Difference between revisions of "Apache HTTP Server"

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m (Installation: style fix)
m (Configuration: mostly small grammar changes)
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{{Note|New default user and group: Instead of group '''nobody''', {{ic|apache}} now runs as user/group '''http''' by default. You might want to adjust your {{ic|httpd.conf}} according to this change, although it is still possible to run {{ic|httpd}} as '''nobody'''.}}
 
{{Note|New default user and group: Instead of group '''nobody''', {{ic|apache}} now runs as user/group '''http''' by default. You might want to adjust your {{ic|httpd.conf}} according to this change, although it is still possible to run {{ic|httpd}} as '''nobody'''.}}
  
==Configuration==
+
== Configuration ==
  
===Apache===
+
=== Apache ===
For security reasons, as soon as Apache is started by the root user (directly or via startup scripts) it switches to the UID/GID specified in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}}. The default is user http and it is created automatically during apache installation.
+
For security reasons, as soon as Apache is started by the root user (directly or via startup scripts) it switches to the UID/GID specified in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}}. The default is user '''http''' and it is created automatically during installation.
  
* Change {{ic|httpd.conf}} and optionally {{ic|extra/httpd-default.conf}} to your liking.  
+
After installation, you can:
 +
* Change {{ic|httpd.conf}} and optionally {{ic|extra/httpd-default.conf}} to your liking and
 +
* Start the '''httpd''' [[Daemons|daemon]].
  
* Start the '''httpd''' [[daemon]].
+
:Apache should now be running. Test by visiting http://localhost/ in a web browser. It should display a simple Apache test page. If you receive a '''403 Error''', comment out the following line in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}}:
 
+
:Apache should now be running. Test by visiting http://localhost/ in a web browser. It should display a simple Apache test page. If you receive a 403 Error, comment out the following line in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}}:
+
 
  Include conf/extra/httpd-userdir.conf
 
  Include conf/extra/httpd-userdir.conf
  
====User dirs====
+
==== User directories ====
* If you do not want user directories to be available on the web (e.g., {{ic|~/public_html}} on the machine is accessed as http://localhost/~user/ -Note that you can change what this points to in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/extra/httpd-userdir.conf}}), comment the following line in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}} since they are activated by default:
+
* User directories are available by default through http://localhost/~user/ and show the contents of {{ic|~/public_html}} (this can be changed in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/extra/httpd-userdir.conf}}).
 +
 
 +
* If you do not want user directories to be available on the web, comment the following line in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}}:
 
   Include conf/extra/httpd-userdir.conf
 
   Include conf/extra/httpd-userdir.conf
  
Line 42: Line 44:
 
   $ chmod o+x ~/public_html
 
   $ chmod o+x ~/public_html
  
* A more secure way to share your home folder with apache is to add the '''http''' user to the group that owns your home folder. For example, if your home folder and other sub-folders in your home folder belong to group '''piter''', all you have to do is following:
+
* A more secure way to share your home folder with Apache is to add the '''http''' user to the group that owns your home folder. For example, if your home folder and other sub-folders in your home folder belong to group '''piter''', all you have to do is following:
 
+
 
   $ usermod -aG piter http
 
   $ usermod -aG piter http
  
* Of course, you have to give ''read'' and ''execute'' permissions on {{ic|~/}},  {{ic|~/public_html}}, and all other sub-folders in {{ic|~/public_html}} to the group members (group '''piter''' in our case). Do something like following ('''modify commands for your specific case'''):
+
* Of course, you have to give ''read'' and ''execute'' permissions on {{ic|~/}},  {{ic|~/public_html}}, and all other sub-folders in {{ic|~/public_html}} to the group members (group '''piter''' in our case). Do something like the following ('''modify the commands for your specific case'''):
 
+
 
   $ chmod g+xr-w /home/''yourusername''
 
   $ chmod g+xr-w /home/''yourusername''
 
   $ chmod -R g+xr-w /home/''yourusername''/public_html
 
   $ chmod -R g+xr-w /home/''yourusername''/public_html
  
{{Note|This way you do not have to give access to your folder to every single user in order to give access to '''http user'''. Only '''http user''' and other potential users that are in '''piter''' group will have access to your home folder.}}
+
{{Note|This way you do not have to give access to your folder to every single user in order to give access to '''http''' user. Only the '''http''' user and other potential users that are in the '''piter''' group will have access to your home folder.}}
  
 
and restart '''httpd'''.
 
and restart '''httpd'''.
  
====SSL====
+
==== SSL ====
Create self-signed certificate (you can change key size and days of validity)
+
Create a self-signed certificate (you can change the key size and the number of days of validity):
 
   # cd /etc/httpd/conf
 
   # cd /etc/httpd/conf
 
   # openssl genrsa -des3 -out server.key 1024
 
   # openssl genrsa -des3 -out server.key 1024
Line 63: Line 63:
 
   # openssl rsa -in server.key.org -out server.key
 
   # openssl rsa -in server.key.org -out server.key
 
   # openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey server.key -out server.crt
 
   # openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey server.key -out server.crt
In {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}} uncomment line
+
 
 +
Then, in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}}, uncomment the line containing:
 
   Include conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf
 
   Include conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf
and restart '''httpd'''.
+
and [[Daemons#Restarting|restart]] '''httpd'''.
 
+
{{bc|systemctl restart httpd}}
+
  
====Virtual Hosts====
+
==== Virtual Hosts ====
 
If you want to have more than one host, make sure you have
 
If you want to have more than one host, make sure you have
 
{{bc|
 
{{bc|
Line 136: Line 135:
 
}}
 
}}
  
Add your virtual host names to your {{ic|/etc/hosts}} file (NOT necessary if bind is serving these domains already, but will not hurt):
+
Add your virtual host names to your {{ic|/etc/hosts}} file (not necessary if [[BIND]] is serving these domains already, but will not hurt to do it anyway):
 
{{bc|127.0.0.1 domainname1.dom  
 
{{bc|127.0.0.1 domainname1.dom  
 
127.0.0.1 domainname2.dom}}
 
127.0.0.1 domainname2.dom}}
Line 142: Line 141:
 
and restart '''httpd'''.
 
and restart '''httpd'''.
  
If you setup your virtual hosts to be in your user directory, sometimes it interferes with Apache's 'Userdir' settings. To avoid problems disable 'Userdir' by commenting it out:
+
If you setup your virtual hosts to be in your user directory, sometimes it interferes with Apache's {{ic|Userdir}} settings. To avoid problems disable {{ic|Userdir}} by commenting it out:
 
{{bc|
 
{{bc|
 
# User home directories
 
# User home directories
Line 148: Line 147:
  
 
As said above, ensure that you have the proper permissions:
 
As said above, ensure that you have the proper permissions:
  # chmod 0775 /home/yourusername/
+
  # chmod 0775 /home/''yourusername''/
  
If you have a huge amount of virtual hosts you easily want to dis- and enable, it's recommended to create one config file per virtualhost and store them all in one folder, eg: {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/vhosts}}.
+
If you have a huge amount of virtual hosts, you may want to easily disable and enable them. It is recommended to create one configuration file per virtual host and store them all in one folder, eg: {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/vhosts}}.
  
 
First create the folder:
 
First create the folder:
 
  # mkdir /etc/httpd/conf/vhosts
 
  # mkdir /etc/httpd/conf/vhosts
  
Then place the single config files in them:
+
Then place the single configuration files in it:
 
  # nano /etc/httpd/conf/vhosts/domainname1.dom
 
  # nano /etc/httpd/conf/vhosts/domainname1.dom
 
  # nano /etc/httpd/conf/vhosts/domainname2.dom
 
  # nano /etc/httpd/conf/vhosts/domainname2.dom
 
  ...
 
  ...
  
In the last step, "Include" the single configs in your {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}}:
+
In the last step, {{ic|Include}} the single configurations in your {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}}:
 
{{bc|#Enabled Vhosts:
 
{{bc|#Enabled Vhosts:
 
Include conf/vhosts/domainname1.dom
 
Include conf/vhosts/domainname1.dom
 
#Include conf/vhosts/domainname1.dom}}
 
#Include conf/vhosts/domainname1.dom}}
  
You can enable and disable single virtual hosts by commenting them out or uncommenting them.
+
You can enable and disable single virtual hosts by commenting or uncommenting them.
  
====Advanced Options====
+
==== Advanced Options ====
These options in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}} might be interesting for you:
+
These options in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}} might be interesting for you.
  
 
  # Listen 80
 
  # Listen 80
Line 176: Line 175:
 
  # Listen 127.0.0.1:80
 
  # Listen 127.0.0.1:80
  
This is the admin's email-address which can be found on e.g. error-pages:
+
This is the admin's email address which can be found on e.g. error pages:
  # ServerAdmin sample@sample.com
+
  # ServerAdmin you@example.com
  
 
This is the directory where you should put your web pages:
 
This is the directory where you should put your web pages:
 
  # DocumentRoot "/srv/http"
 
  # DocumentRoot "/srv/http"
  
Change it, if you want to, but do not forget to also change the
+
Change it, if you want to, but do not forget to also change
 
  <Directory "/srv/http">
 
  <Directory "/srv/http">
to whatever you changed your DocumentRoot to, or you will likely get a 403 error (lack of privileges) when you try to access the new document root. Do not forget to change the Deny from all line, otherwise you will get 403 error too.
+
to whatever you changed your {{ic|DocumentRoot}} too, or you will likely get a '''403 Error''' (lack of privileges) when you try to access the new document root. Do not forget to change the {{ic|Deny from all}} line, otherwise you will get a '''403 Error'''.
  
 
  # AllowOverride None
 
  # AllowOverride None
This directive in {{ic|<Directory>}} sections causes apache to completely ignore .htaccess files. If you intend to use rewrite mod or other settings in .htaccess files, you can allow which directives declared in that file can override server configuration. For more info refer to http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/core.html#allowoverride
+
This directive in {{ic|<Directory>}} sections causes Apache to completely ignore {{ic|.htaccess}} files. If you intend to use {{ic|mod_rewrite}} or other settings in {{ic|.htaccess}} files, you can allow which directives declared in that file can override server configuration. For more info refer to the [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/core.html#allowoverride Apache documentation].
  
{{Note|If you have issues with your configuration you can have apache check the configuration with:
+
{{Note|If you have issues with your configuration you can have Apache check the configuration with: {{ic|apachectl configtest}}}}
{{Ic|apachectl configtest}}}}
+
  
 
More settings in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}}:
 
More settings in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}}:
Line 200: Line 198:
 
  ServerTokens Prod
 
  ServerTokens Prod
  
===PHP===
+
=== PHP ===
* [[pacman|Install]] {{pkg|php-apache}} from the [[Official repositories]].
+
 
+
 
* Add these lines in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}}:
 
* Add these lines in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}}:
 
:Place this in the {{ic|LoadModule}} list anywhere after {{ic|LoadModule dir_module modules/mod_dir.so}}:
 
:Place this in the {{ic|LoadModule}} list anywhere after {{ic|LoadModule dir_module modules/mod_dir.so}}:

Revision as of 19:03, 29 January 2013

LAMP refers to a common combination of software used in many web servers: Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP. This article describes how to set up the Apache HTTP Server on an Arch Linux system. It also tells you how to optionally install PHP and MySQL and integrate these in the Apache server.

If you only need a web server for development and testing, Xampp might be a better and easier option.

Installation

This document assumes you will install Apache, PHP and MySQL together. If desired however, you may install Apache, PHP, and MySQL separately and simply refer to the relevant sections below.

You can install apache, php, php-apache and mysql from the official repositories.

Note: New default user and group: Instead of group nobody, apache now runs as user/group http by default. You might want to adjust your httpd.conf according to this change, although it is still possible to run httpd as nobody.

Configuration

Apache

For security reasons, as soon as Apache is started by the root user (directly or via startup scripts) it switches to the UID/GID specified in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf. The default is user http and it is created automatically during installation.

After installation, you can:

  • Change httpd.conf and optionally extra/httpd-default.conf to your liking and
  • Start the httpd daemon.
Apache should now be running. Test by visiting http://localhost/ in a web browser. It should display a simple Apache test page. If you receive a 403 Error, comment out the following line in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf:
Include conf/extra/httpd-userdir.conf

User directories

  • User directories are available by default through http://localhost/~user/ and show the contents of ~/public_html (this can be changed in /etc/httpd/conf/extra/httpd-userdir.conf).
  • If you do not want user directories to be available on the web, comment the following line in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf:
 Include conf/extra/httpd-userdir.conf
  • You must make sure that your home directory permissions are set properly so that Apache can get there. Your home directory and ~/public_html/ must be executable for others ("rest of the world"). This seems to be enough:
 $ chmod o+x ~
 $ chmod o+x ~/public_html
  • A more secure way to share your home folder with Apache is to add the http user to the group that owns your home folder. For example, if your home folder and other sub-folders in your home folder belong to group piter, all you have to do is following:
 $ usermod -aG piter http
  • Of course, you have to give read and execute permissions on ~/, ~/public_html, and all other sub-folders in ~/public_html to the group members (group piter in our case). Do something like the following (modify the commands for your specific case):
 $ chmod g+xr-w /home/yourusername
 $ chmod -R g+xr-w /home/yourusername/public_html
Note: This way you do not have to give access to your folder to every single user in order to give access to http user. Only the http user and other potential users that are in the piter group will have access to your home folder.

and restart httpd.

SSL

Create a self-signed certificate (you can change the key size and the number of days of validity):

 # cd /etc/httpd/conf
 # openssl genrsa -des3 -out server.key 1024
 # openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr
 # cp server.key server.key.org
 # openssl rsa -in server.key.org -out server.key
 # openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey server.key -out server.crt

Then, in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf, uncomment the line containing:

 Include conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf

and restart httpd.

Virtual Hosts

If you want to have more than one host, make sure you have

# Virtual hosts
Include conf/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf

in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf.

In /etc/httpd/conf/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf set your virtual hosts according the example, e.g.:

NameVirtualHost *:80

#this first virtualhost enables: http://127.0.0.1, or: http://localhost, 
#to still go to /srv/http/*index.html(otherwise it will 404_error).
#the reason for this: once you tell httpd.conf to include extra/httpd-vhosts.conf, 
#ALL vhosts are handled in httpd-vhosts.conf(including the default one),
# E.G. the default virtualhost in httpd.conf is not used and must be included here, 
#otherwise, only domainname1.dom & domainname2.dom will be accessible
#from your web browser and NOT http://127.0.0.1, or: http://localhost, etc.
#

<VirtualHost *:80>
    DocumentRoot "/srv/http"
    ServerAdmin root@localhost
    ErrorLog "/var/log/httpd/127.0.0.1-error_log"
    CustomLog "/var/log/httpd/127.0.0.1-access_log" common
    <Directory /srv/http/>
      DirectoryIndex index.htm index.html
      AddHandler cgi-script .cgi .pl
      Options ExecCGI Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews +Includes
      AllowOverride None
      Order allow,deny
      Allow from all
    </Directory>
</VirtualHost>

<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerAdmin your@domainname1.dom
    DocumentRoot "/home/username/yoursites/domainname1.dom/www"
    ServerName domainname1.dom
    ServerAlias domainname1.dom
    <Directory /home/username/yoursites/domainname1.dom/www/>
      DirectoryIndex index.htm index.html
      AddHandler cgi-script .cgi .pl
      Options ExecCGI Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews +Includes
      AllowOverride None
      Order allow,deny
      Allow from all
</Directory>
</VirtualHost>

<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerAdmin your@domainname2.dom
    DocumentRoot "/home/username/yoursites/domainname2.dom/www"
    ServerName domainname2.dom
    ServerAlias domainname2.dom
    <Directory /home/username/yoursites/domainname2.dom/www/>
      DirectoryIndex index.htm index.html
      AddHandler cgi-script .cgi .pl
      Options ExecCGI Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews +Includes
      AllowOverride None
      Order allow,deny
      Allow from all
</Directory>
</VirtualHost>

Add your virtual host names to your /etc/hosts file (not necessary if BIND is serving these domains already, but will not hurt to do it anyway):

127.0.0.1 domainname1.dom 
127.0.0.1 domainname2.dom

and restart httpd.

If you setup your virtual hosts to be in your user directory, sometimes it interferes with Apache's Userdir settings. To avoid problems disable Userdir by commenting it out:

# User home directories
#Include conf/extra/httpd-userdir.conf

As said above, ensure that you have the proper permissions:

# chmod 0775 /home/yourusername/

If you have a huge amount of virtual hosts, you may want to easily disable and enable them. It is recommended to create one configuration file per virtual host and store them all in one folder, eg: /etc/httpd/conf/vhosts.

First create the folder:

# mkdir /etc/httpd/conf/vhosts

Then place the single configuration files in it:

# nano /etc/httpd/conf/vhosts/domainname1.dom
# nano /etc/httpd/conf/vhosts/domainname2.dom
...

In the last step, Include the single configurations in your /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf:

#Enabled Vhosts:
Include conf/vhosts/domainname1.dom
#Include conf/vhosts/domainname1.dom

You can enable and disable single virtual hosts by commenting or uncommenting them.

Advanced Options

These options in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf might be interesting for you.

# Listen 80

This is the port Apache will listen to. For Internet-access with router, you have to forward the port.

If you setup Apache for local development you may want it to be only accessible from your computer. Then change this line to:

# Listen 127.0.0.1:80

This is the admin's email address which can be found on e.g. error pages:

# ServerAdmin you@example.com

This is the directory where you should put your web pages:

# DocumentRoot "/srv/http"

Change it, if you want to, but do not forget to also change

<Directory "/srv/http">

to whatever you changed your DocumentRoot too, or you will likely get a 403 Error (lack of privileges) when you try to access the new document root. Do not forget to change the Deny from all line, otherwise you will get a 403 Error.

# AllowOverride None

This directive in <Directory> sections causes Apache to completely ignore .htaccess files. If you intend to use mod_rewrite or other settings in .htaccess files, you can allow which directives declared in that file can override server configuration. For more info refer to the Apache documentation.

Note: If you have issues with your configuration you can have Apache check the configuration with: apachectl configtest

More settings in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf:

To turn off your server's signature:

ServerSignature Off

To hide server information like Apache and PHP versions:

ServerTokens Prod

PHP

  • Add these lines in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf:
Place this in the LoadModule list anywhere after LoadModule dir_module modules/mod_dir.so:
 LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5.so
Place this at the end of the Include list:
 Include conf/extra/php5_module.conf
Make sure that the following line is uncommented in the <IfModule mime_module> section:
 TypesConfig conf/mime.types
Uncomment the following line (optional):
 MIMEMagicFile conf/magic
  • Add this line in /etc/httpd/conf/mime.types:
 application/x-httpd-php		php php5
Note: If you do not see libphp5.so in the Apache modules directory (/etc/httpd/modules), you may have forgotten to install php-apache.
  • If your DocumentRoot is not /srv/http, add it to open_basedir in /etc/php/php.ini as such:
 open_basedir=/srv/http/:/home/:/tmp/:/usr/share/pear/:/path/to/documentroot
  • Test PHP: Create the file test.php in your Apache DocumentRoot directory (e.g. /srv/http/ or ~/public_html) and inside it put:
<?php phpinfo(); ?>
See if it works: http://localhost/test.php or http://localhost/~myname/test.php
If the PHP code is is not executed (you see plain text in test.php), check that you have added "Includes" to the "Options" line for your root directory in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf. Moreover, check that TypesConfig conf/mime.types is uncommented in the <IfModule mime_module> section, you may also try adding the following to the <IfModule mime_module> in httpd.conf:
AddHandler application/x-httpd-php .php

Advanced options

  • It is recommended to set your timezone in /etc/php/php.ini like so: (list of timezones)
date.timezone = Europe/Berlin
  • If you want to display errors to debug your php code, change display_errors to On in /etc/php/php.ini:
display_errors=On
  • If you want the libGD module, install php-gd and uncomment extension=gd.so in /etc/php/php.ini:
Note: php-gd requires libpng, libjpeg, and freetype2
extension=gd.so
Note: Pay attention to which extension you uncomment, as this extension is sometimes mentioned in an explanatory comment before the actual line you want to uncomment.
  • If you want the mcrypt module, install php-mcrypt and uncomment extension=mcrypt.so in /etc/php/php.ini:
extension=mcrypt.so
  • Remember to add a file handler for .phtml if you need it in /etc/httpd/conf/extra/php5_module.conf:
DirectoryIndex index.php index.phtml index.html

Using php5 with apache2-mpm-worker and mod_fcgid

Uncomment following in /etc/conf.d/apache:

HTTPD=/usr/sbin/httpd.worker

Uncomment following in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf:

Include conf/extra/httpd-mpm.conf

Install mod_fcgid and php-cgi packages:

# pacman -S mod_fcgid php-cgi

Create /etc/httpd/conf/extra/php5_fcgid.conf with following content:

# Required modules: fcgid_module

<IfModule fcgid_module>
	AddHandler php-fcgid .php
	AddType application/x-httpd-php .php
	Action php-fcgid /fcgid-bin/php-fcgid-wrapper
	ScriptAlias /fcgid-bin/ /srv/http/fcgid-bin/
	SocketPath /var/run/httpd/fcgidsock
	SharememPath /var/run/httpd/fcgid_shm
        # If you don't allow bigger requests many applications may fail (such as WordPress login)
        FcgidMaxRequestLen 536870912
        PHP_Fix_Pathinfo_Enable 1
        # Path to php.ini – defaults to /etc/phpX/cgi
        DefaultInitEnv PHPRC=/etc/php/
        # Number of PHP childs that will be launched. Leave undefined to let PHP decide.
        #DefaultInitEnv PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN 3
        # Maximum requests before a process is stopped and a new one is launched
        #DefaultInitEnv PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS 5000
        <Location /fcgid-bin/>
		SetHandler fcgid-script
		Options +ExecCGI
	</Location>
</IfModule>

Create needed directory and symlink for php wrapper:

# mkdir /srv/http/fcgid-bin
# ln -s /usr/bin/php-cgi /srv/http/fcgid-bin/php-fcgid-wrapper

Edit /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf:

#LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5.so
LoadModule fcgid_module modules/mod_fcgid.so
Include conf/extra/php5_fcgid.conf

Make sure /etc/php/php.ini has the directive enabled:

cgi.fix_pathinfo=1

and restart httpd.

Note: As of Apache 2.4 (available as AUR package) you can now use mod_proxy_fcgi (part of the official distribution) with PHP-FPM (and the new event MPM). See configuration example

MySQL

  • Configure MySQL as described in MySQL.
  • Uncomment at least one of the following lines in /etc/php/php.ini:
extension=pdo_mysql.so
extension=mysqli.so
extension=mysql.so
  • You can add minor privileged MySQL users for your web scripts. You might also want to edit /etc/mysql/my.cnf and uncomment the skip-networking line so the MySQL server is only accessible by the localhost. You have to restart MySQL for changes to take effect.
Tip: You may want to install a tool like phpMyAdmin, Adminer or mysql-workbenchAUR to work with your databases.

See also

  • MySQL - Article for MySQL
  • PhpMyAdmin - Web frontend for MySQL typically found in LAMP environments
  • Adminer - A full-featured database management tool which is available for MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite, MS SQL and Oracle
  • Xampp - Self contained web-server that supports PHP, Perl, and MySQL
  • mod_perl - Apache + Perl

External links