Difference between revisions of "Desktop notifications"

From ArchWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(add article summary, java example, reorganize notification servers)
m (Add a link to an article on a python example)
(31 intermediate revisions by 12 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
[[Category:Development (English)]]
+
[[Category:Development]]
{{i18n|Libnotify}}
+
[[es:Libnotify]]
 
+
[[ru:Libnotify]]
 
{{Article summary start|Summary}}
 
{{Article summary start|Summary}}
{{Article summary text|This article discusses how to install and configure libnotify. Libnotify is a small and lightweight library that implements the Desktop Notifications Specification. This article covers how to get libnotify on your system and how to use it for application development.}}
+
{{Article summary text|This article discusses how to install, configure and use libnotify for application development.}}
 
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
 
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|GTK+}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|GTK+}}
Line 9: Line 9:
 
{{Article summary end}}
 
{{Article summary end}}
  
'''Libnotify''' is an easy way to display desktop notifications and information in a small dialog. It's used in much open source apps like Evolution, Pidgin, etc. It has support for Gtk+ and Qt applications and is desktop independent.
+
'''Libnotify''' is an easy way to display desktop notifications and information in a small dialog. It implements the [http://developer.gnome.org/notification-spec/ Desktop Notifications Specification] and it is already used by many open source apps like [[Evolution]], [[Pidgin]], etc. It has support for [[GTK+]] and [[Qt]] applications and is desktop independent.
  
 
==Installation==
 
==Installation==
  
Libnotify can be installed with the package {{Pkg|libnotify}}, available in the [[Official Repositories]].
+
Libnotify can be installed with the package {{Pkg|libnotify}}, available in the [[official repositories]].
  
 
In order to use libnotify, you have to install a notification server:
 
In order to use libnotify, you have to install a notification server:
  
===GNOME and KDE===
+
===Builtin servers===
[[GNOME]] and [[KDE]] use their own implementations to display notifications, and you can't replace them. Their notification servers are started automatically on login to receive notifications from applications via DBus.
+
[[Cinnamon]], [[GNOME]] Shell and [[KDE]] use their own implementations to display notifications, and you can't replace them. Their notification servers are started automatically on login to receive notifications from applications via DBus.
*{{Pkg|gnome-shell}} provides a notification server itself. Notifications are displayed at the bottom of the screen.
+
* {{Pkg|cinnamon}} provides a notification server itself. Notifications are displayed at the top right corner of the screen.
*In GNOME Fallback mode, {{pkg|notification-daemon}} provides the notification server. Notifications are displayed at the top right corner of the screen.
+
* {{Pkg|gnome-shell}} provides a notification server itself. Notifications are displayed at the bottom of the screen.
*KDE uses knotify4 from package {{Pkg|kdebase-runtime}} to display notifications. Notifications are displayed at the bottom right corner of the screen.
+
* KDE uses '''knotify4''' from package {{Pkg|kdebase-runtime}} to display notifications. Notifications are displayed at the bottom right corner of the screen.
  
===Other DEs===
+
===Other servers===
In other desktop environments, the notification server is launched on first call via DBus. You can choose one of the following implementations:
+
In other desktop environments, the notification server is launched on the first call via DBus. You can choose one of the following implementations:
*{{Pkg|xfce4-notifyd}} is a notification server for [[Xfce]], available in the [[Official Repositories]].
+
* {{pkg|notification-daemon}} is the notification server used by GNOME in Fallback Mode. Notifications are displayed at the top right corner of the screen.
 +
:{{Note|notification-daemon doesn't have a DBus service file, so you have to [[autostart]] it. (Already done in GNOME Fallback Mode.) To start the daemon manually, execute the following command: {{ic|/usr/lib/notification-daemon-1.0/notification-daemon}}.}}
 +
* {{Pkg|xfce4-notifyd}} is a notification server for [[Xfce]], available in the official repositories.
 
:{{Tip|To configure xfce4-notifyd, run the following command in the terminal: {{ic|xfce4-notifyd-config}}.}}
 
:{{Tip|To configure xfce4-notifyd, run the following command in the terminal: {{ic|xfce4-notifyd-config}}.}}
*{{AUR|notify-osd}} is a notification server for [[Unity]], available in the [[Arch User Repository]].
+
* {{pkg|dunst}} is a minimalistic notification daemon for Linux designed to fit nicely into minimalistic windowmanagers like [[dwm]].
*{{AUR|awn-extras-applets}} contains a notification-daemon applet for the [[Avant Window Navigator]], available in the [[Arch User Repository]].
+
* {{Pkg|notify-osd}} is a notification server for [[Unity]], available in the official repositories.
 +
* {{Pkg|awn-extras-applets}} contains a notification-daemon applet for the [[Avant Window Navigator]], available in the official repositories.
 +
* {{AUR|statnot}} is a small, lightweight notification daemon that can output notifications to the root window's title, stdout or FIFO pipes, making it integrate very well with tiling window managers. It's available in the [[Arch User Repository]] or as a [https://github.com/halhen/statnot git repo].
 +
* {{AUR|twmn}} is a notification system for tiling window managers. It's available in the [[Arch User Repository]] or as a [https://github.com/sboli/twmn git repo].
  
 
==Tips and tricks==
 
==Tips and tricks==
Line 41: Line 46:
 
{{hc|hello_world.sh|<nowiki>#!/bin/bash
 
{{hc|hello_world.sh|<nowiki>#!/bin/bash
 
notify-send 'Hello world!' 'This is an example notification.' --icon=dialog-information</nowiki>}}
 
notify-send 'Hello world!' 'This is an example notification.' --icon=dialog-information</nowiki>}}
 +
 +
====Boo====
 +
*Dependency: {{Pkg|notify-sharp}} ({{Pkg|boo}})
 +
*Makedependency:  {{Pkg|boo}}
 +
*Build with: {{ic|booc hello_world.boo}}
 +
*Run with: {{ic|mono hello_world.exe}} (or {{ic|booi hello_world.boo}})
 +
 +
{{hc|hello_world.boo|<nowiki>import Notifications from "notify-sharp"
 +
Hello = Notification()
 +
Hello.Summary  = "Hello world!"
 +
Hello.Body    = "This is an example notification."
 +
Hello.IconName = "dialog-information"
 +
Hello.Show()</nowiki>}}
  
 
====C====
 
====C====
Line 50: Line 68:
 
NotifyNotification * Hello = notify_notification_new ("Hello world", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information");
 
NotifyNotification * Hello = notify_notification_new ("Hello world", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information");
 
notify_notification_show (Hello, NULL);
 
notify_notification_show (Hello, NULL);
notify_uninit ();
+
}</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
====C++====
 +
*Dependency: {{AUR|libnotifymm}} from AUR
 +
*Build with: {{Ic|g++ -o hello_world `pkg-config --cflags --libs libnotifymm-1.0` hello_world.cc}}
 +
{{hc|hello_world.cc|<nowiki>#include <libnotifymm.h>
 +
int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
 +
Notify::init("Hello world!");
 +
Notify::Notification Hello("Hello world", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information");
 +
        Hello.show();
 
}</nowiki>}}
 
}</nowiki>}}
  
 
====C#====
 
====C#====
*Dependency: {{Pkg|notify-sharp-svn}}
+
*Dependency: {{Pkg|notify-sharp}}
 
*Build with: {{ic|mcs -pkg:notify-sharp hello_world.cs}}
 
*Build with: {{ic|mcs -pkg:notify-sharp hello_world.cs}}
 +
*Run with: {{ic|mono hello_world.exe}}
 
{{hc|hello_world.cs|<nowiki>using Notifications;
 
{{hc|hello_world.cs|<nowiki>using Notifications;
 
public class HelloWorld {
 
public class HelloWorld {
Line 77: Line 105:
 
Notify.init ("Hello world")
 
Notify.init ("Hello world")
 
var Hello=new Notification ("Hello world!","This is an example notification.","dialog-information")
 
var Hello=new Notification ("Hello world!","This is an example notification.","dialog-information")
Hello.show ()
+
Hello.show ()</nowiki>}}
Notify.uninit ()</nowiki>}}
+
  
 
====Java====
 
====Java====
Line 97: Line 124:
 
         Notification Hello = new Notification("Hello world!", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information");
 
         Notification Hello = new Notification("Hello world!", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information");
 
         Hello.show();
 
         Hello.show();
        Notify.uninit();
 
 
     }
 
     }
 
}</nowiki>}}
 
}</nowiki>}}
Line 109: Line 135:
 
                                 body: "This is an example notification.",
 
                                 body: "This is an example notification.",
 
                                 "icon-name": "dialog-information"});
 
                                 "icon-name": "dialog-information"});
Hello.show ();
+
Hello.show ();</nowiki>}}
Notify.uninit ();</nowiki>}}
+
  
 
====Perl====
 
====Perl====
*Dependencies: {{AUR|perl-gtk2-notify}} from AUR
+
*Dependencies: {{Pkg|libnotify}}, {{AUR|perl-glib-object-introspection}} from AUR
 +
{{hc|hello_world.pl|<nowiki>#!/usr/bin/perl
 +
use Glib::Object::Introspection;
 +
Glib::Object::Introspection->setup (
 +
basename => 'Notify',
 +
version => '0.7',
 +
package => 'Notify');
 +
Notify->init;
 +
my $hello = Notify::Notification->new("Hello world!", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information");
 +
$hello->show;</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
Or you can use the old, static perl-gtk2-notify bindings:
 +
*Dependency: {{AUR|perl-gtk2-notify}} from AUR
 
{{hc|hello_world.pl|<nowiki>#!/usr/bin/perl
 
{{hc|hello_world.pl|<nowiki>#!/usr/bin/perl
 
use Gtk2::Notify -init, "Hello world";
 
use Gtk2::Notify -init, "Hello world";
Line 125: Line 162:
 
Notify.init ("Hello world")
 
Notify.init ("Hello world")
 
Hello=Notify.Notification.new ("Hello world","This is an example notification.","dialog-information")
 
Hello=Notify.Notification.new ("Hello world","This is an example notification.","dialog-information")
Hello.show ()
+
Hello.show ()</nowiki>}}
Notify.uninit ()</nowiki>}}
+
  
 
Or you can use the old, static python-notify bindings:
 
Or you can use the old, static python-notify bindings:
*Dependency: {{Pkg|python-notify}}
+
*Dependency: {{Pkg|python2-notify}}
 
{{hc|hello_world.py|<nowiki>#!/usr/bin/python2
 
{{hc|hello_world.py|<nowiki>#!/usr/bin/python2
 
import pynotify
 
import pynotify
 
pynotify.init ("Hello world")
 
pynotify.init ("Hello world")
 
Hello=pynotify.Notification ("Hello world!","This is an example notification.","dialog-information")
 
Hello=pynotify.Notification ("Hello world!","This is an example notification.","dialog-information")
Hello.show ()
+
Hello.show ()</nowiki>}}
pynotify.uninit ()</nowiki>}}
+
  
 
====Ruby====
 
====Ruby====
 +
*Dependencies: {{Pkg|libnotify}}, {{AUR|ruby-gir-ffi}} from AUR
 +
{{hc|hello_world.rb|<nowiki>#!/usr/bin/ruby
 +
require 'gir_ffi'
 +
GirFFI.setup :Notify
 +
Notify.init("Hello world")
 +
Hello = Notify::Notification.new("Hello world!", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information")
 +
Hello.show</nowiki>}}
 +
 +
Or you can use the old, static ruby-libnotify bindings:
 
*Dependency: {{AUR|ruby-libnotify}} from AUR
 
*Dependency: {{AUR|ruby-libnotify}} from AUR
 
{{hc|hello_world.rb|<nowiki>#!/usr/bin/ruby
 
{{hc|hello_world.rb|<nowiki>#!/usr/bin/ruby
Line 143: Line 187:
 
Notify.init("Hello world")
 
Notify.init("Hello world")
 
Hello = Notify::Notification.new("Hello world!", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information")
 
Hello = Notify::Notification.new("Hello world!", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information")
Hello.show
+
Hello.show</nowiki>}}
Notify.uninit</nowiki>}}
+
  
 
====Vala====
 
====Vala====
Line 156: Line 199:
 
var Hello = new Notification("Hello world!", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information");
 
var Hello = new Notification("Hello world!", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information");
 
Hello.show ();
 
Hello.show ();
Notify.uninit ();
 
 
}
 
}
 
}</nowiki>}}
 
}</nowiki>}}
 +
 +
====Visual Basic .NET====
 +
*Dependency: {{Pkg|notify-sharp}}
 +
*Makedependency: {{Pkg|mono-basic}}
 +
*Build with: {{ic|vbnc -r:/usr/lib/mono/notify-sharp/notify-sharp.dll hello_world.vb}}
 +
*Run with: {{ic|mono hello_world.exe}}
 +
 +
{{hc|hello_world.vb|<nowiki>Imports Notifications
 +
Public Class Hello
 +
Public Shared Sub Main
 +
Dim Hello As New Notification
 +
Hello.Summary  = "Hello world!"
 +
Hello.Body    = "This is an example notification."
 +
Hello.IconName = "dialog-information"
 +
Hello.Show
 +
End Sub
 +
End Class</nowiki>}}
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
*[http://developer.gnome.org/libnotify/ Libnotify Reference Manual]
 
*[http://developer.gnome.org/libnotify/ Libnotify Reference Manual]
 
*[http://milky.manishsinha.net/2009/03/29/working-with-libnotify/ C example]
 
*[http://milky.manishsinha.net/2009/03/29/working-with-libnotify/ C example]
*[http://code.valaide.org/content/genie-libnotify-example Genie example]
+
*[http://hashbang.fr/tutoriel-notify.html Python example] (french article)
*[http://roscidus.com/desktop/node/336 Python example]
+

Revision as of 08:17, 19 April 2013

Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary end

Libnotify is an easy way to display desktop notifications and information in a small dialog. It implements the Desktop Notifications Specification and it is already used by many open source apps like Evolution, Pidgin, etc. It has support for GTK+ and Qt applications and is desktop independent.

Installation

Libnotify can be installed with the package libnotify, available in the official repositories.

In order to use libnotify, you have to install a notification server:

Builtin servers

Cinnamon, GNOME Shell and KDE use their own implementations to display notifications, and you can't replace them. Their notification servers are started automatically on login to receive notifications from applications via DBus.

  • cinnamon provides a notification server itself. Notifications are displayed at the top right corner of the screen.
  • gnome-shell provides a notification server itself. Notifications are displayed at the bottom of the screen.
  • KDE uses knotify4 from package kdebase-runtime to display notifications. Notifications are displayed at the bottom right corner of the screen.

Other servers

In other desktop environments, the notification server is launched on the first call via DBus. You can choose one of the following implementations:

  • notification-daemon is the notification server used by GNOME in Fallback Mode. Notifications are displayed at the top right corner of the screen.
Note: notification-daemon doesn't have a DBus service file, so you have to autostart it. (Already done in GNOME Fallback Mode.) To start the daemon manually, execute the following command: /usr/lib/notification-daemon-1.0/notification-daemon.
  • xfce4-notifyd is a notification server for Xfce, available in the official repositories.
Tip: To configure xfce4-notifyd, run the following command in the terminal: xfce4-notifyd-config.
  • dunst is a minimalistic notification daemon for Linux designed to fit nicely into minimalistic windowmanagers like dwm.
  • notify-osd is a notification server for Unity, available in the official repositories.
  • awn-extras-applets contains a notification-daemon applet for the Avant Window Navigator, available in the official repositories.
  • statnotAUR is a small, lightweight notification daemon that can output notifications to the root window's title, stdout or FIFO pipes, making it integrate very well with tiling window managers. It's available in the Arch User Repository or as a git repo.
  • twmnAUR is a notification system for tiling window managers. It's available in the Arch User Repository or as a git repo.

Tips and tricks

Write your own notify app

You can write your own libnotify display messages easily in many programming languages through GObject-Introspection or bindings, or you can simply use bash.

The following examples display simple a "Hello world" notification.

Bash

hello_world.sh
#!/bin/bash
notify-send 'Hello world!' 'This is an example notification.' --icon=dialog-information

Boo

  • Dependency: notify-sharp (boo)
  • Makedependency: boo
  • Build with: booc hello_world.boo
  • Run with: mono hello_world.exe (or booi hello_world.boo)
hello_world.boo
import Notifications from "notify-sharp"
Hello = Notification()
Hello.Summary  = "Hello world!"
Hello.Body     = "This is an example notification."
Hello.IconName = "dialog-information"
Hello.Show()

C

  • Dependency: libnotify
  • Build with: gcc -o hello_world `pkg-config --cflags --libs libnotify` hello_world.c
hello_world.c
#include <libnotify/notify.h>
void main () {
	notify_init ("Hello world!");
	NotifyNotification * Hello = notify_notification_new ("Hello world", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information");
	notify_notification_show (Hello, NULL);
}

C++

  • Dependency: libnotifymmAUR from AUR
  • Build with: g++ -o hello_world `pkg-config --cflags --libs libnotifymm-1.0` hello_world.cc
hello_world.cc
#include <libnotifymm.h>
int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
	Notify::init("Hello world!");
	Notify::Notification Hello("Hello world", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information");
        Hello.show();
}

C#

  • Dependency: notify-sharp
  • Build with: mcs -pkg:notify-sharp hello_world.cs
  • Run with: mono hello_world.exe
hello_world.cs
using Notifications;
public class HelloWorld {
	static void Main() {
		var Hello = new Notification();
		Hello.Summary  = "Hello world!";
		Hello.Body     = "This is an example notification.";
		Hello.IconName = "dialog-information";
		Hello.Show();
	}
}

Genie

  • Dependency: libnotify
  • Makedependency: vala
  • Build with: valac --pkg libnotify hello_world.gs
hello_world.gs
uses 
	Notify

init
	Notify.init ("Hello world")
	var Hello=new Notification ("Hello world!","This is an example notification.","dialog-information")
	Hello.show ()

Java

  • Dependency: java-gnomeAUR from AUR
  • Makedependency: java-environment
  • Build with: mkdir HelloWorld && javac -classpath /usr/share/java/gtk.jar -d HelloWorld HelloWorld.java
  • Run with: java -classpath /usr/share/java/gtk.jar:HelloWorld HelloWorld
HelloWorld.java
import org.gnome.gtk.Gtk;
import org.gnome.notify.Notify;
import org.gnome.notify.Notification;

public class HelloWorld
{
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Gtk.init(args);
        Notify.init("Hello world");
        Notification Hello = new Notification("Hello world!", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information");
        Hello.show();
    }
}

JavaScript

hello_world.js
#!/usr/bin/gjs
Notify = imports.gi.Notify;
Notify.init ("Hello world");
Hello=new Notify.Notification ({summary: "Hello world!",
                                body: "This is an example notification.",
                                "icon-name": "dialog-information"});
Hello.show ();

Perl

hello_world.pl
#!/usr/bin/perl
use Glib::Object::Introspection;
Glib::Object::Introspection->setup (
	basename => 'Notify',
	version => '0.7',
	package => 'Notify');
Notify->init;
my $hello = Notify::Notification->new("Hello world!", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information");
$hello->show;

Or you can use the old, static perl-gtk2-notify bindings:

hello_world.pl
#!/usr/bin/perl
use Gtk2::Notify -init, "Hello world";
my $hello = Gtk2::Notify->new("Hello world!", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information");
$hello->show;

Python

hello_world.py
#!/usr/bin/python
from gi.repository import Notify
Notify.init ("Hello world")
Hello=Notify.Notification.new ("Hello world","This is an example notification.","dialog-information")
Hello.show ()

Or you can use the old, static python-notify bindings:

hello_world.py
#!/usr/bin/python2
import pynotify
pynotify.init ("Hello world")
Hello=pynotify.Notification ("Hello world!","This is an example notification.","dialog-information")
Hello.show ()

Ruby

hello_world.rb
#!/usr/bin/ruby
require 'gir_ffi'
GirFFI.setup :Notify
Notify.init("Hello world")
Hello = Notify::Notification.new("Hello world!", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information")
Hello.show

Or you can use the old, static ruby-libnotify bindings:

hello_world.rb
#!/usr/bin/ruby
require 'RNotify'
Notify.init("Hello world")
Hello = Notify::Notification.new("Hello world!", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information")
Hello.show

Vala

  • Dependency: libnotify
  • Makedependency: vala
  • Build with: valac --pkg libnotify hello_world.vala
hello_world.vala
using Notify;
public class HelloWorld {
	static void main () {
		Notify.init ("Hello world");
		var Hello = new Notification("Hello world!", "This is an example notification.", "dialog-information");
		Hello.show ();
	}
}

Visual Basic .NET

  • Dependency: notify-sharp
  • Makedependency: mono-basic
  • Build with: vbnc -r:/usr/lib/mono/notify-sharp/notify-sharp.dll hello_world.vb
  • Run with: mono hello_world.exe
hello_world.vb
Imports Notifications
Public Class Hello
	Public Shared Sub Main
		Dim Hello As New Notification
		Hello.Summary  = "Hello world!"
		Hello.Body     = "This is an example notification."
		Hello.IconName = "dialog-information"
		Hello.Show
	End Sub
End Class

See also