Apache HTTP Server
This article describes how to set up the Apache web server on an Arch Linux system. It also tells how to optionally install PHP and MySQL and integrate these in the Apache server. This combination is commonly referred to as LAMP (Linux Apache MySQL PHP).
If you only need a web server for development and testing, Xampp might be a better and easier option.
# pacman -S apache php php-apache mysql
This document assumes you will install Apache, PHP and MySQL together. If desired however, you may install Apache, PHP, and MySQL separately and simply refer to the relevant sections below.
For security reasons, as soon as Apache is started by the root user (directly or via startup scripts) it switches to the UID/GID specified in Template:Filename
- Check for the existence of the http user by looking for http in the output of the following command:
# cat /etc/shadow
- Create the system user http if it does not exist already:
# useradd -d /srv/http -r -s /bin/false -U http
- This creates the http user with home directory Template:Filename, as a system account (-r), with a bogus shell (-s Template:Filename) and creates a group with the same name (-U).
- Add this line to Template:Filename (If the file does not exist, create it.):
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost
- If you want a different hostname, append it to the end:
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost myhostname
- Edit Template:Filename: If you set a hostname, the Template:Codeline variable should be the same; otherwise, use Template:Codeline:
# # Networking # HOSTNAME="localhost"
- Make sure the hostname appears in /etc/hosts or apache will fail to start. Alternatively, you can
edit Template:Filename and comment the following module:
LoadModule unique_id_module modules/mod_unique_id.so
- Run the following in a terminal to start the HTTP server:
# /etc/rc.d/httpd start
- Apache should now be running. Test by visiting http://localhost/ in a web browser. It should display a simple Apache test page. If you receive a 403 Error, comment out the following line in Template:Filename:
- To start Apache automatically at boot, edit Template:Filename and add the httpd daemon:
DAEMONS=(... httpd ...)
- Or add this line to Template:Filename:
- If you want to use user directories (e.g., Template:Filename on the machine is accessed as http://localhost/~user/) to be available on the web, uncomment the following lines in Template:Filename:
UserDir public_html and <Directory /home/*/public_html> AllowOverride FileInfo AuthConfig Limit Indexes Options MultiViews Indexes SymLinksIfOwnerMatch ExecCGI <Limit GET POST OPTIONS PROPFIND> Order allow,deny Allow from all </Limit> <LimitExcept GET POST OPTIONS PROPFIND> Order deny,allow Deny from all </LimitExcept> </Directory>
- You must make sure that your home directory permissions are set properly so that Apache can get there. Your home directory and Template:Filename must be executable for others ("rest of the world"). This seems to be enough:
$ chmod o+x ~ $ chmod o+x ~/public_html
There may be some other, more-secure ways of setting the permissions by creating a special group and allowing only Apache and you to enter there.
These options in Template:Filename might be interesting for you:
# Listen 80
This is the port Apache will listen to. For Internet-access with router, you have to forward the port.
# ServerAdmin firstname.lastname@example.org
This is the admin's email-address which can be found on error-pages e.g.
# DocumentRoot "/srv/http"
This is the directory where you should put your web pages. Change it, if you want to, but do not forget to change the
to whatever you changed your DocumentRoot to, or you will likely get a 403 error (lack of privileges) when you try to access the new document root. Do not forget to change the Deny from all line, otherwise you will get 403 error too.
PHP is practically available out of the box now.
- Add these lines in Template:Filename:
- Place this in the "LoadModule" list anywhere after Template:Codeline:
LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5.so
- Place this at the end of the "Include" list:
- In order to load this file you need to enable Template:Codeline for your Template:Codeline. In the Template:Codeline section (or Template:Codeline) find the "Options" line and append "Includes" e.g.:
Options Indexes FollowSymLinks Includes
- If your Template:Codeline is not Template:Codeline, add it to Template:Codeline in Template:Filename as such:
- Restart the Apache service to make changes take effect:
# /etc/rc.d/httpd restart
- A test file for PHP is included by default and can be found in Template:Codeline
- Remember to copy this file to ~/public_html if you permitted such a configuration.
- If the PHP instruction is not executed (you see : <html>...</html>), check that you have added "Includes" to the "Options" line for your root directory.
- If you don't want to enable Includes for your Template:Codeline you can add this to your Template:Filename:
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps
- Remember to add a file handler for .phtml if you need it in Template:Filename:
DirectoryIndex index.php index.phtml index.html
- If you want the libGD module, install php-gd package and uncomment in Template:Filename:
- Pay attention to which extension you uncomment, as this extension is sometimes mentioned in an explanatory comment before the actual line you want to uncomment.
- If you want to display errors to debug your php code, change this line of Template:Filename:
- If you want the mcrypt module, install php-mcrypt package and uncomment in Template:Filename:
- Configure MySQL as described in MySQL.
- Edit Template:Filename (this is in Template:Filename on older systems) to uncomment the following line (By removing Template:Codeline):
- Caution:Some users have reported typos on this line. Please make sure that it reads Template:Codeline and not Template:Codeline.
- You can add minor privileged users for your web scripts by editing the tables found in the mysql database. You have to restart MySQL for changes to take effect. Do not forget to check the Template:Codeline table. If there is a second entry for root and your hostname is left with no password set, everybody from your host probably could gain full access. Perhaps see next section for these jobs.
- Run in terminal:
# /etc/rc.d/mysqld start
- You may also need to restart Apache. Run in terminal:
# /etc/rc.d/httpd restart
- MySQL should now be running. Set the root password and test it by running:
# mysqladmin -u root password password # mysql -u root -p
- Type exit to exit from the CLI MySQL client
- Edit Template:Filename (to start MySQL at boot):
DAEMONS=(... mysqld ...)
Or add this line to Template:Filename:
- You can get the Template:Codeline message instantly whenever you try to connect to the MySQL daemon by TCP/IP. This is the TCP wrappers system (tcpd), which uses the hosts_access(5) system to allow or disallow connections.
- If you are running into this problem, be sure to add this to your Template:Filename file:
# mysqld : ALL : ALLOW # mysqld-max : ALL : ALLOW # and similar for the other MySQL daemons.
- Note: The examples above are the simplest case, telling tcpd to allow connections from anywhere. You may wish to use a more-appropriate choice of permissible sources instead of 'ALL'. Just make sure that localhost and the IP address (numeric or DNS) of the interface by which you connect are specified.