Difference between revisions of "ReadyMedia"

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(File System and Localization)
(Local: Autostart .bash_profile)
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  # chown nobody:nobody /var/{cache,log}/minidlna
 
  # chown nobody:nobody /var/{cache,log}/minidlna
  
You can login as MiniDLNA user and create symbolic link in the default ''Media_DB'' directory to a mounted in the system external drive, just make sure to set MiniDLNA user ''rw'' permissions and other [http://linux.die.net/man/8/mount mount options] for the drive in [[fstab]] and/or [[udev]] automount rules if mounted after boot:
+
If you change MiniDLNA user, you can login as that user and create a symbolic link in the default ''Media_DB'' directory to a mounted in the system external ''Media_Collection'' drive, just make sure to set the user's ''rw'' permissions and other [http://linux.die.net/man/8/mount mount options] for the drive in [[fstab]] if present at boot, or [[udev]] automount rules if attached after boot:
  
 
  # ln -s /media/MyDrive/Media_DB /var/cache/minidlna
 
  # ln -s /media/MyDrive/Media_DB /var/cache/minidlna
  
MiniDLNA includes an initscript to start it as a global [[Daemon|daemon]].  Add ''minidlna'' to {{ic|rc.conf}} daemons list to have it loaded at boot.
+
==== Service ====
 +
 
 +
The minidlna service can be managed by the ''minidlna'' [[daemon]].
  
 
=== Local ===
 
=== Local ===
Line 40: Line 42:
 
Create the necessary files and directories locally and edit the configuration:
 
Create the necessary files and directories locally and edit the configuration:
  
  # mkdir -p ~/.minidlna/cache
+
  # install -Dm644 /etc/minidlna.conf ~/.config/minidlna/minidlna.conf
# cd ~/.minidlna
+
# cp /etc/minidlna.conf .
+
 
  # $EDITOR minidlna.conf
 
  # $EDITOR minidlna.conf
  
Configure as you would globally above but these definitions need to be defined locally:
+
Configuring should be as above, specifically:
  
  db_dir=/home/$USER/.minidlna/cache
+
media_dir=/home/$USER/dir
  log_dir=/home/$USER/.minidlna
+
  db_dir=/home/$USER/.config/minidlna/cache
 +
  log_dir=/home/$USER/.config/minidlna
  
This is a local daemon script to start and stop MiniDLNA as a regular user:
+
A local daemon script to stop, start... MiniDLNA is available in the AUR ({{AUR|minidlnad}}) along with an autostart .desktop file.  To run:
  
{{hc|minidlna-daemon|<pre>#!/bin/bash
+
# minidlnad
# Start and stop the MiniDLNA daemon
+
  minidlnad [start|stop|restart|rescan] - actions for the MiniDLNA daemon
  
cnf="/home/$USER/.minidlna/minidlna.conf"
+
Alternatively you can autostart by adding in your {{ic|.bash_profile}} :
pid="/home/$USER/.minidlna/minidlna.pid"
+
log="/home/$USER/.minidlna/minidlna.log"
+
  
# Required program(s)
+
minidlna -f /home/$USER/.config/minidlna/minidlna.conf -P /home/$USER/.config/minidlna/minidlna.pid
req_progs=(minidlna)
+
for p in ${req_progs[@]}; do
+
  hash "$p" 2>&- || \
+
  { echo >&2 " Required program \"$p\" not installed."; exit 1; }
+
done
+
  
dmn_strt () {
 
  minidlna -f "$cnf" -P "$pid" > $log 2>&1 &
 
}
 
 
dmn_stop () {
 
  if [ "$(pgrep -x minidlna)" ]; then
 
    killall -9 minidlna && sleep 2 && \
 
    echo " Stopped MiniDLNA daemon"
 
  else
 
    echo " MiniDLNA is not running"
 
  fi
 
}
 
 
dmn_rscn () {
 
  minidlna -R -f "$cnf" -P "$pid" > $log 2>&1 &
 
}
 
 
help    () {
 
  echo " ${0##*/} <start|stop|rescan> - start,stop,rescan the MiniDLNA daemon"
 
}
 
 
case $1 in
 
  start  ) # Start daemon
 
            dmn_stop
 
            dmn_strt || { echo " Failure in starting daemon"; exit; }
 
            echo " Started MiniDLNA daemon" ;;
 
  stop    ) # Stop daemon
 
            dmn_stop ;;
 
  rescan  ) # Rescan for new files (new file detection only works when
 
            # minidlna is running)
 
            dmn_stop
 
            dmn_rscn ;;
 
  *      ) # Display usage if no parameters given
 
            help
 
esac</pre>}}
 
 
==== Load daemon on Login ====
 
 
A {{ic|.desktop}} file in {{ic|~/.config/autostart}} will do this:
 
 
{{hc|~/.config/autostart/minidlna.desktop|<pre>[Desktop Entry]
 
Encoding=UTF-8
 
Type=Application
 
Name=MiniDLNA
 
Comment=Server to stream media over network
 
Exec=/home/$USER/.scripts/minidlna-daemon start
 
StartupNotify=false
 
Terminal=false
 
Hidden=false
 
X-GNOME-Autostart-enabled=true</pre>}}
 
 
Make the file executable:
 
 
# chmod +x ~/.config/autostart/minidlna.desktop
 
  
 
==== Automatic Media_DB Update ====
 
==== Automatic Media_DB Update ====
Line 130: Line 70:
  
 
  # Increase inotify max watchs per user for local minidlna
 
  # Increase inotify max watchs per user for local minidlna
  fs.inotify.max_user_watches = 100000"
+
  fs.inotify.max_user_watches = 100000
  
 
''inotify'' performance may depend on device type. Some don't rescan media drives on a consistent basis or at all.  If files are added/deleted to monitored media directories, they may not be noticed until the device DLNA client is restarted.
 
''inotify'' performance may depend on device type. Some don't rescan media drives on a consistent basis or at all.  If files are added/deleted to monitored media directories, they may not be noticed until the device DLNA client is restarted.
Line 138: Line 78:
 
You can also clean or rebuild MiniDLNA DB manually after stopping MiniDLNA daemon, or analyze its debug output (Ctrl+C to exit):
 
You can also clean or rebuild MiniDLNA DB manually after stopping MiniDLNA daemon, or analyze its debug output (Ctrl+C to exit):
  
/etc/rc.d/minidlna stop
+
Stop the MiniDLNA daemon:
  minidlna clean
+
  # systemctl stop minidlna
  minidlna -R
+
 
  minidlna -d
+
To rebuild Media_DB forcibly:
 +
  $ sudo -u nobody minidlna -R
 +
Stop the daemon after rebuilding Media_DB e.g. {{Ic|killall minidlna}}.
 +
 
 +
To run in debug mode:
 +
  $ sudo -u nobody minidlna -d
 +
{{Keypress|Ctrl+C}} to exit it.
  
 
== Other aspects ==
 
== Other aspects ==
Line 156: Line 102:
 
=== File System and Localization ===
 
=== File System and Localization ===
  
When keeping MiniDLNA ''Media_DB'' on an external drive accessible in both Linux and Windows, choose proper [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/File_Systems file system] for it. '''NTFS''' preserves in Windows its Linux defaults: ''rw'' access for ''root'' user and ''UTF8'' font ''encoding'' for file names, so media titles in your language are readable when browsing ''Media_DB'' in media players, since most support ''UTF8''. If you prefer '''Vfat''' (FAT32) for better USB drive compatibility with older players when hooked directly, or your ''Media_Collection'' drive is Vfat and has folder & file names in your local language, MiniDLNA can transcode them to ''UTF8'' charset while scanning folders to ''Media_DB''. Add your [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_page codepage] and font ''encoding'' or ''transcoding'' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Character_encoding charset] to ''Media_Collection'' and ''Media_DB'' drives' mount options, i.g. ''codepage=cp866,iocharset=utf8'', and ''rw'' permissions for all users, since ''Vfat'' doesn't preserve Linux access permissions:
+
When keeping MiniDLNA ''Media_DB'' on an external drive accessible in both Linux and Windows, choose proper [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/File_Systems file system] for it. '''NTFS''' preserves in Windows its Linux defaults: ''rw'' access for ''root'' user and ''UTF8'' font ''encoding'' for file names, so media titles in your language are readable when browsing ''Media_DB'' in terminal and media players, since most support ''UTF8''. If you prefer '''Vfat''' (FAT32) for better USB drive compatibility with older players when hooked directly, or your ''Media_Collection'' drive is Vfat and has folder & file names in your local language, MiniDLNA can transcode them to ''UTF8'' charset while scanning folders to ''Media_DB''. Add to ''Media_Collection'' and ''Media_DB'' drives' mount options your FS language [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_page codepage] for transcoding to short DOS file names, and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Character_encoding iocharset] for converting long file names to your terminal's locale, i.g. ''codepage=cp866,iocharset=utf8 (or ISO-8859-5)''. Set ''rw'' permissions for all users, since ''Vfat'' doesn't preserve Linux access permissions:
  
{{bc|1=UUID=6140-75F7 /media/MyDrive/Media_DB vfat user,rw,async,noatime,umask=111,dmask=000,cp866,utf8=true 0 0}}
+
{{bc|1=UUID=6140-75F7 /media/MyDrive/Media_DB vfat user,rw,async,noatime,umask=111,dmask=000,codepage=cp866,iocharset=utf8 0 0}}
  
Make sure the required ''codepage'' for your [[locale]] is available in the system and enabled (like ru_RU.CP866), i.e. was included in system config when ArchLinux release was compiled, or consider recompiling the release to add it:  
+
While your ''iocharset'' would be present in the system with a matching [[locale]], if your terminal or player supports only short file names, check if the set ''codepage'' is also present and enabled (like ru_RU.CP866), i.e. was included in system config when ArchLinux release was compiled, or consider recompiling the release to add it:  
  
 
  ls /usr/share/fonts/encodings
 
  ls /usr/share/fonts/encodings
  
MiniDLNA lists ''Movies'' and ''Photos'' by file name in its DB, and ''Music'' entries by [http://id3lib.sourceforge.net/id3/ ID3 tags] instead of file names. If Music collection wasn't tagged in UTF8 but in local encoding, MiniDLNA might not identify and transcode it correctly to UTF8 for display in media players, or the original tags ''codepage(s)'' may be absent in your system, so the tags won't be readable even when media file names are. In this case consider re-tagging your collection to ''UTF-16BE'' or ''UTF-8'' encoding with an '''ID3 Tag Converter'''.
+
MiniDLNA lists ''Movies'' and ''Photos'' by file name in its DB, and ''Music'' entries by [http://id3lib.sourceforge.net/id3/ ID3 tags] instead of file names. If Music collection wasn't tagged in UTF8 but in a local charset, MiniDLNA might not identify and transcode it correctly to UTF8 for display in media players, or the original tags ''codepage(s)'' may be absent in your system, so the tags won't be readable even when media file names are. In this case consider re-tagging your collection to ''UTF-16BE'' or ''UTF-8'' encoding with an '''ID3 Tag Converter'''.
  
Picking the "right" ''file system'' for your ''Media_Collection'' is a trade-off: XFS and EXT4 show fast read/write for HDs and lower CPU load critical for small [http://archlinuxarm.org/platforms/armv5/pogoplug-series-4 Plug Computers] with attached storage. NTFS is most compatible with Windows when plugging a drive directly for faster copy, while Samba, NFS or iSCSI can export over network to Windows any Linux file system. As file fragmentation affects playback, store your Movies on a non-system drive formatted in XFS (prevents fragments), NTFS (fragment resistant and easy to defrag), or EXT4 (uses large file ''extents''), and [https://trac.transmissionbt.com/ticket/849 avoid] EXT3 or [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_Allocation_Table#Fragmentation less] resistant FAT32. For smaller Flash drives with seldom fragmented Music and Photo files, VFAT (FAT32) and EXT4 show faster writes with less CPU load, but EXT4 may affect memory wear due to journaling, and less compatible with media players. Proper block [http://lwn.net/Articles/428584/ alignment] and ''mount options'' (i.e. ''async,noatime''...- choice depends on file system and memory type) can greatly [http://linux-howto-guide.blogspot.ca/2009/10/increase-usb-flash-drive-write-speed.html accelerate] flash and HD drive speed among other [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Logical_Disk_Manager&section=6 advantages].
+
Picking the "right" ''file system'' for your ''Media_Collection'' is a trade-off: XFS and EXT4 show fast read/write for HDs and lower CPU load critical for small [http://archlinuxarm.org/platforms/armv5/pogoplug-series-4 Plug Computers] with attached storage. NTFS is most compatible with Windows when plugging a drive directly for faster copy, while network file systems like Samba, NFS or iSCSI allow import to Windows any Linux FS with slower data copy. As file fragmentation affects playback, store your Movies on a non-system drive formatted in XFS (prevents fragments), NTFS (fragment resistant and easy to defrag), or EXT4 (uses large file ''extents''), and [https://trac.transmissionbt.com/ticket/849 avoid] EXT3 or [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_Allocation_Table#Fragmentation less] resistant FAT32. For smaller Flash drives with seldom fragmented Music and Photo files, VFAT (FAT32) and EXT4 show faster writes with less CPU load, but EXT4 may affect memory wear due to journaling, and less compatible with media players. Proper drive partitioning, block [http://lwn.net/Articles/428584/ alignment] and ''mount options'' (i.e. ''async,noatime''...- choice depends on file system and memory type) can greatly [http://linux-howto-guide.blogspot.ca/2009/10/increase-usb-flash-drive-write-speed.html accelerate] flash and HD drive speed among other [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Logical_Disk_Manager&section=6 advantages].
  
 
=== Media Handling ===
 
=== Media Handling ===

Revision as of 08:44, 3 April 2013

MiniDLNA is server software with the aim of being fully compliant with DLNA/UPnP clients. The MiniDNLA daemon serves media files (music, pictures, and video) to clients on a network. Example clients include applications such as totem and xbmc, and devices such as portable media players, Smartphones, Televisions, and gaming systems (such as PS3 and Xbox 360).

MiniDLNA (ReadyDLNA) is a simple, lightweight alternative to MediaTomb, but has fewer features. It does not have a web interface for administration and must be configured by editing a text file.

Installation

Install minidlna from the official repositories.

Configuration

The MiniDLNA daemon can be run as either a global (config:/etc/minidlna.conf) or per-user instance (config:user-defined), these are the necessary common settings:

#network_interface=eth0                         # Self-discovers if commented (at times necessary to set)
media_dir=A,/home/user/Music                    # Mounted Media_Collection drive directories
media_dir=P,/home/user/Pictures                 # Use A, P, and V to restrict media 'type' in directory
media_dir=V,/home/user/Videos
friendly_name=Media Server                      # Optional
db_dir=/var/cache/minidlna                      # MiniDLNA Media_DB dir needs to be un-commented
log_dir=/var/log                                # Log dir needs to be un-commented
inotify=yes                                     # 'no' for less resources, restart required for new media
presentation_url=http://www.mylan/index.php     # or use your device static IP http://192.168.0.14:8200/

Global

MiniDLNA scans your Media_Collection at startup and creates or updates database Media_DB browsable via media players. Set database cache and logging dirs in config, so the db and album art cache won't be re-created on every restart. By default MiniDLNA runs as nobody user without shell access as set in /etc/conf.d/minidlna, unless you set your own. That user needs rw permissions to cache and log directories you specified in conf. Create the required directories and chown them to nobody:nobody.

# mkdir /var/{cache,log}/minidlna
# chown nobody:nobody /var/{cache,log}/minidlna

If you change MiniDLNA user, you can login as that user and create a symbolic link in the default Media_DB directory to a mounted in the system external Media_Collection drive, just make sure to set the user's rw permissions and other mount options for the drive in fstab if present at boot, or udev automount rules if attached after boot:

# ln -s /media/MyDrive/Media_DB /var/cache/minidlna

Service

The minidlna service can be managed by the minidlna daemon.

Local

Create the necessary files and directories locally and edit the configuration:

# install -Dm644 /etc/minidlna.conf ~/.config/minidlna/minidlna.conf
# $EDITOR minidlna.conf

Configuring should be as above, specifically:

media_dir=/home/$USER/dir
db_dir=/home/$USER/.config/minidlna/cache
log_dir=/home/$USER/.config/minidlna

A local daemon script to stop, start... MiniDLNA is available in the AUR (minidlnadAUR) along with an autostart .desktop file. To run:

# minidlnad
 minidlnad [start|stop|restart|rescan] - actions for the MiniDLNA daemon

Alternatively you can autostart by adding in your .bash_profile :

minidlna -f /home/$USER/.config/minidlna/minidlna.conf -P /home/$USER/.config/minidlna/minidlna.pid


Automatic Media_DB Update

Kernel adds one inotify watch per each folder/subfolder in Media_Collection Directories set in /etc/minidlna.conf to monitor changes thus allowing MiniDLNA to update Media_DB in real time. When MiniDLNA is run as a regular user, it does not have the ability to change the kernel's inotify limits. If default number of inotify watches is non-sufficient to have MiniDLNA monitor all your media folders, increase inotify watches through sysctl (100000 should be enough for most uses):

# sudo sysctl fs.inotify.max_user_watches=100000

To have it permanently changed, add to /etc/sysctl.conf

# Increase inotify max watchs per user for local minidlna
fs.inotify.max_user_watches = 100000

inotify performance may depend on device type. Some don't rescan media drives on a consistent basis or at all. If files are added/deleted to monitored media directories, they may not be noticed until the device DLNA client is restarted.

Check inotify updates via MiniDLNA presentation_url by comparing files count. If it doesn't change, make sure the user running MiniDLNA has rw access to the DB folder. If the issue persists, copy or download new files first to a non-watched by inotify Downloads folder on the same drive, and then move them to appropriate media folders, since lengthy media files copying or downloading may confuse inotify.

You can also clean or rebuild MiniDLNA DB manually after stopping MiniDLNA daemon, or analyze its debug output (Ctrl+C to exit):

Stop the MiniDLNA daemon:

# systemctl stop minidlna

To rebuild Media_DB forcibly:

$ sudo -u nobody minidlna -R

Stop the daemon after rebuilding Media_DB e.g. killall minidlna.

To run in debug mode:

$ sudo -u nobody minidlna -d

Template:Keypress to exit it.

Other aspects

Other aspects and MiniDLNA limitations may need to be considered beforehand to ensure satisfaction from its performance.

Firewall

If using a firewall the the ssdp (1900/udp) and trivnet1 (8200/tcp) ports will need to be opened. For example, this can be done with arno's iptables firewall by editing firewall.conf and opening the ports by doing:

OPEN_TCP="8200"
OPEN_UDP="1900"

File System and Localization

When keeping MiniDLNA Media_DB on an external drive accessible in both Linux and Windows, choose proper file system for it. NTFS preserves in Windows its Linux defaults: rw access for root user and UTF8 font encoding for file names, so media titles in your language are readable when browsing Media_DB in terminal and media players, since most support UTF8. If you prefer Vfat (FAT32) for better USB drive compatibility with older players when hooked directly, or your Media_Collection drive is Vfat and has folder & file names in your local language, MiniDLNA can transcode them to UTF8 charset while scanning folders to Media_DB. Add to Media_Collection and Media_DB drives' mount options your FS language codepage for transcoding to short DOS file names, and iocharset for converting long file names to your terminal's locale, i.g. codepage=cp866,iocharset=utf8 (or ISO-8859-5). Set rw permissions for all users, since Vfat doesn't preserve Linux access permissions:

UUID=6140-75F7 /media/MyDrive/Media_DB vfat user,rw,async,noatime,umask=111,dmask=000,codepage=cp866,iocharset=utf8 0 0

While your iocharset would be present in the system with a matching locale, if your terminal or player supports only short file names, check if the set codepage is also present and enabled (like ru_RU.CP866), i.e. was included in system config when ArchLinux release was compiled, or consider recompiling the release to add it:

ls /usr/share/fonts/encodings

MiniDLNA lists Movies and Photos by file name in its DB, and Music entries by ID3 tags instead of file names. If Music collection wasn't tagged in UTF8 but in a local charset, MiniDLNA might not identify and transcode it correctly to UTF8 for display in media players, or the original tags codepage(s) may be absent in your system, so the tags won't be readable even when media file names are. In this case consider re-tagging your collection to UTF-16BE or UTF-8 encoding with an ID3 Tag Converter.

Picking the "right" file system for your Media_Collection is a trade-off: XFS and EXT4 show fast read/write for HDs and lower CPU load critical for small Plug Computers with attached storage. NTFS is most compatible with Windows when plugging a drive directly for faster copy, while network file systems like Samba, NFS or iSCSI allow import to Windows any Linux FS with slower data copy. As file fragmentation affects playback, store your Movies on a non-system drive formatted in XFS (prevents fragments), NTFS (fragment resistant and easy to defrag), or EXT4 (uses large file extents), and avoid EXT3 or less resistant FAT32. For smaller Flash drives with seldom fragmented Music and Photo files, VFAT (FAT32) and EXT4 show faster writes with less CPU load, but EXT4 may affect memory wear due to journaling, and less compatible with media players. Proper drive partitioning, block alignment and mount options (i.e. async,noatime...- choice depends on file system and memory type) can greatly accelerate flash and HD drive speed among other advantages.

Media Handling

MiniDLNA is aimed for small devices, so doesn't generate movie thumbnails to lower CPU load and DB built time. It uses either thumbs in the same folder with movie if any, or extracts them where present from media containers like MP4 or MKV with embedded Album Art tags, but not AVI. One can add thumbs (JPG 160x160 pxl or less) to media folders with a Thumbnail Maker, and miniDLNA will link them to media files after rescan. Larger thumbs will be resized and stored in Media_DB that slows scan. At one movie per folder, follow thumb naming rules in minidlna.conf. For multiple show episodes per folder, each thumb name should match its episode name without ext. (<file>.cover.jpg or <file>.jpg). To handle MS Album Art thumb names with GUID, add * to the end "AlbumArt_{*".jpg . MiniDLNA will list on screen only chosen media type (i.e. Movies), but won't other files in the same folder.

When viewing photos, progressive and/or lossless compression JPG may not be supported by your player via DLNA. Also resize photos to "suggested photo size" by the player's docs for problem free image slideshow. DLNA spec restricts image type to JPG or PNG, and max size to 4096 x 4096 pixels - and that's if the DLNA server implementation supports the LARGE format. The next size limit down (MEDIUM) is 1024 x 768, so resizing may help to show photos correctly.

To decrease system load, MiniDLNA doesn't transcode on the fly unsupported media files into supported by your player formats. When building Media_DB, it might not correctly identify whether certain formats are supported by your player, which may play via UPnP a broader formats choice. DLNA standard is quite limiting UPnP subset in media containers and codec profiles allowed. If you don't see on TV screen or can't play some media files listed in Media_DB, check if your HD started spinning or try connecting to your media player via USB for their playback. MiniDLNA might not support choosing audio tracks, subtitles, disk chapters, list sorting, and other advanced playback features for your player model.