
[Service]
Line 76: Line 82:
 
}}
 
}}
  
Unfortunately, while the above file works reliably on some machines, the ExecStop command seems to fail to run on others. Hence, at present there does not appear to be a known reliable way to make "systemctl kexec" do the right thing on all machines. Until then, it may be best to call kexec manually before invoking "systemctl kexec" (or even "reboot", which will do the right thing when a kernel is loaded).
+
Note that Conflicts=shutdown.target is not really needed, as it's implicitly guaranteed by strict ordering on systinit.target which itself Conflicts= with shutdown.target.
 
+
===Manually===
+
 
+
It is also perfectly legal to invoke kexec manually:
+
 
+
  # kexec -l /boot/vmlinuz-linux --initrd=/boot/initramfs-linux.img --reuse-cmdline
+
  # kexec -e
+
 
+
==References==
+
 
+
<span id="Foot1">1. [http://lists.freedesktop.org/archives/systemd-devel/2012-March/004760.html <nowiki>[systemd-devel]</nowiki> Right way to do kexec]</span>
+
 
+
==See also==
+
  
*[http://lse.sourceforge.net/kdump/ kdump: a kexec based crash dumping mechansim for Linux]
+
== See also ==
*[http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/library/l-kexec.html Reboot Linux faster using kexec]
+
* [http://lists.freedesktop.org/archives/systemd-devel/2012-March/004760.html <nowiki>[systemd-devel]</nowiki> Right way to do kexec]
 +
* [http://lse.sourceforge.net/kdump/ kdump: a kexec based crash dumping mechansim for Linux]
 +
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20090505132901/http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/library/l-kexec.html Reboot Linux faster using kexec]

Latest revision as of 02:41, 22 September 2016

Related articles

Kexec is a system call that enables you to load and boot into another kernel from the currently running kernel. This is useful for kernel developers or other people who need to reboot very quickly without waiting for the whole BIOS boot process to finish. Note that kexec may not work correctly for you due to devices not fully re-initializing when using this method, however this is rarely the case.

Installation

Install the kexec-tools package.

Rebooting using kexec

Manually

You can manually invoke kexec using:

# kexec -l /boot/vmlinuz-linux --initrd=/boot/initramfs-linux.img --reuse-cmdline
# kexec -e
Warning: Running kexec -e directly will not unmount active filesystems or terminate any running services gracefully.

It is also possible to load kernel manually and then let systemd handle service shutdown and kexec for you:

# kexec -l /boot/vmlinuz-linux --initrd=/boot/initramfs-linux.img --reuse-cmdline
# systemctl kexec

Systemd

You will need to create a new unit file, kexec-load@.service, that will load the specified kernel to be kexec'ed:

/etc/systemd/system/kexec-load@.service
[Unit]
Description=load %i kernel into the current kernel
Documentation=man:kexec(8)
DefaultDependencies=no
Before=shutdown.target umount.target final.target

[Service]
Type=oneshot
ExecStart=/usr/bin/kexec -l /boot/vmlinuz-%i --initrd=/boot/initramfs-%i.img --reuse-cmdline

[Install]
WantedBy=kexec.target

Then enable the service file for the kernel you want to load, for example simply the default kernel linux:

# systemctl enable kexec-load@linux
ln -s '/etc/systemd/system/kexec-load@.service' '/etc/systemd/system/kexec.target.wants/kexec-load@linux.service'

Ensure that the shutdown hook is not part of your initramfs image by removing it from the HOOKS array in /etc/mkinitcpio.conf. If it is, remove it and rebuild your initrd image with mkinitcpio -p linux.

Then to kexec

# systemctl kexec

If you wish to load a different kernel for the next kexec, for example linux-lts, disable the service for the current kernel and enable the one for the new kernel:

# systemctl disable kexec-load@linux
# systemctl enable kexec-load@linux-lts

Separate /boot partition

The above systemd unit file will fail if /boot is not on the root file system, as systemd will likely unmount /boot before it runs the kexec-load unit file. An alternative approach is to load a "hook" unit file that does nothing on startup and invokes kexec upon termination. By making this unit file conflict with kexec.target and only kexec.target, you can ensure the new kernel gets loaded early enough and only after a "systemctl kexec" command. Here is an alternate /etc/systemd/system/kexec-load@.service file that follows this strategy:

[Unit]
Description=hook to load vmlinuz-%i kernel upon kexec
Documentation=man:kexec(8)
DefaultDependencies=no
Requires=sysinit.target
After=sysinit.target

[Service]
Type=oneshot
ExecStart=-/usr/bin/true
RemainAfterExit=yes
ExecStop=/usr/bin/kexec -l /boot/vmlinuz-%i --initrd=/boot/initramfs-%i.img --reuse-cmdline

[Install]
WantedBy=basic.target

Note that Conflicts=shutdown.target is not really needed, as it's implicitly guaranteed by strict ordering on systinit.target which itself Conflicts= with shutdown.target.

See also