MAC address spoofing
zh-CN:MAC Address Spoofing This article gives several methods to spoof a Media Access Control (MAC) address.
There are two methods for spoofing a MAC address using either official repositories). Both of them are outlined below.(installed by default) or (available on the
Method 1: iproute2
First, you can check your current MAC address with the command:
# ip link show interface
interface is the name of your network interface.
The section that interests us at the moment is the one that has "link/ether" followed by a 6-byte number. It will probably look something like this:
The first step to spoofing the MAC address is to bring the network interface down. It can be accomplished with the command:
# ip link set dev interface down
Next, we actually spoof our MAC. Any hexadecimal value will do, but some networks may be configured to refuse to assign IP addresses to a client whose MAC does not match up with a vendor. Therefore, unless you control the network(s) you are connecting to, it is a good idea to test this out with a known good MAC rather than randomizing it right away.
To change the MAC, we need to run the command:
# ip link set dev interface address XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX
Where any 6-byte value will suffice for
The final step is to bring the network interface back up. This can be accomplished by running the command:
# ip link set dev interface up
If you want to verify that your MAC has been spoofed, simply run
ip link show interface again and check the value for 'link/ether'. If it worked, 'link/ether' should be whatever address you decided to change it to.
Method 2: macchanger
Another method uses(a.k.a., the GNU MAC Changer). It provides a variety of features such as changing the address to match a certain vendor or completely randomizing it.
The spoofing is done on per-interface basis, specify network interface name as
interface in each of the following commands.
The MAC address can be spoofed with a fully random address:
# macchanger -r interface
To randomize all of the address except for the vendor bytes (that is, so that if the MAC address was checked it would still register as being from the same vendor), you would run the command:
# macchanger -e interface
To change the MAC address to a specific value, you would run:
# macchanger --mac=XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX interface
XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX is the MAC you wish to change to.
Finally, to return the MAC address to its original, permanent hardware value:
# macchanger -p interface
Method 1: systemd-networkd
[Match] MACAddress=permanent MAC [Link] MACAddress=spoofed MAC NamePolicy=kernel database onboard slot path
Method 2: systemd unit
iproute2 + dhcpcd
[Unit] Description=MAC Address Change %I Before=dhcpcd@%i.service [Service] Type=oneshot ExecStart=/usr/bin/ip link set dev %i address 36:aa:88:c8:75:3a ExecStart=/usr/bin/ip link set dev %i up [Install] WantedBy=network.target
macchanger + NetworkManager
[Unit] Description=macchanger on %I Before=NetworkManager.service After=sys-subsystem-net-devices-%I.device [Service] ExecStart=/usr/bin/macchanger -e %I Type=oneshot [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target
macchanger + dhcpcd
[Unit] Description=macchanger on %I Before=dhcpcd@%i.service [Service] ExecStart=/usr/bin/macchanger -r %I Type=oneshot [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target
Append the desired network interface to the service name (e.g.
eth0) and enable the service:
# systemctl enable email@example.com
Reboot, or stop and start the prerequisite and requisite services in the proper order. If you are in control of your network, verify that the spoofed MAC has been picked up by your router by examining the static, or DHCP address tables within the router.
If you cannot connect to a DHCPv4 network and you are using dhcpcd, which is the default for NetworkManager, you might need to modify the configuration to obtain a lease.