Difference between revisions of "Local Mirror (简体中文)"

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m (修改 cron 任务Editing the cron job)
(Setting up pacman to use the local mirror)
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现在我们开始设置 pacman 来使用这个本地镜像。
 
现在我们开始设置 pacman 来使用这个本地镜像。
  
== Setting up pacman to use the local mirror ==
+
== 设置 pacman 使用本地镜像 ==
  
If you only want to access your mirror on one computer, you can use the following steps.
+
如果只想在一台计算机上访问镜像,按照如下步骤进行。
  
=== Single machine ===
+
=== 单台计算机 ===
  
'''NOTE:''' If you are following the above for a single machine, you are using a lot of bandwidth for no reason at all. Save it for the people that need it. This section only applies for those that will follow through with the below section as well.
+
'''注意:''' 如果你只是为一台计算机准备本地镜像,那就是毫无意义地占用了大量的带宽。为需要的人节约带宽吧。应用本节需同样遵循以下各节。
  
You will not need vsftpd for this type of setup, because we are accessing the files via a file:// url, as opposed to a ftp:// url.
+
这种情况下你无需 vsftpd,因为我们将使用 file:// 定位符访问文件,而不是 ftp:// 定位符。
  
 
Add the following line to the top of <tt>/etc/pacman.d/core</tt>, at the top of the Servers list:
 
Add the following line to the top of <tt>/etc/pacman.d/core</tt>, at the top of the Servers list:
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Also be sure to change <tt>i686</tt> to <tt>x86_64</tt> if you are using a 64bit version of Arch.
 
Also be sure to change <tt>i686</tt> to <tt>x86_64</tt> if you are using a 64bit version of Arch.
  
=== Multiple machines ===
+
=== 多台计算机 ===
  
 
Syncing this way will allow you to use FTP to access your local mirror from other machines. You can also use this method to sync to your local machine (more details on this later).
 
Syncing this way will allow you to use FTP to access your local mirror from other machines. You can also use this method to sync to your local machine (more details on this later).
  
==== FTP server configuration ====
+
==== FTP服务器配置 ====
  
 
The first thing we need to do is configure vsftpd. Edit <tt>/etc/vsftpd.conf</tt> to look like this:
 
The first thing we need to do is configure vsftpd. Edit <tt>/etc/vsftpd.conf</tt> to look like this:

Revision as of 05:03, 24 January 2009

Template:I18n links start Template:I18n entry Template:I18n entry Template:I18n links end


Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.pngThis article or section needs to be translated.Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.png

Notes: please use the first argument of the template to provide more detailed indications. (Discuss in Talk:Local Mirror (简体中文)#)

注意: 95%的用户不需要这么做。同步core和extra上的所有软件包会带来许多你所不需要的东西。Only follow these instructions if you are running a very large site of Arch machines or want to create an official mirror. Perhaps using a Network Shared Pacman Cache would serve you better.

NOTE: Due to traffic issues rsyncing from rsync.archlinux.org is allowed only for official mirrors. If you want to create an official mirror - write to the mailing list about this and entries in /etc/pacman.d/* will be added and your IP address will be allowed.

If you want to get a full mirror for personal use only, you may rsync from rsync://distro.ibiblio.org/distros/archlinux/

This document describes how to create a mirror on your local machine of all the packages and iso files on the Arch mirrors, how to update it using cron, how to serve the mirror with vsftpd, and how to set up pacman to use the local mirror.

安装准备

首先,更新或是安装安装必要的工具:

pacman -Sy rsync vsftpd

现在,我们要创建一个用于同步镜像的新用户(没有登录特权),使用FTP获取文件。用户名“mirror”只是一个例子,你可以使用其他任何名称。请不要使用root或是其他能登录系统的帐号。安全起见,我们使用的帐号只能拥有尽可能少的权限。

useradd -m -s /bin/false mirror

现在,我们将继续创建镜像。

创建本地镜像目录

我们将使用 /home/mirror,刚才所创建的非特权用户的主目录,用于存储脚本,日志以及软件包。

首先要做的是在 /home/mirror 下创建几个目录 :

cd /home/mirror
sudo -u mirror mkdir {scripts,files,logs}

同步脚本

现在让我们用最喜爱的编辑器创建实际的 rsync 脚本, scripts/mirrorsync.sh

#!/bin/bash
#
# The script to sync a local mirror of the Arch Linux repositories and ISOs
#
# Copyright (C) 2007 Woody Gilk <woody@archlinux.org>
# Modifications by Dale Blount <dale@archlinux.org>
# and Roman Kyrylych <roman@archlinux.org>
# Licensed under the GNU GPL (version 2)

# Filesystem locations for the sync operations
SYNC_HOME="/home/mirror"
SYNC_LOGS="$SYNC_HOME/logs"
SYNC_FILES="$SYNC_HOME/files"
SYNC_LOCK="$SYNC_HOME/mirrorsync.lck"

# Select which repositories to sync
# Valid options are: core, extra, testing, community, iso
# Leave empty to sync a complete mirror
# SYNC_REPO=(core extra testing community iso)
SYNC_REPO=()

# Set the rsync server to use
# Only official public mirrors are allowed to use rsync.archlinux.org
# SYNC_SERVER=rsync.archlinux.org::ftp
SYNC_SERVER=distro.ibiblio.org::distros/archlinux

# Set the format of the log file name
# This example will output something like this: sync_20070201-8.log
LOG_FILE="pkgsync_$(date +%Y%m%d-%H).log"

# Do not edit the following lines, they protect the sync from running more than
# one instance at a time
if [ ! -d $SYNC_HOME ]; then
  echo "$SYNC_HOME does not exist, please create it, then run this script again."
  exit 1
fi

[ -f $SYNC_LOCK ] && exit 1
touch "$SYNC_LOCK"
# End of non-editable lines

# Create the log file and insert a timestamp
touch "$SYNC_LOGS/$LOG_FILE"
echo "=============================================" >> "$SYNC_LOGS/$LOG_FILE"
echo ">> Starting sync on $(date --rfc-3339=seconds)" >> "$SYNC_LOGS/$LOG_FILE"
echo ">> ---" >> "$SYNC_LOGS/$LOG_FILE"

if [ -z $SYNC_REPO ]; then
  # Sync a complete mirror
  rsync -rptLv --delete-after --delay-updates $SYNC_SERVER "$SYNC_FILES" >> "$SYNC_LOGS/$LOG_FILE"
else
  # Sync each of the repositories set in $SYNC_REPO
  for repo in ${SYNC_REPO[@]}; do
    repo=$(echo $repo | tr [:upper:] [:lower:])
    echo ">> Syncing $repo to $SYNC_FILES/$repo" >> "$SYNC_LOGS/$LOG_FILE"

    # If you only want to mirror i686 packages, you can add
    # " --exclude=os/x86_64" after "--delete-after"
    # 
    # If you only want to mirror x86_64 packages, use "--exclude=os/i686"
    # If you want both i686 and x86_64, leave the following line as it is
    #
    rsync -rptlv --safe-links --delete-after --delay-updates $SYNC_SERVER/$repo "$SYNC_FILES" >> "$SYNC_LOGS/$LOG_FILE"

    # Create $repo.lastsync file with timestamp like "2007-05-02 03:41:08+03:00"
    # which may be useful for users to know when the repository was last updated
    # date --rfc-3339=seconds > "$SYNC_FILES/$repo.lastsync"

    # Sleep 5 seconds after each repository to avoid too many concurrent connections
    # to rsync server if the TCP connection does not close in a timely manner
    sleep 5 
  done
fi

# Insert another timestamp and close the log file
echo ">> ---" >> "$SYNC_LOGS/$LOG_FILE"
echo ">> Finished sync on $(date --rfc-3339=seconds)" >> "$SYNC_LOGS/$LOG_FILE"
echo "=============================================" >> "$SYNC_LOGS/$LOG_FILE"
echo "" >> "$SYNC_LOGS/$LOG_FILE"

# Remove the lock file and exit
rm -f "$SYNC_LOCK"
exit 0

这并不是什么十分精美的,而只是一个能完成我们所需的稍微高级的bash脚本。让我们使其具有可执行权限。

chmod +x scripts/mirrorsync.sh

现在你已经有一个很容易修改的脚本。不过你可能不是很愿意每次都手动执行,我们可以设置一个cron任务来运行它。

在进行下一步前注意:你的 logs 目录将会逐渐增大。确保定期检查目录大小以防你的服务器因此崩溃。推荐设置 LogRotate 或者写一些清理脚本以处理。

运行 cron 任务

首先,确保具有必须的 cron 工具 (大多数的Archlinux都有):

pacman -S dcron

我们将用 crontab 运行 cron 任务。详情,参见 man crontab。用 crontab 而不是散落在 /etc/cron.* 各处的文件,来执行 sync 的好处是更高的安全性。它也使脚本运行有了更高级的控制。

以如下内容创建 scripts/mirror.cron

0 3 * * * /home/mirror/scripts/mirrorsync.sh

现在我们要激活我们的 crontab:

sudo -u mirror crontab scripts/mirror.cron

确认该 crontab 得到了我们的任务:

sudo -u mirror crontab -l

你将会看到 scripts/mirror.cron 的内容被显示出来。如果没有重新运行以上命令并检查。

这个 cron 设置将会在每天凌晨3点运行我们的 sync.sh 脚本。你可以随意调整这个时间,参见 http://www.adminschoice.com/docs/crontab.htm 了解更多 crontab 语法。

修改 cron 任务

如果你需要修改 mirror.cron,使用以下命令:

sudo -u mirror crontab -e

如果你手动修改了这个文件,使用以下命令更新 crontab:

sudo -u mirror crontab scripts/mirror.cron

现在我们开始设置 pacman 来使用这个本地镜像。

设置 pacman 使用本地镜像

如果只想在一台计算机上访问镜像,按照如下步骤进行。

单台计算机

注意: 如果你只是为一台计算机准备本地镜像,那就是毫无意义地占用了大量的带宽。为需要的人节约带宽吧。应用本节需同样遵循以下各节。

这种情况下你无需 vsftpd,因为我们将使用 file:// 定位符访问文件,而不是 ftp:// 定位符。

Add the following line to the top of /etc/pacman.d/core, at the top of the Servers list:

Server = file:///home/mirror/files/core/os/i686

You should also add this line, substituting /core/ for the name of the repository you are mirroring (e.g.: for community, the line should look like this):

Server = file:///home/mirror/files/community/os/i686

Also be sure to change i686 to x86_64 if you are using a 64bit version of Arch.

多台计算机

Syncing this way will allow you to use FTP to access your local mirror from other machines. You can also use this method to sync to your local machine (more details on this later).

FTP服务器配置

The first thing we need to do is configure vsftpd. Edit /etc/vsftpd.conf to look like this:

# vsftpd config file /etc/vsftpd.conf
#
# Setup for a secure anonymous FTP server
#
# Listen (non-xinetd) mode
listen=YES
# Use tcp_wrappers to control connections
tcp_wrappers=YES
# Use localtimes instead of GMT for files
use_localtime=YES
# Hide the true user/group ID of files
hide_ids=YES
# 
# Enable anonymous access (pacman requires this)
anonymous_enable=YES
# Use this user for anonymous logins
ftp_username=mirror
# Chroot directory for anonymous user
anon_root=/home/mirror/files
# Don't require a password for anonymous access (pacman requires this)
no_anon_password=YES
#
# User to run vsftpd as (same as ftp_username)
nopriv_user=mirror
# Enable recursive "ls" listing
ls_recurse_enable=YES
#
# Forcefully destroy sessions after X seconds of inactivity 
# (It is highly recommended to not set this above 300)
idle_session_timeout=120
# Forcefully stop sending data after X seconds of inactivity during a transfer
# (It is highly recommended to not set this higher than idle_session_timeout)
data_connection_timeout=30

This setup will offer a very secure FTP server, tailored specifically for our needs. Note that this setup does not require a password, and should not be used in a publicly accessible network (unless that's what you want). Password protecting the FTP and still allowing it to work with pacman is beyond the scope of this document.

If you are going to connect to this machine from the outside, you will need to add the following line to /etc/hosts.allow:

vsftpd : ALL : ALL

Note that this will allow anyone to download from the mirror. If you want to control downloads more tightly, and don't know how to do so, see linux.about.com on the subject.

Let's make sure vsftpd starts:

sudo /etc/rc.d/vsftpd start

If vsftpd does not start, check that the options are set correctly in your /etc/vsftpd.conf file.

Enabling the mirror for pacman

Now let's edit /etc/pacman.d/* files to use our shiny new mirror. Add the following line to the top of /etc/pacman.d/core, at the top of the Servers list:

Server = ftp://192.168.1.21/core/os/i686

Note that 192.168.1.21 is the IP address of my test machine. Your address will most likely be different. (Remember that you can get the current IP of an Arch box with ifconfig -a or ifconfig eth0.)

If you want to use this same mirror on the local machine, use the following Server line:

Server = ftp://localhost/core/os/i686

Repeat this same process for the other repositories you are mirroring. Non-local machines will need to use an IP address to access the repository. Also make sure that the machine serving the mirror has a static IP address.

Synchronizing for the first time

Here comes the pain! Run the following command to start the sync:

sudo -u mirror ./scripts/mirrorsync.sh

This won't give you any kind of output, but you probably want some. You can use something like this (correct for the name of log file) to monitor the sync progress:

tail -f logs/pkgsync_20070203-9.log

This process will usually take a few hours, depending on the speed of your internet connection and how many repositories you are mirroring. After the first sync, only new packages will be sync'ed, so it will be m