Apache HTTP Server
zh-CN:LAMP LAMP refers to a common combination of software used in many web servers: Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP. This article describes how to set up the Apache HTTP Server on an Arch Linux system. It also tells you how to optionally install PHP and MySQL and integrate these in the Apache server.
If you only need a web server for development and testing, Xampp might be a better and easier option.
# pacman -S apache php php-apache mysql
This document assumes you will install Apache, PHP and MySQL together. If desired however, you may install Apache, PHP, and MySQL separately and simply refer to the relevant sections below.
For security reasons, as soon as Apache is started by the root user (directly or via startup scripts) it switches to the UID/GID specified in
- Check for the existence of the http user by looking for http in the output of the following command:
# grep http /etc/passwd
- Create the system user http if it does not exist already:
# useradd -d /srv/http -r -s /bin/false -U http
- This creates the http user with home directory
/srv/http/, as a system account (-r), with a bogus shell (-s
/bin/false) and creates a group with the same name (-U).
- Add this line to
/etc/hosts(If the file does not exist, create it.):
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost
- If you want a different hostname, append it to the end:
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost myhostname
- Make sure the hostname appears in /etc/hosts or apache will fail to start. Alternatively, you can
/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf and comment the following module:
LoadModule unique_id_module modules/mod_unique_id.so
- Customize your config. At least change
extra/httpd-default.confto your liking. For security reasons, you might want to change ServerTokens Full to ServerTokens Prod and ServerSignature On to ServerSignature Off in
- Start the HTTP server (the daemon name is httpd. See Daemons).
- Apache should now be running. Test by visiting http://localhost/ in a web browser. It should display a simple Apache test page. If you receive a 403 Error, comment out the following line in
- To start httpd automatically at boot, see Daemons
- If you do not want user directories to be available on the web (e.g.,
~/public_htmlon the machine is accessed as http://localhost/~user/ -Note that you can change what this points to in
/etc/httpd/conf/extra/httpd-userdir.conf), comment the following line in
/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.confsince they are activated by default:
- You must make sure that your home directory permissions are set properly so that Apache can get there. Your home directory and
~/public_html/must be executable for others ("rest of the world"). This seems to be enough:
$ chmod o+x ~ $ chmod o+x ~/public_html
- More secure way to share your home folder with apache is to add http user in group that your home folder belongs. For example, if your home folder and other sub-folders in your home folder belong to group piter, all you have to do is following:
$ usermod -aG piter http
- Of course, you have to give read and execute permissions on
~/public_html, and all other sub-folders in
~/public_htmlto the group members (group piter in our case). Do something like following (modify commands for your specific case):
$ chmod g+xr-w /home/yourusername $ chmod -R g+xr-w /home/yourusername/public_html
and restart httpd.
Create self-signed certificate (you can change key size and days of validity)
# cd /etc/httpd/conf # openssl genrsa -des3 -out server.key 1024 # openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr # cp server.key server.key.org # openssl rsa -in server.key.org -out server.key # openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey server.key -out server.crt
/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf uncomment line
and restart httpd.
If you want to have more than one host, make sure you have
# Virtual hosts Include conf/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf
/etc/httpd/conf/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf set your virtual hosts according the example, e.g.:
NameVirtualHost *:80 #this first virtualhost enables: http://127.0.0.1, or: http://localhost, #to still go to /srv/http/*index.html(otherwise it will 404_error). #the reason for this: once you tell httpd.conf to include extra/httpd-vhosts.conf, #ALL vhosts are handled in httpd-vhosts.conf(including the default one), # E.G. the default virtualhost in httpd.conf is not used and must be included here, #otherwise, only domainname1.dom & domainname2.dom will be accessible #from your web browser and NOT http://127.0.0.1, or: http://localhost, etc. # <VirtualHost *:80> DocumentRoot "/srv/http" ServerAdmin root@localhost ErrorLog "/var/log/httpd/127.0.0.1-error_log" CustomLog "/var/log/httpd/127.0.0.1-access_log" common <Directory /srv/http/> DirectoryIndex index.htm index.html AddHandler cgi-script .cgi .pl Options ExecCGI Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews +Includes AllowOverride None Order allow,deny allow from all </Directory> </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost *:80> ServerAdmin firstname.lastname@example.org DocumentRoot "/home/username/yoursites/domainname1.dom/www" ServerName domainname1.dom ServerAlias domainname1.dom <Directory /home/username/yoursites/domainname1.dom/www/> DirectoryIndex index.htm index.html AddHandler cgi-script .cgi .pl Options ExecCGI Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews +Includes AllowOverride None Order allow,deny allow from all </Directory> </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost *:80> ServerAdmin email@example.com DocumentRoot "/home/username/yoursites/domainname2.dom/www" ServerName domainname2.dom ServerAlias domainname2.dom <Directory /home/username/yoursites/domainname2.dom/www/> DirectoryIndex index.htm index.html AddHandler cgi-script .cgi .pl Options ExecCGI Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews +Includes AllowOverride None Order allow,deny allow from all </Directory> </VirtualHost>
Add your virtual host names to your
/etc/hosts file (NOT necessary if bind is serving these domains already, but will not hurt):
127.0.0.1 domainname1.dom 127.0.0.1 domainname2.dom
and restart httpd.
If you setup your virtual hosts to be in your user directory, sometimes it interferes with Apache's 'Userdir' settings. To avoid problems disable 'Userdir' by commenting it out:
# User home directories #Include conf/extra/httpd-userdir.conf
As said above, ensure that you have the proper permissions:
# chmod 0775 /home/yourusername/
If you have a huge amount of virtual hosts you easily want to dis- and enable, it's recommended to create one config file per virtualhost and store them all in one folder, eg:
First create the folder:
# mkdir /etc/httpd/conf/vhosts
Then place the single config files in them:
# nano /etc/httpd/conf/vhosts/domainname1.dom # nano /etc/httpd/conf/vhosts/domainname2.dom ...
In the last step, "Include" the single configs in your
#Enabled Vhosts: Include conf/vhosts/domainname1.dom #Include conf/vhosts/domainname1.dom
You can enable and disable single virtual hosts by commenting them out or uncommenting them.
These options in
/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf might be interesting for you:
# Listen 80
This is the port Apache will listen to. For Internet-access with router, you have to forward the port.
If you setup Apache for local development you may want it to be only accessible from your computer. Then change this line to:
# Listen 127.0.0.1:80
This is the admin's email-address which can be found on e.g. error-pages:
# ServerAdmin firstname.lastname@example.org
This is the directory where you should put your web pages:
# DocumentRoot "/srv/http"
Change it, if you want to, but do not forget to also change the
to whatever you changed your DocumentRoot to, or you will likely get a 403 error (lack of privileges) when you try to access the new document root. Do not forget to change the Deny from all line, otherwise you will get 403 error too.
# AllowOverride None
This directive in
<Directory> sections causes apache to completely ignore .htaccess files. If you intend to use rewrite mod or other settings in .htaccess files, you can allow which directives declared in that file can override server configuration. For more info refer to http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/core.html#allowoverride
- Install the "php-apache" package from extra using pacman.
- Add these lines in
- Place this in the "LoadModule" list anywhere after
LoadModule dir_module modules/mod_dir.so:
LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5.so
- Place this at the end of the "Include" list:
- Make sure that the following line is uncommented in httpd.conf in the section/(after the line)
- Uncomment the following line in httpd.conf(optional):
- Add this line in
application/x-httpd-php5 php php5
libphp5.soin the Apache modules directory (
/etc/httpd/modules), you may have forgotten to install the php-apache package.
- If your
/srv/http, add it to
- Restart httpd.
- Create the file test.php in your Apache DocumentRoot Directory(E.G. /srv/http/ or ~/public_html) and inside it put:
<?php phpinfo(); ?>
- Remember to copy this file to
~/public_htmlif you permitted such a configuration.
- If the PHP instruction is not executed (you see : <html>...</html>), check that you have added "Includes" to the "Options" line for your root directory in
/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf. Moreover, check that TypesConfig conf/mime.types is uncommented in the <IfModule mime_module> section, you may also try adding the following to the <IfModule mime_module> in httpd.conf:
AddHandler application/x-httpd-php .php
- Remember to add a file handler for .phtml if you need it in
DirectoryIndex index.php index.phtml index.html
- If you want the libGD module, install php-gd package and uncomment in
- Pay attention to which extension you uncomment, as this extension is sometimes mentioned in an explanatory comment before the actual line you want to uncomment.
- If you want to display errors to debug your php code, change this line of
- If you want the mcrypt module, install php-mcrypt package and uncomment in
[XXX Debug] PHP Notice: in file /index.php on line 86: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system'XXXX [XXX Debug] PHP Notice: in file /index.php on line 86: getdate(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings.XXXX
change this line of
date.timezone = Europe/Berlin
Using php5 with apache2-mpm-worker and mod_fcgid
Uncomment following in
Uncomment following in
Install mod_fcgid and php-cgi packages:
# pacman -S mod_fcgid php-cgi
/etc/httpd/conf/extra/php5_fcgid.conf with following content:
# Required modules: fcgid_module <IfModule fcgid_module> AddHandler php-fcgid .php AddType application/x-httpd-php .php Action php-fcgid /fcgid-bin/php-fcgid-wrapper ScriptAlias /fcgid-bin/ /srv/http/fcgid-bin/ SocketPath /var/run/httpd/fcgidsock SharememPath /var/run/httpd/fcgid_shm # If you don't allow bigger requests many applications may fail (such as WordPress login) FcgidMaxRequestLen 536870912 PHP_Fix_Pathinfo_Enable 1 # Path to php.ini – defaults to /etc/phpX/cgi DefaultInitEnv PHPRC=/etc/php/ # Number of PHP childs that will be launched. Leave undefined to let PHP decide. #DefaultInitEnv PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN 3 # Maximum requests before a process is stopped and a new one is launched #DefaultInitEnv PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS 5000 <Location /fcgid-bin/> SetHandler fcgid-script Options +ExecCGI </Location> </IfModule>
Create needed directory and symlink for php wrapper:
# mkdir /srv/http/fcgid-bin # ln -s /usr/bin/php-cgi /srv/http/fcgid-bin/php-fcgid-wrapper
#LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5.so LoadModule fcgid_module modules/mod_fcgid.so Include conf/extra/php5_fcgid.conf
/etc/php/php.ini has the directive enabled:
and restart httpd.
- Configure MySQL as described in MySQL.
/etc/php/php.inito uncomment the following lines (by removing
- You can add minor privileged users for your web scripts by editing the tables found in the
mysqldatabase. You have to restart MySQL for changes to take effect. Do not forget to check the
select User,Password from mysql.user;. If there is a second entry for root and your hostname is left with no password set, everybody from your host probably could gain full access. Perhaps see next section for these jobs.
- Start MySQL (mysqld).
- You may also need to restart Apache (httpd).
- MySQL should now be running. Set the root password and test it by logging in with the CLI MySQL client:
# mysqladmin -u root password password # mysql -u root -p
- Type exit to exit from the CLI MySQL client
- To start MySQL (mysqld) at boot, see daemons.
- You might also want to edit
/etc/mysql/my.cnfand uncomment the
skip-networkingline so the MySQL server is only accessible by the localhost.
- MySQL - Article for MySQL
- PhpMyAdmin - Web frontend for MySQL typically found in LAMP environments
- Adminer - A full-featured database management tool which is available for MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite, MS SQL and Oracle
- Xampp - Self contained web-server that supports PHP, Perl, and MySQL
- mod_perl - Apache + Perl