Difference between revisions of "LXDE"
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Revision as of 12:57, 14 February 2013
zh-CN:LXDE zh-TW:LXDETemplate:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary end
- The "Lightweight X11 Desktop Environment" is an extremely fast-performing and energy-saving desktop environment. Maintained by an international community of developers, it comes with a beautiful interface, multi-language support, standard keyboard short cuts and additional features like tabbed file browsing. LXDE uses less CPU and less RAM than other environments. It is especially designed for cloud computers with low hardware specifications, such as, netbooks, mobile devices (e.g. MIDs) or older computers.
- 1 Installation
- 2 Starting the Desktop
- 3 Tips and tricks
- 3.1 Application Menu Editing
- 3.2 Auto Mount
- 3.3 Autostart Programs
- 3.4 Bindings
- 3.5 Cursors
- 3.6 Digital clock applet time
- 3.7 Font Settings
- 3.8 Keyboard layout
- 3.9 Gnome-screensaver with LXDE
- 3.10 lxpanel Icons
- 3.11 LXNM
- 3.12 PCManFM
- 3.13 Replacing Window Managers
- 3.14 Shutdown, Reboot, Suspend and Hibernate Options ( LXSession-logout)
- 4 Troubleshooting
- 5 Resources
LXDE is very modular so you can choose the packages you need. The minimal obligatory packages which you have to install to run LXDE are, , , and a window manager.
You can install the LXDE group by:
# pacman -S lxde
This will install the following packages:
- : A lightweight image viewer
- : A library for file management
- : A utility to configure themes, icons and fonts for GTK+ applications
- : A plugin for LXAppearance to configure Openbox
- : The default settings for integrating different LXDE components
- : An icon theme for LXDE
- : A lightweight display manager
- : A small program to configure keyboard and mouse for LXDE
- : An application launcher mainly for netbooks
- : A collection of files intended to adapt freedesktop.org menu specification
- : A lightweight XMMS2 client
- : A desktop panel for LXDE
- : A screen manager
- : A standard-compliant X11 session manager with shutdown, reboot and suspend support
- : A small program used to edit application shortcuts
- : A lightweight task manager
- : A lightweight terminal emulator
- : A daemon which automatically generates the menu for LXDE
- : A lightweight, standard-compliant and highly-configurable window manager typically used with LXDE
- : The default lightweight file manager for LXDE which also provides desktop integration
After the installation finishes, copy three files to ~/.config/openbox as instructed by pacman:
Place menu.xml, rc.xml and autostart in ~/.config/openbox They can be found in /etc/xdg/openbox
As the user of interest
mkdir -p ~/.config/openbox cp /etc/xdg/openbox/menu.xml /etc/xdg/openbox/rc.xml /etc/xdg/openbox/autostart ~/.config/openbox
You will also need to install Gamin, a file and directory monitoring tool designed to be a subset of the FAM. It runs on demand of programs and therefore does not require a daemon like fam does. If you already have fam installed, remove it from the DAEMONS array in
/etc/rc.conf first and stop the daemon, then install gamin:
# pacman -S gamin
You may also want to install some lightweight applications typically used with LXDE:
# pacman -S leafpad obconf epdfview
Note that some LXDE packages are experimental and you will need to install them from the AUR repository.
Starting the Desktop
There are lots of ways to start a LXDE desktop.
If not using a display manager you would like to add
to your ~/.bash_profile in order xdg-open to function properly.
To be able to start the desktop from the console, several other options exist.
To use startx, you will need to define LXDE in your
If you want to run startx at boot automatically, take a look at the Starting X at boot guide.
For other tasks you'll want to be sure that dbus is running as a daemon.
See xinitrc for details, such as preserving the logind (and/or consolekit) session.
Tips and tricks
Application Menu Editing
The application menu works by resolving the
.desktop files located in
/usr/share/applications. Many desktop environments run programs that supersede these settings to allow customization of the menu. LXDE has yet to create an application menu editor but you can manually build them yourself if you are so inclined. Third party menu editor can be found in AUR - AUR
To add or edit a menu item, create or link to the
.desktop file in
/usr/share/applications. Consult the desktop entry specification on freedesktop.org for structures of
To remove items from the menu, instead of deleting the
.desktop files, you can edit the file and add the following line in the file:
To expedite the process for a good number of files you can put it in a loop. For example:
cd /usr/share/applications for i in program1.desktop program2.desktop ...; do cp /usr/share/applications/$i \ /home/user/.local/share/applications/; echo "NoDisplay=true" >> \ /home/user/.local/share/applications/$i; done
This will work for all applications except KDE applications. For these, the only way to remove them from the menu is to log into KDE itself and use it's menu editor. For every item that you do not want displayed, check the 'Show only in KDE' option. If adding NoDisplay=True won't work, you can add ShowOnlyIn=XFCE.
- .desktop files
First you can link a program's
/usr/share/applications/ file to
~/.config/autostart/. For example, to execute lxterminal automatically at startup:
$ ln -s /usr/share/applications/lxterminal.desktop ~/.config/autostart/
.desktop files have been added you can manipulate them with the GUI configuration tool AUR.
- autostart file
The second method is to use a
~/.config/lxsession/LXDE/autostart file. This file is not a shell script, but each line represents a command to be executed, if a line begins with a @ symbol, the command following the @ will be automatically re-executed if it crashes. For example, to execute lxterminal and leafpad automatically at startup:
There is also a global autostart file at
/etc/xdg/lxsession/LXDE/autostart. If both files are present, all entries in both files will be executed.
Mouse and key bindings (i.e. keyboard shortcuts) are implemented with Openbox and are described in detail here. LXDE users should follow these instructions to edit the file ~/.config/openbox/lxde-rc.xml
An optional GUI for editing the key bindings isAUR available in the AUR. The default edit for obkey is rc.xml, but you can direct it to the LXDE configuration as follows:
$ obkey ~/.config/openbox/lxde-rc.xml
More information on obkey is here.
Main article: X11 Cursors.
The latest AUR provides functionality to change cursor themes. If you do not want to install newer, experimental lxappearance2, you'll have to define your cursor in your
~/.Xdefaults file. See Configuring Cursor Themes.
A basic way is to add the cursor to the default theme. First you will need to make the directory:
# mkdir /usr/share/icons/default
Then you can specify to add to the icon theme the cursor. This will use thepointer theme:
[icon theme] Inherits=Bluecurve
Custom folder icons in $HOME
Currently it looks like PCmanFM doesn't support this:
Digital clock applet time
You can right click on the digital clock applet on the panel and set how it displays the current time. For example, to display standard time instead of military time in the format of HH:MM:SS:
And in YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS format:
If you wish to display standard time with and AM/PM:
See the man page on
strftime (3) for more options.
Most users of LXDE usually try to use GTK+ programs because GTK+ is the backend for LXDE. To set the fonts, you can useand set the main font. For other fonts you will need to use the Openbox configuration tool ObConf:
# pacman -S obconf
When you use udev, the default input configuration is written to
Section "InputClass". You can edit it or create a new file
/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-keyboard.conf following the example below, using a generic swiss keyboard, with a french variant.
Section "InputClass" Identifier "evdev keyboard catchall" MatchIsKeyboard "on" MatchDevicePath "/dev/input/event*" Driver "evdev" Option "XkbModel" "pc104" Option "XkbLayout" "fr" Option "XknVariant" "ch" EndSection
You can find a list of all layout and variant options in
1 way: Add in /etc/xdg/lxsession/LXDE/autostart following line before @lxpanel --profile LXDE:
@setxkbmap -option grp:switch,grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll us,ru
or ~/.config/lxsession/LXDE/autostart (for separate user):
setxkbmap -option grp:switch,grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll us,ru
2 way: Create /etc/xdg/autostart/setxkmap.desktop as following:
[Desktop Entry] Version=1.0 Encoding=UTF-8 Name=Fix keyboard settings Exec=setxkbmap -rules xorg -layout "us,ru" -variant ",winkeys" -option "grp:alt_shift_toggle" Terminal=false Type=Application
3 way: Edit ~/.Xkbmap for current user or /etc/X11/Xkbmap for all system add following line:
-option grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll us,ru
4 way: Add folowing line in /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc or ~/.xinitrc:
setxkbmap -option grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll us,ru
Add the “Keyboard Layout Switcher” to our taskbar
- Right-click on your taskbar
- Choose “Add / Remove Panel Items”
- Choose “Add”
- Choose “Keyboard Layout Switcher”
Gnome-screensaver with LXDE
Install the needed packages:
pacman -S gnome-screensaver gnome-session
Create a simple launcher for gnome-session to allow the screensaver to work in
[Desktop Entry] Exec=/usr/bin/gnome-session
Now logout and log back in to enjoy gnome-screensaver.
Default icons used by lxpanel are stored in
/usr/share/pixmaps and any custom icons you want lxpanel to use need to be saved there as well.
You can change default icons for applications by taking the following steps:
- Save the new icon to /usr/share/pixmaps
- Use a text editor to open the
.desktopfile of the program whose icon you want to change in
LXNM is a program based on scripts that attempts to manage the network connections. It is script-based and strives to make networking configuration as automatic as possible. It is not a full blown networking system like NetworkManager. If you want greater control, Wicd and Gnome's verions of NetworkManager works well with LXDE. You can install LXNM from [community] repository:
# pacman -S lxnm
The main script will need to be run as root. If you plan on consistently using it, put it in your
/etc/rc.conf. LXNM works with the network status monitor applet in lxpanel. LXNM works well most of the time, though at times it can take a while to get a connection.
If you want to be able to access the Trash, mount volumes, and folder/file tracking you'll want gvfs support:
pacman -S polkit-gnome gvfs
polkit-gnome provides an authentication and will need to be started on login:
mkdir -p ~/.config/autostart cp /etc/xdg/autostart/polkit-gnome-authentication-agent-1.desktop ~/.config/autostart
Arch's polkit-gnome-authentication-agent-1.desktop currently doesn't exempt certain desktops. If you have trouble launching it remove the line:
To read/write NTFS file system don't forget to install ntfs-3g:
pacman -S ntfs-3g
Replacing Window Managers
Openbox, the default window manager of LXDE, can be easily replaced by other window managers, such as fvwm, icewm, dwm, metacity, compiz ...etc.
LXDE will attempt to use window manager from the user lxsession configuration file
~/.config/lxsession/LXDE/desktop.conf. If it does not exist, it will then attempt to use the global configuration file
Replace the openbox-lxde command with the window manager of your choice:
window_manager=compiz ccp --indirect-rendering
Shutdown, Reboot, Suspend and Hibernate Options ( LXSession-logout)
To have all Shutdown, Reboot, Suspend and Hibernate Options working you need to have dbus running. You also need to have upower installed.
# pacman -S upower
See xinitrc#Preserving the session for details on avoiding breaking the logind/consolekit session.
SSH Key Management
A very lightweight solution to ssh key management can be found by using keychain. See the using keychain article for details.
NTFS with Chinese Characters
For a storage device with an NTFS filesystem, you will need to install the NTFS-3G package. Generally, PCManFM works well with NTFS filesystems, however there is one bug affecting NTFS users that if you have files or directories on an NTFS filesystem, the names of which contain non-latin characters (e.g. Chinese characters) may disappear when opening (or auto-mounting) the NTFS volume. This happens because the lxsession mount-helper is not correctly parsing the policies and locale options. There is a workaround for this:
/sbin/mount.ntfs-3g which is a symbolic link.
# rm /sbin/mount.ntfs-3g
Create a new
/sbin/mount.ntfs-3g with a new bash script containing:
#!/bin/bash /bin/ntfs-3g $1 $2 -o locale=en_US.UTF-8
And then make it executable:
# chmod +x /sbin/mount.ntfs-3g
Add or edit the following line to
/etc/pacman.conf under the [options] tag to prevent modification of this file in case of upgrading:
NoUpgrade = sbin/mount.ntfs-3g
KDM and LXDE Session
As of KDE 4.3.3, KDM will not recognize the LXDE desktop session. To fix it:
# cp /usr/share/xsessions/LXDE.desktop /usr/share/apps/kdm/sessions/
GTK+ Warnings with lxsession 0.4.1
When starting GTK+2 programs you get the following message:
GTK+ icon them is not properly set This usually means you do not have an XSETTINGS manager running. Desktop environment like GNOME or XFCE automatically execute their XSETTING managers like gnome-settings-daemon or xfce-mcs-manager. This is caused by the migration of lxde-settings-daemon config files into lxsession. If you made customizations to these config files, you are in need of merging those config files:
Alternatively, you can use lxappearance from the community repository to fix this.