Difference between revisions of "Music Player Daemon"

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[[Category:Multimedia players]]
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[[Category:Music]]
 
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[[zh-hans:Music Player Daemon]]
 
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{{Style|Needs improvements in structure and clarify; compare to the [http://www.musicpd.org/doc/user/index.html User's manual].|section=Style comment}}
 
 
 
{{Related articles start}}
 
{{Related articles start}}
 
{{Related|MPD/Tips and Tricks}}
 
{{Related|MPD/Tips and Tricks}}
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{{Related articles end}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
  
'''[http://www.musicpd.org/ MPD]''' ('''m'''usic '''p'''layer '''d'''aemon) is an audio player that has a server-client architecture.  It plays audio files, organizes playlists and maintains a music database all while using  very few resources. In order to interface with it, a separate [[#Clients|client]] is needed.
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'''[http://www.musicpd.org/ MPD]''' (music player daemon) is an audio player that has a server-client architecture.  It plays audio files, organizes playlists and maintains a music database, all while using  very few resources. In order to interface with it, a separate [[#Clients|client]] is needed.
  
 
== Installation ==
 
== Installation ==
Line 23: Line 21:
 
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|mpd}} package, or {{AUR|mpd-git}} for the development version.
 
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|mpd}} package, or {{AUR|mpd-git}} for the development version.
  
{{Note|An alternative implementation written in Python called [http://www.mopidy.com Mopidy] exists. It is available as {{Pkg|mopidy}} and {{AUR|mopidy-git}}. Be warned that is not a complete MPD [http://docs.mopidy.com/en/latest/ext/mpd/#limitations drop-in replacement]. The advantage of Mopidy over MPD is that it has  plug-ins for playing music from cloud services like Spotify, SoundCloud, and Google Play Music. However, mopidy project is not as active and many plugins become unusable or buggy at least over time.}}
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== Configuration ==
  
== Setup ==
+
MPD is able to run in [[#Per-user configuration]] or [[#System-wide configuration]] mode (settings apply to all users). Also it is possible to run multiple instances of MPD in a [[#Multi-MPD setup]].
 +
The way of setting up MPD depends on the way it is intended to be used: a local per-user configuration is easier to setup and may prove more adapted on a desktop system.
  
MPD is able to run in the [[#Local configuration (per user)]] mode, in the [[#Global configuration]] mode (settings apply to all users), and in multiple instances [[#Multi-mpd setup]] mode.  The way of setting up mpd depends on the way it is intended to be used: a local configuration may prove more useful on a desktop system, for example.
+
In order for MPD to be able to playback audio, [[ALSA]], optionally with [[PulseAudio]], must be setup and working. The [[#Audio configuration]] section thereafter describes the parameters needed for ''ALSA'' or ''PulseAudio''.
  
In order for MPD to be able to playback audio, [[ALSA]] or [[OSS]] (optionally with [[PulseAudio]]) needs to be setup and working.
+
MPD is configured in the file {{man|5|mpd.conf}} which can be located in various paths depending on the setup chosen (system-wide or per-user). In short, the two common locations used are:
 +
# {{ic|~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf}} in per-user configuration mode, this is the first location searched,
 +
# {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} in system-wide configuration.
  
MPD is configured in {{ic|mpd.conf}}. The location of this file depends on how you want to run MPD, in global or local configuration (see below). These are commonly used configuration options:
+
For indication, some of the most commonly used configuration options are listed thereafter:
* {{ic|pid_file}} -  The file where mpd stores its process ID
+
* {{ic|pid_file}} -  The file where MPD stores its process ID
 
* {{ic|db_file}} - The music database
 
* {{ic|db_file}} - The music database
 
* {{ic|state_file}} - MPD's current state is noted here
 
* {{ic|state_file}} - MPD's current state is noted here
Line 39: Line 40:
 
* {{ic|sticker_file}} - The sticker database
 
* {{ic|sticker_file}} - The sticker database
  
=== Local configuration (per user) ===
+
=== Per-user configuration ===
  
MPD can be configured per user. Running it as a normal user has the benefits of:
+
MPD can be configured per-user. Running it as a normal user has the benefits of:
  
* Using a single directory {{ic|~/.config/mpd/}} (or any other directory under {{ic|$HOME}}) that contains all the MPD configuration files.
+
* Regrouping into one single directory {{ic|~/.config/mpd/}} (or any other directory under {{ic|$HOME}}) all the MPD configuration files.
* It is easier to avoid unforeseen directory and file permission errors.
+
* Avoiding unforeseen directory and file permission errors.
  
 
==== Configure the location of files and directories ====
 
==== Configure the location of files and directories ====
A good practice is to use a single directory that will contain the configuration file, the database, the log file and the playlists. It can be any directory for which the user has read and write access, e.g. {{ic|~/.config/mpd/}} or {{ic|~/.mpd/}}. This section assumes {{ic|~/.config/mpd/}} is being used, which corresponds to the default value of {{ic|$XDG_CONFIG_HOME}} (part of [http://standards.freedesktop.org/basedir-spec/basedir-spec-latest.html XDG Base Directory Specification]).
+
In user mode, the configuration is read from {{ic|$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/mpd/mpd.conf}}.
 +
We will assume here {{ic|$XDG_CONFIG_HOME}} equals {{ic|~/.config}} which is the recommended [http://standards.freedesktop.org/basedir-spec/basedir-spec-latest.html XDG base directory specification].
  
MPD searches for a config file in {{ic|$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/mpd/mpd.conf}} and then {{ic|~/.mpdconf}}. It is also possible to pass other path as command line argument.
+
To build the user configuration, the [https://raw.githubusercontent.com/MusicPlayerDaemon/MPD/master/doc/mpdconf.example MPD configuration example] included in the package is a good starting point, copy it using the following lines:
  
Copy the example configuration file to desired location, for example:
+
$ mkdir ~/.config/mpd
 +
$ cp /usr/share/doc/mpd/mpdconf.example ~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf
  
$ mkdir -p ~/.config/mpd
+
A good practice is to use this newly created {{ic|~/.config/mpd/}} directory to store, together with the configuration file, other MPD related files like the database or the playlists. The user must have read write access to this directory.
$ cp /usr/share/doc/mpd/mpdconf.example ~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf
 
  
 
Then edit the configuration file in order to specify the required and optional files and directories:
 
Then edit the configuration file in order to specify the required and optional files and directories:
  
 
{{hc|~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf|
 
{{hc|~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf|
# Required files
+
# Recommended location for database
 
db_file            "~/.config/mpd/database"
 
db_file            "~/.config/mpd/database"
log_file          "~/.config/mpd/log"
 
  
# Optional
+
# Logs to systemd journal
music_directory    "~/Music"
+
log_file          "syslog"
playlist_directory "~/.config/mpd/playlists"
+
 
pid_file          "~/.config/mpd/pid"
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# The music directory is by default the XDG directory, uncomment to amend and choose a different directory
state_file        "~/.config/mpd/state"
+
#music_directory    "~/music"
sticker_file      "~/.config/mpd/sticker.sql"
+
 
 +
# Uncomment to refresh the database whenever files in the music_directory are changed
 +
#auto_update "yes"
 +
 
 +
# Uncomment to enable the functionalities
 +
#playlist_directory "~/.config/mpd/playlists"
 +
#pid_file          "~/.config/mpd/pid"
 +
#state_file        "~/.config/mpd/state"
 +
#sticker_file      "~/.config/mpd/sticker.sql"
 
}}
 
}}
  
Create the playlist directory as configured above:
+
If playlists are enabled in the configuration, the specified playlist directory must be created:
  
 
  $ mkdir ~/.config/mpd/playlists
 
  $ mkdir ~/.config/mpd/playlists
  
When the paths of required files are configured, MPD can be started. To specify custom location of the configuration file:
+
MPD can now be started (an optional custom location for the configuration file can be specified):
  
  $ mpd ''config_file''
+
  $ mpd ''[config_file]''
  
Update the database by screening into the {{ic|music_directory}} defined above. This must be done from a client, for example {{pkg|mpc}} in the example below:
+
In order to build the database file, ''MPD'' must scan into the {{ic|music_directory}} defined above. A MPD client is required to request this task, for example with {{pkg|mpc}} the command is:
  
 
  $ mpc update
 
  $ mpc update
  
or alternatively set the option {{ic|auto_update}} to {{ic|"yes"}} in the configuration to refresh the database whenever files are changed in {{ic|music_directory}}.
+
or alternatively one can set the option {{ic|auto_update}} to {{ic|"yes"}} in the configuration to refresh the database whenever files are changed in {{ic|music_directory}}.
  
 
==== Audio configuration ====
 
==== Audio configuration ====
  
Users of [[ALSA]] will want to have the following device definition; the required {{ic|name}} parameter specifies a unique name for the audio output.
+
If [[ALSA]] is used, '''autodetection''' of the default device should work out of the box without any particular setting. If not, the syntax for ALSA audio output definition is provided thereafter; the required {{ic|name}} parameter specifies a unique name for the audio output.
{{hc|/etc/mpd.conf|2=
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The exact device as displayed using {{ic|aplay --list-pcm}} from the package {{pkg|alsa-utils}} can optionally be indicated with the {{ic|device}} option.
 +
{{hc|~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf|2=
 
audio_output {
 
audio_output {
         type           "alsa"
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         type         "alsa"
         name           "''ALSA sound card''"
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         name         "''ALSA sound card''"
         mixer_type      "software"     # optional
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         # Optional
 +
        #device        "''iec958:CARD=Intel,DEV=0''"
 +
        #mixer_control "PCM"
 
}
 
}
 
}}
 
}}
 
The {{ic|mixer_type "software"}} option tells ''mpd'' to use its own independent software volume control.
 
  
 
Users of [[PulseAudio]] will need to make the following modification:
 
Users of [[PulseAudio]] will need to make the following modification:
{{hc|/etc/mpd.conf|2=
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{{hc|~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf|2=
 
audio_output {
 
audio_output {
 
         type            "pulse"
 
         type            "pulse"
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}}
 
}}
  
User will also have to edit {{ic|/etc/pulse/client.conf}} and change the {{ic|autospawn}} option to {{ic|yes}} in order to allow the ''mpd'' user to use ''pulseaudio''. It will be necessary to restart ''pulseaudio'' after making this modification.
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User will also have to edit {{ic|/etc/pulse/client.conf}} and change the {{ic|autospawn}} option to {{ic|yes}} in order to allow the MPD user to use ''pulseaudio''. It will be necessary to restart ''pulseaudio'' after making this modification.
  
 
==== Autostart with systemd ====
 
==== Autostart with systemd ====
  
The {{Pkg|mpd}} package provides a [[systemd/User|user service]] file. The configuration file is expected to exist either in {{ic|~/.mpdconf}} or {{ic|~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf}}; see [[systemd#Editing provided units]] if you would like to use a different path. The service starts the process as user, there is no need to change permission nor use the {{ic|user}} and {{ic|group}} variables in the MPD configuration file.
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The {{Pkg|mpd}} package provides a [[systemd/User|user service]] file. The service starts the process as user, there is no need to change permission nor use the {{ic|user}} and {{ic|group}} variables in the MPD configuration file.
  
All you have to do is [[start/enable]] the user unit {{ic|mpd.service}} (i.e. with the {{ic|--user}} flag).
+
[[start/enable]] the user unit {{ic|mpd.service}} (i.e. with the {{ic|--user}} flag).
  
{{Note|{{Pkg|mpd}} also provides a system service file. The process is started as root and reads the [[#Global configuration]] from {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} rather than the [[#Local configuration (per user)]].}}
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{{Note|The configuration file is read from {{ic|~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf}}, see [[systemd#Editing provided units]] if you would like to indicate a custom configuration file path.}}
  
 
==== Autostart on tty login ====
 
==== Autostart on tty login ====
  
To start MPD on login add the following to {{ic|~/.profile}} (or another [[Autostarting#Shells|autostart file]]{{Broken section link}}):
+
To start MPD on login add the following to {{ic|~/.profile}} or another [[Autostarting|autostart file]]:
  
 
  # MPD daemon start (if no other user instance exists)
 
  # MPD daemon start (if no other user instance exists)
 
  [ ! -s ~/.config/mpd/pid ] && mpd
 
  [ ! -s ~/.config/mpd/pid ] && mpd
 
==== Autostart in X ====
 
 
If you use a [[desktop environment]], place the following file in {{ic|~/.config/autostart/}}:
 
{{hc|~/.config/autostart/mpd.desktop|2=
 
[Desktop Entry]
 
Encoding=UTF-8
 
Type=Application
 
Name=Music Player Daemon
 
Comment=Server for playing audio files
 
Exec=mpd
 
StartupNotify=false
 
Terminal=false
 
Hidden=false
 
X-GNOME-Autostart-enabled=false
 
}}
 
 
If you do not use a DE, place the line from [[#Autostart on tty login]] in the selected [[Autostarting|autostart file]].
 
  
 
==== Scripted configuration ====
 
==== Scripted configuration ====
  
You can use a [https://53280.de/dl/mpdsetup.sh script] to create the proper directory structure, configuration files and prompt for the location of the user's Music directory.
+
The following tool provides assistance for MPD configuration:
 
 
==== Scripted configuration for bit perfect playback ====
 
  
You can use a [http://lacocina.nl/audiophile-mpd bash script] to also create a valid mpd configuration file which focusses on bit perfect audio playback. That is playback  without any resampling or format conversion. It does this by setting audio output parameters to use a direct alsa hwardware address (like `hw:0,0`). The script detects and lists which playback interfaces alsa supports. When one interface is found it uses that one, if multiple are found it prompts the user which one to use. When not specified on the command line, it auto configures things like the music_directory and mpd's home directory by using freedesktop.org XDG configuration.
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* {{App|[http://lacocina.nl/audiophile-mpd mpd-configure]|Create a MPD configuration optimized for [https://www.musicpd.org/doc/user/advanced_usage.html#bit_perfect bit perfect] audio playback, without any resampling or conversion, using the ALSA interface hardware address (hw:x,y)|https://github.com/ronalde/mpd-configure|no package}}
  
=== Global configuration ===
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=== System-wide configuration ===
  
{{Note|Users of PulseAudio with a global mpd have to implement a [[Music Player Daemon/Tips and tricks#Local (with separate mpd user)|workaround]] in order to run mpd as its own user!}}
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{{Note|Users of PulseAudio with a system-wide MPD configuration have to implement a [[Music Player Daemon/Tips and tricks#Local (with separate mpd user)|workaround]] in order to run MPD as its own user!}}
  
The default {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} keeps the setup in {{ic|/var/lib/mpd}} which is assigned to user as well as primary group ''mpd''.
+
The default {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} keeps the setup in {{ic|/var/lib/mpd}} which is assigned to user as well as primary group MPD.
  
 
==== Music directory ====
 
==== Music directory ====
  
The music directory has to be set by parameter {{ic|music_directory}} in the configuration file {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}}.
+
The music directory is defined by the option {{ic|music_directory}} in the configuration file {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}}.
  
MPD needs to have execute permission on ''all'' parent directories of the music collection and also read access to all directories containing music files. This conflicts with the default configuration of the user directory where many users store their music.
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MPD needs to have execute permission on ''all'' parent directories of the music collection and also read access to all directories containing music files. This may conflict with the default configuration of the user directory, like {{ic|~/Music}}, where the music is stored.
  
While there are several solutions to this problem one of these should be most practical:
+
While there are several solutions to this issue, one of these should be most practical:
* Use instead the [[#Local configuration (per user)]] mode
+
* Switch to the [[#Per-user configuration]] mode instead
* Add the ''mpd'' user to the user's group and grant group execute permission to the user directory. This way the ''mpd'' user has permission to open the user directory:
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* Add the {{ic|mpd}} user to the user's group and grant group execute permission to the user directory. This way the {{ic|mpd}} user has permission to open the user directory:
 
  # gpasswd -a mpd ''user_group''
 
  # gpasswd -a mpd ''user_group''
 
  $ chmod 710 /home/''user_directory''
 
  $ chmod 710 /home/''user_directory''
* Store the music collection in a different path (a) by moving it entirely, (b) with a bind mount or (c) with [[Btrfs#Subvolumes]] (you should make this change persistent with an entry to {{ic|/etc/fstab}} ). Permissions of alternate directories can be adjusted with [[Access Control Lists]].
+
* Store the music collection in a different path, either:
 +
** by moving it entirely,
 +
** with a bind mount,
 +
** or with [[Btrfs#Subvolumes]] (you should make this change persistent with an entry to {{ic|/etc/fstab}} ).
  
 
The MPD configuration file must define only one music directory. If the music collection is contained under multiple directories, create symbolic links under the main music directory in {{ic|/var/lib/mpd}}. Remember to set permissions accordingly on the directories being linked.
 
The MPD configuration file must define only one music directory. If the music collection is contained under multiple directories, create symbolic links under the main music directory in {{ic|/var/lib/mpd}}. Remember to set permissions accordingly on the directories being linked.
  
==== Start MPD ====
+
==== Start with systemd ====
  
 
MPD can be controlled with {{ic|mpd.service}} [[systemd#Using units|using systemd]]. The first startup can take some time as MPD will scan your music directory.
 
MPD can be controlled with {{ic|mpd.service}} [[systemd#Using units|using systemd]]. The first startup can take some time as MPD will scan your music directory.
Line 178: Line 171:
 
===== Socket activation =====
 
===== Socket activation =====
  
If the {{ic|mpd.socket}} unit (provided by {{Pkg|mpd}}) is enabled while {{ic|mpd.service}} is disabled, systemd will not start mpd immediately, but it will listen on the appropriate sockets. When an mpd client attempts to connect on one of those sockets, systemd will start {{ic|mpd.service}} and transparently hand over control of those ports to the mpd process.
+
{{Pkg|mpd}} provides a {{ic|mpd.socket}} unit. If {{ic|mpd.socket}} is enabled (and {{ic|mpd.service}} is disabled), systemd will not start MPD immediately, it will just listen to the appropriate sockets. Then, whenever an MPD client attempts to connect to one of these sockets, systemd will start {{ic|mpd.service}} and transparently hand over control of these ports to the MPD process.
 
 
If you prefer to listen on different UNIX sockets or network ports (even multiple sockets of each type), or if you prefer not to listen on network ports at all, [[edit]] the {{ic|mpd.socket}} unit appropriately '''and''' modify {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} to match the configuration (see {{man|5|mpd.conf}} for details).
 
 
 
==== Changing user ====
 
 
 
Changing the group that MPD runs as may result in errors like {{ic|output: Failed to open "My ALSA Device"}}, {{ic|[alsa]: Failed to open ALSA device "default": No such file or directory}} or {{ic|player_thread: problems opening audio device while playing "Song Name.mp3"}}.
 
 
 
This is because the MPD users need to be part of the ''audio'' group to access sound devices under {{Ic|/dev/snd/}}. To fix it add user make the MPD user part of the ''audio'' group:
 
# gpasswd -a '''mpd''' audio
 
 
 
==== Timeline of MPD startup ====
 
  
To depict when MPD drops its superuser privileges and assumes those of the user set in the configuration, the timeline of a normal MPD startup is listed here:
+
If you prefer to listen to different UNIX sockets or network ports (even multiple sockets of each type), or if you prefer not to listen to network ports at all, [[edit]] the {{ic|mpd.socket}} unit appropriately '''and''' modify {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} to match the configuration (see {{man|5|mpd.conf}} for details).
  
# Since MPD is started as root by systemd, it first reads the {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} file.
+
==== User id startup workflow ====
# MPD reads the user variable in the {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} file, and changes from root to this user.
+
MPD should never run as ''root'', you may use the {{ic|user}} option in the configuration to make MPD change its user id after initialization. Do not use this option if you start MPD as an unprivileged user.
# MPD then reads the contents of the {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} file and configures itself accordingly.
+
To describe how MPD drops its superuser privileges and switch to those of the user set in the configuration, the steps of a normal MPD startup are listed thereafter:
  
Notice that MPD changes the running user from root to the one named in the {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} file.  
+
# Since MPD is started as ''root'' by systemd, it first reads the {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} file.
This way, uses of {{ic|~}} in the configuration file point correctly to the home user's directory, and not root's directory.
+
# MPD reads the {{ic|user}} variable in the configuration, and changes from ''root'' to this user.
It may be worthwhile to change all uses of {{ic|~}} to {{ic|/home/username}} to avoid any confusion over this aspect of MPD's behavior.
+
# MPD then reads the rest of the configuration file and configures itself accordingly. Uses of {{ic|~}} in the configuration file points to the home user's directory, and not root's directory.
  
=== Multi-mpd setup ===
+
=== Multi-MPD setup ===
  
 
==== Running an icecast server ====
 
==== Running an icecast server ====
  
For a second MPD (e.g., with icecast output to share music over the network) using the same music and playlist as the one above, simply copy the above configuration file and make a new file (e.g., {{ic|/home/username/.mpd/config-icecast}}), and only change the log_file, error_file, pid_file, and state_file parameters (e.g., {{ic|mpd-icecast.log}}, {{ic|mpd-icecast.error}}, and so on); using the same directory paths for the music and playlist directories would ensure that this second mpd would use the same music collection as the first one e.g., creating and editing a playlist under the first daemon would affect the second daemon as well.  Users do not have to create the same playlists all over again for the second daemon.  Call this second daemon the same way from {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} above. (Just be sure to have a different port number, so as to not conflict with the first mpd daemon).
+
For a second MPD (e.g., with icecast output to share music over the network) using the same music and playlist as the one above, simply copy the above configuration file and make a new file (e.g., {{ic|/home/username/.mpd/config-icecast}}), and only change the log_file, error_file, pid_file, and state_file parameters (e.g., {{ic|mpd-icecast.log}}, {{ic|mpd-icecast.error}}, and so on); using the same directory paths for the music and playlist directories would ensure that this second MPD would use the same music collection as the first one e.g., creating and editing a playlist under the first daemon would affect the second daemon as well.  Users do not have to create the same playlists all over again for the second daemon.  Call this second daemon the same way from {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} above. (Just be sure to have a different port number, so as to not conflict with the first MPD daemon).
  
 
==== Satellite setup ====
 
==== Satellite setup ====
  
The method above works, but at least in theory could lead to issues with the database, when both mpd instances try to write to the same database file. MPD has a [http://www.musicpd.org/doc/user/advanced_config.html#satellite satellite mode] where one instance can receive the database from an already running mpd instance.
+
The method above works, but at least in theory could lead to issues with the database, when both MPD instances try to write to the same database file. MPD has a [http://www.musicpd.org/doc/user/advanced_config.html#satellite satellite mode] where one instance can receive the database from an already running MPD instance.
  
in your config-icecast add this, where host and port reflect your primary mpd server.
+
in your config-icecast add this, where host and port reflect your primary MPD server.
  
 
{{bc|
 
{{bc|
Line 223: Line 205:
 
== Clients ==
 
== Clients ==
  
A separate client is needed to control mpd. See a long list of clients at the [https://www.musicpd.org/clients/ mpd website]. Popular options are:
+
A separate client is needed to control MPD. See a long list of clients at the [https://www.musicpd.org/clients/ mpd website]. Popular options are:
  
 
=== Console ===
 
=== Console ===
  
*{{App|mpc|Command line user interface for MPD server|http://www.musicpd.org/clients/mpc/|{{Pkg|mpc}}}}
+
* {{App|clerk|MPD client using rofi.|https://github.com/carnager/clerk|{{AUR|clerk}}}}
*{{App|ncmpc|Ncurses client for mpd|http://www.musicpd.org/clients/ncmpc/|{{Pkg|ncmpc}}}}
+
* {{App|FMUI|Console user interface created with fzf and mpc.|https://github.com/seebye/fmui|{{AUR|fmui-git}}}}
*{{App|[[ncmpcpp]]|Almost exact clone of ncmpc with some new features written in C++ (tag editor, search engine)|http://ncmpcpp.rybczak.net/|{{Pkg|ncmpcpp}}}}
+
* {{App|mpc|Command line user interface for MPD server.|http://www.musicpd.org/clients/mpc/|{{Pkg|mpc}}}}
*{{App|pms|Highly configurable and accessible ncurses client|https://ambientsound.github.io/pms/|{{AUR|pmus-git}}}}
+
* {{App|ncmpc|Ncurses client for MPD.|http://www.musicpd.org/clients/ncmpc/|{{Pkg|ncmpc}}}}
*{{App|vimpc|Ncurses based MPD client with vi-like key bindings|https://github.com/boysetsfrog/vimpc|{{AUR|vimpc-git}}}}
+
* {{App|[[ncmpcpp]]|Almost exact clone of ncmpc with some new features written in C++ (tag editor, search engine).|http://ncmpcpp.rybczak.net/|{{Pkg|ncmpcpp}}}}
*{{App|vimus|MPD client with vim-like key bindings, written in Haskell|https://github.com/vimus/vimus|{{AUR|vimus-git}}{{Broken package link|package not found}}}}
+
* {{App|ncmpy|Curses-based MPD client written in Python.|http://ncmpcpp.rybczak.net/|{{AUR|ncmpy}}}}
 +
* {{App|nncmpp|Yet another MPD client. It is in effect a simplified TUI version of Sonata.|http://ncmpcpp.rybczak.net/|{{AUR|nncmpp-git}}}}
 +
* {{App|pms|Highly configurable and accessible ncurses client written in Go.|https://ambientsound.github.io/pms/|{{AUR|pmus-git}}}}
 +
* {{App|vimpc|Ncurses based MPD client with vi-like key bindings.|https://github.com/boysetsfrog/vimpc|{{AUR|vimpc-git}}}}
  
 
=== Graphical ===
 
=== Graphical ===
  
*{{App|Ario|Very feature-rich GTK2 GUI client for mpd, inspired by Rhythmbox|http://ario-player.sourceforge.net/|{{Pkg|ario}}}}
+
* {{App|Ario|Very feature-rich GTK3 GUI client for MPD, inspired by [[Rhythmbox]].|http://ario-player.sourceforge.net/|{{Pkg|ario}}}}
*{{App|QmpdClient|GUI client written with Qt 4.x|http://bitcheese.net/wiki/QMPDClient|{{Pkg|qmpdclient}}}}
+
* {{App|Cantata|High-feature, Qt4, Qt5 or KDE client for MPD with very configurable interface.|https://github.com/CDrummond/cantata|{{Pkg|cantata}}}}
*{{App|Sonata|Elegant Python GTK+ client|http://www.nongnu.org/sonata/|{{Pkg|sonata}}}}
+
* {{App|GMPC|Gnome Music Player Client. GTK+ frontend for MPD. It is designed to be lightweight and easy to use, while providing full access to all of MPD's features. Users are presented with several different methods to browse through their music. It can be extended by plugins, of which many are available.|http://gmpclient.org/|{{Pkg|gmpc}}}}
*{{App|gmpc|GTK2 frontend for Music Player Daemon. It is designed to be lightweight and easy to use, while providing full access to all of MPD's features. Users are presented with several different methods to browse through their music. It can be extended by plugins, of which many are available.|http://gmpclient.org/|{{Pkg|gmpc}}}}
+
* {{App|pymp'd|A GTK+ front end client for the music playing daemon MPD.|http://pympd.sourceforge.net|{{Pkg|pympd}}}}
*{{App|Cantata|High-feature, Qt4, Qt5 or KDE client for MPD with very configurable interface|https://github.com/CDrummond/cantata|{{Pkg|cantata}}}}
+
* {{App|QMPDClient|Qt4 GUI client.|http://bitcheese.net/wiki/QMPDClient|{{Pkg|qmpdclient}}}}
*{{App|Xfmpc|A graphical GTK+ MPD client focusing on low footprint|http://goodies.xfce.org/projects/applications/xfmpc|{{Pkg|xfmpc}}}}
+
* {{App|Quimup|Simple Qt5 frontend for MPD written in C++.|https://sourceforge.net/projects/quimup/|{{AUR|quimup}}}}
*{{App|pymp'd|A GTK+ front end client for the music playing daemon MPD|http://pympd.sourceforge.net|{{Pkg|pympd}}}}
+
* {{App|RompЯ|Web client for MPD.|https://fatg3erman.github.io/RompR/|{{AUR|rompr}}}}
*{{App|Quimup|A client for the music player daemon (MPD) written in C++ and QT3 / since v. 1.4.0 the code was migrated to Qt5 for MPD 0.17.0 and above|http://goodies.xfce.org/projects/applications/xfmpc|{{Aur|quimup}}}}
+
* {{App|SkyMPC|Simple MPD client, powered by Qt5.|https://github.com/soramimi/SkyMPC|{{AUR|skympc-git}}}}
*{{App|SkyMPC|A simple MPD client, powered by Qt5|https://github.com/soramimi/SkyMPC|{{Aur|skympc-git}}}}
+
* {{App|Sonata|Elegant Python GTK+ client.|http://www.nongnu.org/sonata/|{{Pkg|sonata}}}}
 +
* {{App|Xfce MPD Panel Plugin|MPD plugin for [[Xfce]]4 panel.|http://goodies.xfce.org/projects/panel-plugins/xfce4-mpc-plugin|{{Pkg|xfce4-mpc-plugin}}}}
 +
* {{App|Xfmpc|Graphical GTK+ MPD client focusing on low footprint.|http://goodies.xfce.org/projects/applications/xfmpc|{{Pkg|xfmpc}}}}
 +
* {{App|ympd|Standalone MPD Web GUI written in C, utilizing Websockets and Bootstrap/JS.|https://ympd.org/|{{AUR|ympd}}}}
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
Line 251: Line 239:
 
* [http://www.musicpd.org/doc/user/ MPD User Manual]
 
* [http://www.musicpd.org/doc/user/ MPD User Manual]
 
* [[Wikipedia:Music Player Daemon|Wikipedia article]]
 
* [[Wikipedia:Music Player Daemon|Wikipedia article]]
 +
* [https://github.com/MusicPlayerDaemon/MPD GitHub repository]
 +
* {{Pkg|mopidy}} is an alternative to MPD written in Python. Note it is not a complete MPD replacement, its advantage is that it has plug-ins for playing music from cloud services like Spotify, SoundCloud, and Google Play Music. However, the project is not that active and some of its plugins are not maintained.

Latest revision as of 16:59, 19 June 2018

MPD (music player daemon) is an audio player that has a server-client architecture. It plays audio files, organizes playlists and maintains a music database, all while using very few resources. In order to interface with it, a separate client is needed.

Installation

Install the mpd package, or mpd-gitAUR for the development version.

Configuration

MPD is able to run in #Per-user configuration or #System-wide configuration mode (settings apply to all users). Also it is possible to run multiple instances of MPD in a #Multi-MPD setup. The way of setting up MPD depends on the way it is intended to be used: a local per-user configuration is easier to setup and may prove more adapted on a desktop system.

In order for MPD to be able to playback audio, ALSA, optionally with PulseAudio, must be setup and working. The #Audio configuration section thereafter describes the parameters needed for ALSA or PulseAudio.

MPD is configured in the file mpd.conf(5) which can be located in various paths depending on the setup chosen (system-wide or per-user). In short, the two common locations used are:

  1. ~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf in per-user configuration mode, this is the first location searched,
  2. /etc/mpd.conf in system-wide configuration.

For indication, some of the most commonly used configuration options are listed thereafter:

  • pid_file - The file where MPD stores its process ID
  • db_file - The music database
  • state_file - MPD's current state is noted here
  • playlist_directory - The folder where playlists are saved into
  • music_directory - The folder that MPD scans for music
  • sticker_file - The sticker database

Per-user configuration

MPD can be configured per-user. Running it as a normal user has the benefits of:

  • Regrouping into one single directory ~/.config/mpd/ (or any other directory under $HOME) all the MPD configuration files.
  • Avoiding unforeseen directory and file permission errors.

Configure the location of files and directories

In user mode, the configuration is read from $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/mpd/mpd.conf. We will assume here $XDG_CONFIG_HOME equals ~/.config which is the recommended XDG base directory specification.

To build the user configuration, the MPD configuration example included in the package is a good starting point, copy it using the following lines:

$ mkdir ~/.config/mpd
$ cp /usr/share/doc/mpd/mpdconf.example ~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf

A good practice is to use this newly created ~/.config/mpd/ directory to store, together with the configuration file, other MPD related files like the database or the playlists. The user must have read write access to this directory.

Then edit the configuration file in order to specify the required and optional files and directories:

~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf
# Recommended location for database
db_file            "~/.config/mpd/database"

# Logs to systemd journal
log_file           "syslog"

# The music directory is by default the XDG directory, uncomment to amend and choose a different directory
#music_directory    "~/music"

# Uncomment to refresh the database whenever files in the music_directory are changed
#auto_update "yes"

# Uncomment to enable the functionalities
#playlist_directory "~/.config/mpd/playlists"
#pid_file           "~/.config/mpd/pid"
#state_file         "~/.config/mpd/state"
#sticker_file       "~/.config/mpd/sticker.sql"

If playlists are enabled in the configuration, the specified playlist directory must be created:

$ mkdir ~/.config/mpd/playlists

MPD can now be started (an optional custom location for the configuration file can be specified):

$ mpd [config_file]

In order to build the database file, MPD must scan into the music_directory defined above. A MPD client is required to request this task, for example with mpc the command is:

$ mpc update

or alternatively one can set the option auto_update to "yes" in the configuration to refresh the database whenever files are changed in music_directory.

Audio configuration

If ALSA is used, autodetection of the default device should work out of the box without any particular setting. If not, the syntax for ALSA audio output definition is provided thereafter; the required name parameter specifies a unique name for the audio output. The exact device as displayed using aplay --list-pcm from the package alsa-utils can optionally be indicated with the device option.

~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf
audio_output {
        type          "alsa"
        name          "ALSA sound card"
        # Optional
        #device        "iec958:CARD=Intel,DEV=0"
        #mixer_control "PCM"
}

Users of PulseAudio will need to make the following modification:

~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf
audio_output {
        type            "pulse"
        name            "pulse audio"
}

User will also have to edit /etc/pulse/client.conf and change the autospawn option to yes in order to allow the MPD user to use pulseaudio. It will be necessary to restart pulseaudio after making this modification.

Autostart with systemd

The mpd package provides a user service file. The service starts the process as user, there is no need to change permission nor use the user and group variables in the MPD configuration file.

start/enable the user unit mpd.service (i.e. with the --user flag).

Note: The configuration file is read from ~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf, see systemd#Editing provided units if you would like to indicate a custom configuration file path.

Autostart on tty login

To start MPD on login add the following to ~/.profile or another autostart file:

# MPD daemon start (if no other user instance exists)
[ ! -s ~/.config/mpd/pid ] && mpd

Scripted configuration

The following tool provides assistance for MPD configuration:

  • mpd-configure — Create a MPD configuration optimized for bit perfect audio playback, without any resampling or conversion, using the ALSA interface hardware address (hw:x,y)
https://github.com/ronalde/mpd-configure || no package

System-wide configuration

Note: Users of PulseAudio with a system-wide MPD configuration have to implement a workaround in order to run MPD as its own user!

The default /etc/mpd.conf keeps the setup in /var/lib/mpd which is assigned to user as well as primary group MPD.

Music directory

The music directory is defined by the option music_directory in the configuration file /etc/mpd.conf.

MPD needs to have execute permission on all parent directories of the music collection and also read access to all directories containing music files. This may conflict with the default configuration of the user directory, like ~/Music, where the music is stored.

While there are several solutions to this issue, one of these should be most practical:

  • Switch to the #Per-user configuration mode instead
  • Add the mpd user to the user's group and grant group execute permission to the user directory. This way the mpd user has permission to open the user directory:
# gpasswd -a mpd user_group
$ chmod 710 /home/user_directory
  • Store the music collection in a different path, either:
    • by moving it entirely,
    • with a bind mount,
    • or with Btrfs#Subvolumes (you should make this change persistent with an entry to /etc/fstab ).

The MPD configuration file must define only one music directory. If the music collection is contained under multiple directories, create symbolic links under the main music directory in /var/lib/mpd. Remember to set permissions accordingly on the directories being linked.

Start with systemd

MPD can be controlled with mpd.service using systemd. The first startup can take some time as MPD will scan your music directory.

Test everything by starting a client application (ncmpc is a light and easy to use client), and play some music!

Socket activation

mpd provides a mpd.socket unit. If mpd.socket is enabled (and mpd.service is disabled), systemd will not start MPD immediately, it will just listen to the appropriate sockets. Then, whenever an MPD client attempts to connect to one of these sockets, systemd will start mpd.service and transparently hand over control of these ports to the MPD process.

If you prefer to listen to different UNIX sockets or network ports (even multiple sockets of each type), or if you prefer not to listen to network ports at all, edit the mpd.socket unit appropriately and modify /etc/mpd.conf to match the configuration (see mpd.conf(5) for details).

User id startup workflow

MPD should never run as root, you may use the user option in the configuration to make MPD change its user id after initialization. Do not use this option if you start MPD as an unprivileged user. To describe how MPD drops its superuser privileges and switch to those of the user set in the configuration, the steps of a normal MPD startup are listed thereafter:

  1. Since MPD is started as root by systemd, it first reads the /etc/mpd.conf file.
  2. MPD reads the user variable in the configuration, and changes from root to this user.
  3. MPD then reads the rest of the configuration file and configures itself accordingly. Uses of ~ in the configuration file points to the home user's directory, and not root's directory.

Multi-MPD setup

Running an icecast server

For a second MPD (e.g., with icecast output to share music over the network) using the same music and playlist as the one above, simply copy the above configuration file and make a new file (e.g., /home/username/.mpd/config-icecast), and only change the log_file, error_file, pid_file, and state_file parameters (e.g., mpd-icecast.log, mpd-icecast.error, and so on); using the same directory paths for the music and playlist directories would ensure that this second MPD would use the same music collection as the first one e.g., creating and editing a playlist under the first daemon would affect the second daemon as well. Users do not have to create the same playlists all over again for the second daemon. Call this second daemon the same way from ~/.xinitrc above. (Just be sure to have a different port number, so as to not conflict with the first MPD daemon).

Satellite setup

The method above works, but at least in theory could lead to issues with the database, when both MPD instances try to write to the same database file. MPD has a satellite mode where one instance can receive the database from an already running MPD instance.

in your config-icecast add this, where host and port reflect your primary MPD server.

database {
    plugin "proxy"
    host "localhost"
    port "6600"
}

Clients

A separate client is needed to control MPD. See a long list of clients at the mpd website. Popular options are:

Console

  • clerk — MPD client using rofi.
https://github.com/carnager/clerk || clerkAUR
  • FMUI — Console user interface created with fzf and mpc.
https://github.com/seebye/fmui || fmui-gitAUR
  • mpc — Command line user interface for MPD server.
http://www.musicpd.org/clients/mpc/ || mpc
  • ncmpc — Ncurses client for MPD.
http://www.musicpd.org/clients/ncmpc/ || ncmpc
  • ncmpcpp — Almost exact clone of ncmpc with some new features written in C++ (tag editor, search engine).
http://ncmpcpp.rybczak.net/ || ncmpcpp
  • ncmpy — Curses-based MPD client written in Python.
http://ncmpcpp.rybczak.net/ || ncmpyAUR
  • nncmpp — Yet another MPD client. It is in effect a simplified TUI version of Sonata.
http://ncmpcpp.rybczak.net/ || nncmpp-gitAUR
  • pms — Highly configurable and accessible ncurses client written in Go.
https://ambientsound.github.io/pms/ || pmus-gitAUR
  • vimpc — Ncurses based MPD client with vi-like key bindings.
https://github.com/boysetsfrog/vimpc || vimpc-gitAUR

Graphical

  • Ario — Very feature-rich GTK3 GUI client for MPD, inspired by Rhythmbox.
http://ario-player.sourceforge.net/ || ario
  • Cantata — High-feature, Qt4, Qt5 or KDE client for MPD with very configurable interface.
https://github.com/CDrummond/cantata || cantata
  • GMPC — Gnome Music Player Client. GTK+ frontend for MPD. It is designed to be lightweight and easy to use, while providing full access to all of MPD's features. Users are presented with several different methods to browse through their music. It can be extended by plugins, of which many are available.
http://gmpclient.org/ || gmpc
  • pymp'd — A GTK+ front end client for the music playing daemon MPD.
http://pympd.sourceforge.net || pympd
  • QMPDClient — Qt4 GUI client.
http://bitcheese.net/wiki/QMPDClient || qmpdclient
  • Quimup — Simple Qt5 frontend for MPD written in C++.
https://sourceforge.net/projects/quimup/ || quimupAUR
  • RompЯ — Web client for MPD.
https://fatg3erman.github.io/RompR/ || romprAUR
  • SkyMPC — Simple MPD client, powered by Qt5.
https://github.com/soramimi/SkyMPC || skympc-gitAUR
  • Sonata — Elegant Python GTK+ client.
http://www.nongnu.org/sonata/ || sonata
  • Xfce MPD Panel Plugin — MPD plugin for Xfce4 panel.
http://goodies.xfce.org/projects/panel-plugins/xfce4-mpc-plugin || xfce4-mpc-plugin
  • Xfmpc — Graphical GTK+ MPD client focusing on low footprint.
http://goodies.xfce.org/projects/applications/xfmpc || xfmpc
  • ympd — Standalone MPD Web GUI written in C, utilizing Websockets and Bootstrap/JS.
https://ympd.org/ || ympdAUR

See also

  • MPD Forum
  • MPD User Manual
  • Wikipedia article
  • GitHub repository
  • mopidy is an alternative to MPD written in Python. Note it is not a complete MPD replacement, its advantage is that it has plug-ins for playing music from cloud services like Spotify, SoundCloud, and Google Play Music. However, the project is not that active and some of its plugins are not maintained.