zh-CN:Locale Locales are used by and other locale-aware programs or libraries for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards.
- 1 Generating locales
- 2 Setting the locale
- 3 Supported variables
- 4 LC_ALL
- 5 Customizing locales
- 6 Tips and tricks
- 7 Troubleshooting
- 8 See also
Before a locale can be enabled on the system, it has to be generated. The current generated/available locales can be viewed with:
$ locale -a
The locales that can be generated are listed in the
/etc/locale.gen file: their names are defined using the format
[language][_TERRITORY][.CODESET][@modifier]. To generate a locale, first uncomment the corresponding line in the file (or comment to remove); when doing this, also consider the localizations that other users on the system might need. For example, for American-English uncomment
en_US.UTF.8 UTF-8. When done, save the file and generate the uncommented locale(s) by executing:
locale-genalso runs with every update of .
Setting the locale
To display the currently set locale and its related environmental settings, type:
The locale to be used, chosen among the previously generated ones, is set in
locale.conf files, each of which must contain a new-line separated list of environment variable assignments, for example:
LANG=en_AU.UTF-8 LC_COLLATE=C LC_TIME=en_DK.UTF-8
- A system-wide locale can be set by creating or editing
/etc/locale.conf. The same result can be obtained with the localectl command:
# localectl set-locale LANG=en_US.UTF-8
man 1 localectlfor details.
- Tip: During system installation, if the output of locale is to your liking, you can save a little time by doing:
locale > /etc/locale.confwhile chrooted.
- The system-wide locale can be overridden in each user session by creating or editing
~/.config/locale.conf(or, in general,
- This can also allow keeping the logs in
/var/login English while using the local language in the user environment.
- You can create a
/etc/skel/.config/locale.conffile so that any new users added using useradd and the
-moption will have
- This can also allow keeping the logs in
The precedence of these
locale.conf files is defined in
See #Supported variables,
man 5 locale.conf and related for details.
locale.conf files have been created or edited, their new values will take effect after rebooting the system and will be set for individual sessions at login. To have the current environment use the new settings, do:
$ source /etc/profile.d/locale.sh
Locale variables can also be defined with the standard methods as explained in Environment variables.
For example, in order to test or debug a particular application during development, it could be launched with something like:
$ LANG="en_AU.UTF-8" ./my_application.sh
Similarly, to set the locale for all processes run from the current shell (for example, during system installation):
$ export LANG="en_AU.UTF-8"
locale.conf files support the following environment variables:
LANG: default locale
The locale set for this variable will be used for all the
LC_* variables that are not explicitly set.
LANGUAGE: fallback locales
Programs which use gettext for translations respect the
LANGUAGE option in addition to the usual variables. This allows users to specify a list of locales that will be used in that order. If a translation for the preferred locale is unavailable, another from a similar locale will be used instead of the default. For example, an Australian user might want to fall back to British rather than US spelling:
LC_TIME: date and time format
LC_TIME is set to
en_US.UTF-8, for example, the date format will be "MM/DD/YYYY". If wanting to use the the ISO 8601 date format of "YYYY-MM-DD" use:
This variable governs the collation rules used for sorting and regular expressions.
Setting the value to
C can for example make the ls command sort dotfiles first, followed by uppercase and lowercase filenames:
See also .
To get around potential issues, Arch used to set
/etc/profile, but this method is now deprecated.
The locale set for this variable will always override
LANG and all the other
LC_* variables, whether they are set or not.
LC_ALL is the only
LC_* variable, which cannot be set in
locale.conf files: it is meant to be used only for testing or troubleshooting purposes, for example in
Locales are defined in text files located in
/usr/share/i18n/locales/ and can be edited to adapt to particular needs.
After editing a locale file, do not forget to re-generate the locales for the changes to take effect after reboot.
Setting the first day of the week
In many countries the first day of the week is Monday. To adjust this, change or add the following lines:
LC_TIME [...] week 7;19971130;5 first_weekday 2 first_workday 2
Tips and tricks
Launch application with different locale from terminal
For example launch Abiword with Hebrew locale:
$ env LANG=he_IL.UTF-8 abiword &
Launch application with different locale from desktop
Copy the .desktop file to the user home directory so it will take precedence:
$ cp /usr/share/applications/abiword.desktop ~/.local/share/applications/
Exec=env LANG=he_IL.UTF-8 abiword %U
My terminal does not support UTF-8
The following lists some (not all) terminals that support UTF-8:
- VTE-based terminals
- xterm - Must be run with the argument
-u8. Alternatively run uxterm, which is provided by the package .
Gnome-terminal or rxvt-unicode does not support UTF-8
You need to launch these applications from a UTF-8 locale or they will drop UTF-8 support. Enable the
en_US.UTF-8 locale (or your local UTF-8 alternative) per the instructions above and set it as the default locale, then reboot.
My system is still using wrong language
It is possible that the environment variables are redefined in other files than
locale.conf, for example
~/.pam_environment is used by GNOME. See Environment variables#Defining variables for details.