Difference between revisions of "Music Player Daemon"

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[[zh-hans:Music Player Daemon]]
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{{Related articles start}}
{{Article summary start}}
+
{{Related|MPD/Tips and Tricks}}
{{Article summary text|Installation, configuration and basic troubleshooting of MPD.}}
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{{Related|MPD/Troubleshooting}}
{{Article summary heading|Related Articles}}
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{{Related articles end}}
{{Article summary wiki|MPD/Tips and Tricks}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|MPD/Troubleshooting}}
 
{{Article summary heading|Other sources}}
 
{{Article summary text|[[Wikipedia:Music Player Daemon|Wikipedia article]]}}
 
{{Article summary end}}
 
  
'''[http://www.musicpd.org/ MPD]''' ('''m'''usic '''p'''layer '''d'''aemon) is an audio player that has a server-client architecture.  It plays audio files, organizes playlists and maintains a music database all while using  very few resources. In order to interface with it, a separate [[#Clients|client]] is needed.
+
'''[http://www.musicpd.org/ MPD]''' (music player daemon) is an audio player that has a server-client architecture.  It plays audio files, organizes playlists and maintains a music database, all while using  very few resources. In order to interface with it, a separate [[#Clients|client]] is needed.
  
 
== Installation ==
 
== Installation ==
  
The latest stable version of {{Pkg|mpd}} is available in the [[official repositories]].
+
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|mpd}} package, or {{AUR|mpd-git}} for the development version.
  
Should users wish to run an experimental version, the [[AUR]] offers several from which to choose. For example, {{AUR|mpd-git}}.
+
== Configuration ==
  
== Setup ==
+
{{Expansion|Is there any reason for [[#System-wide configuration]]?}}
  
MPD is able to run locally (per user settings), globally (settings apply to all users), and in multiple instances. The way of setting up mpd depends on the way it is intended to be used: a local configuration may prove more useful on a desktop system, for example.
+
MPD is able to run in [[#Per-user configuration]] or [[#System-wide configuration]] mode (settings apply to all users). Also it is possible to run multiple instances of MPD in a [[#Multi-MPD setup]].
 +
The way of setting up MPD depends on the way it is intended to be used: a local per-user configuration is easier to setup and may prove more adapted on a desktop system.
  
In order for MPD to be able to play back audio, [[ALSA]] or [[OSS]] (optionally with [[PulseAudio]]) needs to be setup and working.
+
In order for MPD to be able to playback audio, [[ALSA]], optionally with [[PulseAudio]], must be setup and working. The [[#Audio configuration]] section thereafter describes the parameters needed for ''ALSA'' or ''PulseAudio''.
  
MPD is configured in {{ic|mpd.conf}}. The location of this file depends on how you want to run MPD (see the sections below). These are commonly used configuration options:
+
MPD is configured in the file {{man|5|mpd.conf}} which can be located in various paths depending on the setup chosen (system-wide or per-user). In short, the two common locations used are:
* {{ic|pid_file}} -  The file where mpd stores its process ID
+
# {{ic|~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf}} in per-user configuration mode, this is the first location searched,
 +
# {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} in system-wide configuration.
 +
 
 +
For indication, some of the most commonly used configuration options are listed thereafter:
 +
* {{ic|pid_file}} -  The file where MPD stores its process ID
 
* {{ic|db_file}} - The music database
 
* {{ic|db_file}} - The music database
 
* {{ic|state_file}} - MPD's current state is noted here
 
* {{ic|state_file}} - MPD's current state is noted here
Line 42: Line 43:
 
* {{ic|sticker_file}} - The sticker database
 
* {{ic|sticker_file}} - The sticker database
  
{{Note|The files must already exist (the path is specified in the configuration file) with proper permissions, otherwise MPD will fail to start.}}
+
=== Per-user configuration ===
  
=== Global configuration ===
+
MPD can be configured per-user. Running it as a normal user has the benefits of:
  
{{Warning|Users of PulseAudio with a local mpd have to implement a [[Music Player Daemon/Tips and Tricks#Local (with separate mpd user)|workaround]] in order to run mpd as its own user!}}
+
* Regrouping into one single directory {{ic|~/.config/mpd/}} (or any other directory under {{ic|$HOME}}) all the MPD configuration files.
 +
* Avoiding unforeseen directory and file permission errors.
  
The default {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} keeps the setup in {{ic|/var/lib/mpd}} and uses ''mpd'' as default user. However, {{ic|/var/lib/mpd}} is owned by ''root'' by default, we need to change this so ''mpd'' can write here:
+
==== Configure the location of files and directories ====
# chown -R mpd /var/lib/mpd
 
  
Edit {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} and add a {{ic|music_directory}} line with the path to your music directory:
+
{{Accuracy|{{ic|~/.config}} is not recommended, it's just the default.}}
music_directory /path/to/music
 
  
==== Music directory ====
+
In user mode, the configuration is read from {{ic|$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/mpd/mpd.conf}}.
 +
We will assume here {{ic|$XDG_CONFIG_HOME}} equals {{ic|~/.config}} which is the recommended [http://standards.freedesktop.org/basedir-spec/basedir-spec-latest.html XDG base directory specification].
  
MPD needs to have {{ic|+x}} permissions on ''all'' parent directories to the music collection.
+
To build the user configuration, the [https://raw.githubusercontent.com/MusicPlayerDaemon/MPD/master/doc/mpdconf.example MPD configuration example] included in the package is a good starting point, copy it using the following lines:
  
If the music directory is located outside of {{ic|/var/lib/mpd}}, you will most likely need to remount the music directory under a directory that the MPD user (''mpd'' by default) has access to:
+
  $ mkdir ~/.config/mpd
  # mkdir /var/lib/mpd/music
+
  $ cp /usr/share/doc/mpd/mpdconf.example ~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf
  # echo "/path/to/music/dir /var/lib/mpd/music none bind" >> /etc/fstab
 
# mount -a
 
Also see [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=86449 this forum thread].
 
  
An additional solution would be to just create a symbolic link into {{ic|/var/lib/mpd/music}}.
+
A good practice is to use this newly created {{ic|~/.config/mpd/}} directory to store, together with the configuration file, other MPD related files like the database or the playlists. The user must have read write access to this directory.
# mkdir /var/lib/mpd/music
 
# ln -s /path/to/music/dir /var/lib/mpd/music/
 
  
If the music collection is contained under multiple directories, create symbolic links under the main music directory in {{ic|/var/lib/mpd}}. Remember to set permissions accordingly on the directories being linked.
+
Then edit the configuration file in order to specify the required and optional files and directories:
  
==== Start MPD ====
+
{{hc|~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf|
 +
# Recommended location for database
 +
db_file            "~/.config/mpd/database"
  
MPD can be controlled with {{ic|mpd.service}} [[systemd#Using units|using systemd]]. The first startup can take some time as MPD will scan your music directory.
+
# Logs to systemd journal
 +
log_file          "syslog"
  
Test everything by starting a client application ({{Pkg|ncmpc}} is a light and easy to use client), and play some music!
+
# The music directory is by default the XDG directory, uncomment to amend and choose a different directory
 +
#music_directory    "~/music"
  
==== Configure audio ====
+
# Uncomment to refresh the database whenever files in the music_directory are changed
 +
#auto_update "yes"
  
To change the volume for mpd independent from other programs, uncomment or add this switch in mpd.conf:
+
# Uncomment to enable the functionalities
{{hc|/etc/mpd.conf|
+
#playlist_directory "~/.config/mpd/playlists"
mixer_type "software"
+
#pid_file          "~/.config/mpd/pid"
 +
#state_file        "~/.config/mpd/state"
 +
#sticker_file      "~/.config/mpd/sticker.sql"
 
}}
 
}}
  
Users of [[ALSA]] will want to have the following device definition, which allows software volume control in the MPD client to control the volume separately from other applications.
+
If playlists are enabled in the configuration, the specified playlist directory must be created:
{{hc|/etc/mpd.conf|2=
+
 
 +
$ mkdir ~/.config/mpd/playlists
 +
 
 +
MPD can now be started (an optional custom location for the configuration file can be specified):
 +
 
 +
$ mpd ''[config_file]''
 +
 
 +
In order to build the database file, ''MPD'' must scan into the {{ic|music_directory}} defined above. A MPD client is required to request this task, for example with {{pkg|mpc}} the command is:
 +
 
 +
$ mpc update
 +
 
 +
or alternatively one can set the option {{ic|auto_update}} to {{ic|"yes"}} in the configuration to refresh the database whenever files are changed in {{ic|music_directory}}.
 +
 
 +
==== Audio configuration ====
 +
 
 +
If [[ALSA]] is used, '''autodetection''' of the default device should work out of the box without any particular setting. If not, the syntax for ALSA audio output definition is provided thereafter; the required {{ic|name}} parameter specifies a unique name for the audio output.
 +
The exact device as displayed using {{ic|aplay --list-pcm}} from the package {{pkg|alsa-utils}} can optionally be indicated with the {{ic|device}} option.
 +
{{hc|~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf|2=
 
audio_output {
 
audio_output {
         type           "alsa"
+
         type         "alsa"
         name           "My Sound Card"
+
         name         "''ALSA sound card''"
         mixer_type      "software"     # optional
+
         # Optional
 +
        #device        "''iec958:CARD=Intel,DEV=0''"
 +
        #mixer_control "PCM"
 
}
 
}
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
Users of [[PulseAudio]] will need to make the following modification:
 
Users of [[PulseAudio]] will need to make the following modification:
{{hc|/etc/mpd.conf|2=
+
{{hc|~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf|2=
 
audio_output {
 
audio_output {
 
         type            "pulse"
 
         type            "pulse"
         name            "pulse audio"
+
         name            "''pulse audio''"
 
}
 
}
 
}}
 
}}
  
PulseAudio supports multiple advanced operations, e.g. transferring the audio to a different machine. For advanced configuration with MPD see [http://mpd.wikia.com/wiki/PulseAudio Music Player Daemon Community Wiki].
+
User will also have to edit {{ic|/etc/pulse/client.conf}} and change the {{ic|autospawn}} option to {{ic|yes}} in order to allow the MPD user to use PulseAudio. It will be necessary to restart PulseAudio after making this modification.
  
==== Changing user ====
+
==== Autostart with systemd ====
  
Changing the group that MPD runs as may result in errors like {{ic|output: Failed to open "My ALSA Device"}}, {{ic|[alsa]: Failed to open ALSA device "default": No such file or directory}} or {{ic|player_thread: problems opening audio device while playing "Song Name.mp3"}}.
+
The {{Pkg|mpd}} package provides a [[systemd/User|user service]] file. The service starts the process as user, there is no need to change permission nor use the {{ic|user}} and {{ic|group}} variables in the MPD configuration file.
  
This is because the MPD users need to be part of the ''audio'' group to access sound devices under {{Ic|/dev/snd/}}. To fix it add user make the MPD user part of the ''audio'' group:
+
[[start/enable]] the user unit {{ic|mpd.service}} (i.e. with the {{ic|--user}} flag).
# gpasswd -a '''mpd''' audio
 
  
==== Timeline of MPD startup ====
+
{{Note|The configuration file is read from {{ic|~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf}}, see [[systemd#Editing provided units]] if you would like to indicate a custom configuration file path.}}
  
To depict when MPD drops its superuser privileges and assumes those of the user set in the configuration, the timeline of a normal MPD startup is listed here:
+
==== Autostart on tty login ====
  
# Since MPD is started as root by systemd, it first reads the {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} file.
+
To start MPD on login add the following to {{ic|~/.profile}} or another [[Autostarting|autostart file]]:
# MPD reads the user variable in the {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} file, and changes from root to this user.
 
# MPD then reads the contents of the {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} file and configures itself accordingly.
 
  
Notice that MPD changes the running user from root to the one named in the {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} file.
+
# MPD daemon start (if no other user instance exists)
This way, uses of {{ic|~}} in the configuration file point correctly to the home user's directory, and not root's directory.  
+
[ ! -s ~/.config/mpd/pid ] && mpd
It may be worthwhile to change all uses of {{ic|~}} to {{ic|/home/username}} to avoid any confusion over this aspect of MPD's behavior.
 
  
=== Local configuration (per user) ===
+
==== Scripted configuration ====
  
MPD can be configured per user (rather than the typical method of configuring MPD globally). Running MPD as a normal user has the benefits of:
+
The following tool provides assistance for MPD configuration:
  
* A single directory {{ic|~/.config/mpd/}} (or any other directory under {{ic|$HOME}}) that will contain all the MPD configuration files.
+
* {{App|[http://lacocina.nl/audiophile-mpd mpd-configure]|Create a MPD configuration optimized for [https://www.musicpd.org/doc/user/advanced_usage.html#bit_perfect bit perfect] audio playback, without any resampling or conversion, using the ALSA interface hardware address (hw:x,y)|https://github.com/ronalde/mpd-configure|no package}}
* Easier to avoid unforeseen read/write permission errors.
 
  
Good practice is to create a single directory for the required files and playlists. It can be any directory for which you have read and write access, e.g. {{ic|~/.config/mpd/}} or {{ic|~/.mpd/}}. This section assumes it is {{ic|~/.config/mpd/}}, which corresponds to the default value of {{ic|$XDG_CONFIG_HOME}} (part of [http://standards.freedesktop.org/basedir-spec/basedir-spec-latest.html XDG Base Directory Specification]).
+
=== System-wide configuration ===
  
MPD searches for a config file in {{ic|$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/mpd/mpd.conf}} and then {{ic|~/.mpdconf}}. It is also possible to pass other path as command line argument.
+
{{Note|Users of PulseAudio with a system-wide MPD configuration have to implement a [[Music Player Daemon/Tips and tricks#Local (with separate mpd user)|workaround]] in order to run MPD as its own user!}}
  
Copy the example configuration file to desired location, for example:
+
The default {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} keeps the setup in {{ic|/var/lib/mpd}} which is assigned to user as well as primary group MPD.
  
$ cp /usr/share/doc/mpd/mpdconf.example ~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf
+
==== Music directory ====
 +
 
 +
The music directory is defined by the option {{ic|music_directory}} in the configuration file {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}}.
  
Edit {{ic|~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf}} and specify the required files:
+
MPD needs to have execute permission on ''all'' parent directories of the music collection and also read access to all directories containing music files. This may conflict with the default configuration of the user directory, like {{ic|~/Music}}, where the music is stored.
  
{{hc|~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf|
+
While there are several solutions to this issue, one of these should be most practical:
# Required files
+
* Switch to the [[#Per-user configuration]] mode instead
db_file            "~/.config/mpd/database"
+
* Add the {{ic|mpd}} user to the user's group and grant group execute permission to the user directory. This way the {{ic|mpd}} user has permission to open the user directory:
log_file          "~/.config/mpd/log"
+
# gpasswd -a mpd ''user_group''
 +
$ chmod 710 /home/''user_directory''
 +
* Store the music collection in a different path, either:
 +
** by moving it entirely,
 +
** with a bind mount,
 +
** or with [[Btrfs#Subvolumes]] (you should make this change persistent with an entry to {{ic|/etc/fstab}} ).
  
# Optional
+
The MPD configuration file must define only one music directory. If the music collection is contained under multiple directories, create symbolic links under the main music directory in {{ic|/var/lib/mpd}}. Remember to set permissions accordingly on the directories being linked.
music_directory    "~/music"
 
playlist_directory "~/.config/mpd/playlists"
 
pid_file          "~/.config/mpd/pid"
 
state_file        "~/.config/mpd/state"
 
sticker_file      "~/.config/mpd/sticker.sql"
 
}}
 
  
Create all the files and directories as configured above:
+
==== Start with systemd ====
  
$ mkdir ~/.config/mpd/playlists
+
MPD can be controlled with {{ic|mpd.service}} [[systemd#Using units|using systemd]]. The first startup can take some time as MPD will scan your music directory.
$ touch ~/.config/mpd/{database,log,pid,state,sticker.sql}
 
  
When the paths of required files are configured, MPD can be started. To specify custom location of the configuration file:
+
Test everything by starting a client application ({{Pkg|ncmpc}} is a light and easy to use client), and play some music!
  
$ mpd ''config_file''
+
===== Socket activation =====
  
==== Autostart on tty login ====
+
{{Pkg|mpd}} provides a {{ic|mpd.socket}} unit. If {{ic|mpd.socket}} is enabled (and {{ic|mpd.service}} is disabled), systemd will not start MPD immediately, it will just listen to the appropriate sockets. Then, whenever an MPD client attempts to connect to one of these sockets, systemd will start {{ic|mpd.service}} and transparently hand over control of these ports to the MPD process.
  
To start MPD on login add the following to {{ic|~/.profile}} (or another [[Autostarting#Shells|autostart file]]):
+
If you prefer to listen to different UNIX sockets or network ports (even multiple sockets of each type), or if you prefer not to listen to network ports at all, [[edit]] the {{ic|mpd.socket}} unit appropriately '''and''' modify {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} to match the configuration (see {{man|5|mpd.conf}} for details).
  
# MPD daemon start (if no other user instance exists)
+
==== User id startup workflow ====
[ ! -s ~/.config/mpd/pid ] && mpd
+
MPD should never run as ''root'', you may use the {{ic|user}} option in the configuration to make MPD change its user id after initialization. Do not use this option if you start MPD as an unprivileged user.
 +
To describe how MPD drops its superuser privileges and switch to those of the user set in the configuration, the steps of a normal MPD startup are listed thereafter:
  
==== Autostart in X ====
+
# Since MPD is started as ''root'' by systemd, it first reads the {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}} file.
 +
# MPD reads the {{ic|user}} variable in the configuration, and changes from ''root'' to this user.
 +
# MPD then reads the rest of the configuration file and configures itself accordingly. Uses of {{ic|~}} in the configuration file points to the home user's directory, and not root's directory.
  
If you use a [[Desktop Environment|desktop environment]], place the following file in {{ic|~/.config/autostart/}}:
+
=== Multi-MPD setup ===
{{hc|~/.config/autostart/mpd.desktop|<nowiki>
 
[Desktop Entry]
 
Encoding=UTF-8
 
Type=Application
 
Name=Music Player Daemon
 
Comment=Server for playing audio files
 
Exec=mpd
 
StartupNotify=false
 
Terminal=false
 
Hidden=false
 
X-GNOME-Autostart-enabled=false
 
</nowiki>}}
 
  
If you do not use a DE, place the line from [[#Autostart on tty login]] in your [[Autostarting#Graphical|autostart file]].
+
==== Running an icecast server ====
  
==== Autostart with systemd ====
+
For a second MPD (e.g., with icecast output to share music over the network) using the same music and playlist as the one above, simply copy the above configuration file and make a new file (e.g., {{ic|/home/username/.mpd/config-icecast}}), and only change the log_file, error_file, pid_file, and state_file parameters (e.g., {{ic|mpd-icecast.log}}, {{ic|mpd-icecast.error}}, and so on); using the same directory paths for the music and playlist directories would ensure that this second MPD would use the same music collection as the first one e.g., creating and editing a playlist under the first daemon would affect the second daemon as well.  Users do not have to create the same playlists all over again for the second daemon.  Call this second daemon the same way from {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} above. (Just be sure to have a different port number, so as to not conflict with the first MPD daemon).
  
{{Note|It is assumed that you already have systemd user-session manager running. See the [[systemd/User]] page for details.}}
+
==== Satellite setup ====
  
The package {{Pkg|mpd}} provides user service file in {{ic|/usr/lib/systemd/user/mpd.service}}. The configuration file is expected to exist either in {{ic|~/.mpdconf}} or {{ic|~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf}}, see [[systemd#Editing provided unit files]] if you would like to use different path. The process is not started as root, so you should not use the {{ic|user}} and {{ic|group}} variables in the MPD configuration file, the process already has user permissions and therefore it is not necessary to change them further.
+
The method above works, but at least in theory could lead to issues with the database, when both MPD instances try to write to the same database file. MPD has a [http://www.musicpd.org/doc/user/advanced_config.html#satellite satellite mode] where one instance can receive the database from an already running MPD instance.
  
All you have to do is enable and start the {{ic|mpd}} [[systemd/User#User Services|user service]].
+
in your config-icecast add this, where host and port reflect your primary MPD server.
  
{{Note|
+
{{bc|
* {{Pkg|mpd}} provides also system service file in {{ic|/usr/lib/systemd/system/mpd.service}}, but as the process is started as root, it does not read the user configuration file and falls back to {{ic|/etc/mpd.conf}}. [[#Global configuration|Global configuration]] is described in other section.
+
database {
* Make sure to disable every other method of starting mpd you used before.
+
    plugin "proxy"
 +
    host "localhost"
 +
    port "6600"
 +
}
 
}}
 
}}
 
==== Scripted configuration ====
 
 
Rasi has written a script that will create the proper directory structure, configuration files and prompt for the location of the user's Music directory; it can be downloaded [http://53280.de/dl/mpdsetup.sh here].
 
 
=== Multi-mpd setup ===
 
 
'''Useful if running an icecast server.'''
 
 
For a second MPD (e.g., with icecast output to share music over the network) using the same music and playlist as the one above, simply copy the above configuration file and make a new file (e.g., {{ic|/home/username/.mpd/config-icecast}}), and only change the log_file, error_file, pid_file, and state_file parameters (e.g., {{ic|mpd-icecast.log}}, {{ic|mpd-icecast.error}}, and so on); using the same directory paths for the music and playlist directories would ensure that this second mpd would use the same music collection as the first one e.g., creating and editing a playlist under the first daemon would affect the second daemon as well.  Users do not have to create the same playlists all over again for the second daemon.  Call this second daemon the same way from {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} above. (Just be sure to have a different port number, so as to not conflict with the first mpd daemon).
 
  
 
== Clients ==
 
== Clients ==
  
A separate client is needed to control mpd. See a long list of clients at the [http://mpd.wikia.com/wiki/Clients mpd wiki]. Popular options are:
+
A separate client is needed to control MPD. See a long list of clients at the [https://www.musicpd.org/clients/ mpd website]. Popular options are:
  
 
=== Console ===
 
=== Console ===
  
*{{App|mpc|Simple KISS client. All basic functionality available|http://mpd.wikia.com/wiki/Client:Mpc|{{Pkg|mpc}}}}
+
* {{App|clerk|MPD client using [[Rofi]].|https://github.com/carnager/clerk|{{AUR|clerk-git}}}}
*{{App|ncmpc|Ncurses client for mpd|http://mpd.wikia.com/wiki/Client:Ncmpc|{{Pkg|ncmpc}}}}
+
* {{App|FMUI|Console user interface created with [[fzf]] and mpc.|https://github.com/seebye/fmui|{{AUR|fmui-git}}}}
*{{App|[[ncmpcpp]]|Almost exact clone of ncmpc with some new features written in C++ (tag editor, search engine)|http://unkart.ovh.org/ncmpcpp/|{{Pkg|ncmpcpp}}}}
+
* {{App|mpc|Command line user interface for MPD server.|http://www.musicpd.org/clients/mpc/|{{Pkg|mpc}}}}
*{{App|pms|Highly configurable and accessible ncurses client|http://pms.sourceforge.net/|{{AUR|pmus}}}}
+
* {{App|ncmpc|Ncurses client for MPD.|http://www.musicpd.org/clients/ncmpc/|{{Pkg|ncmpc}}}}
*{{App|vimpc|Ncurses based MPD client with vi-like key bindings|http://sourceforge.net/projects/vimpc/|{{AUR|vimpc}}}}
+
* {{App|[[ncmpcpp]]|Almost exact clone of ncmpc with some new features written in C++ (tag editor, search engine).|http://ncmpcpp.rybczak.net/|{{Pkg|ncmpcpp}}}}
 +
* {{App|ncmpy|Curses-based MPD client written in Python.|http://ncmpcpp.rybczak.net/|{{AUR|ncmpy}}}}
 +
* {{App|nncmpp|Yet another MPD client. It is in effect a simplified TUI version of Sonata.|http://ncmpcpp.rybczak.net/|{{AUR|nncmpp-git}}}}
 +
* {{App|pms|Highly configurable and accessible ncurses client written in Go.|https://ambientsound.github.io/pms/|{{AUR|pmus-git}}}}
 +
* {{App|vimpc|Ncurses based MPD client with vi-like key bindings.|https://github.com/boysetsfrog/vimpc|{{AUR|vimpc-git}}}}
  
 
=== Graphical ===
 
=== Graphical ===
  
*{{App|Ario|Very feature-rich GTK2 GUI client for mpd, inspired by Rhythmbox|http://ario-player.sourceforge.net/|{{Pkg|ario}}}}
+
* {{App|Ario|Very feature-rich GTK3 GUI client for MPD, inspired by [[Rhythmbox]].|http://ario-player.sourceforge.net/|{{Pkg|ario}}}}
*{{App|QmpdClient|GUI client written with Qt 4.x|http://bitcheese.net/wiki/QMPDClient|{{Pkg|qmpdclient}}}}
+
* {{App|Cantata|High-feature, Qt4, Qt5 or KDE client for MPD with very configurable interface.|https://github.com/CDrummond/cantata|{{Pkg|cantata}}}}
*{{App|Sonata|Elegant Python GTK+ client|http://sonata.berlios.de/|{{Pkg|sonata}}}}
+
* {{App|GMPC|Gnome Music Player Client. GTK+ frontend for MPD. It is designed to be lightweight and easy to use, while providing full access to all of MPD's features. Users are presented with several different methods to browse through their music. It can be extended by plugins, of which many are available.|http://gmpclient.org/|{{Pkg|gmpc}}}}
*{{App|gmpc|GTK2 frontend for Music Player Daemon. It is designed to be lightweight and easy to use, while providing full access to all of MPD's features. Users are presented with several different methods to browse through their music. It can be extended by plugins, of which many are available.|http://gmpc.wikia.com/wiki/Gnome_Music_Player_Client|{{Pkg|gmpc}}}}
+
* {{App|pymp'd|A GTK+ front end client for the music playing daemon MPD.|http://pympd.sourceforge.net|{{Pkg|pympd}}}}
*{{App|Dmpc|Dmenu-based MPC client with a playlist manager and state-saving on playlist changes|http://wintervenom.mine.nu/|{{AUR|dmpc}}}}
+
* {{App|QMPDClient|Qt4 GUI client.|http://bitcheese.net/wiki/QMPDClient|{{Pkg|qmpdclient}}}}
*{{App|Cantata|High-feature, Qt4/KDE4 client for MPD with very configurable interface|https://code.google.com/p/cantata/|{{AUR|cantata-qt}}}}
+
* {{App|Quimup|Simple Qt5 frontend for MPD written in C++.|https://sourceforge.net/projects/quimup/|{{AUR|quimup}}}}
 
+
* {{App|RompЯ|Web client for MPD.|https://fatg3erman.github.io/RompR/|{{AUR|rompr}}}}
=== Web ===
+
* {{App|SkyMPC|Simple MPD client, powered by Qt5.|https://github.com/soramimi/SkyMPC|{{AUR|skympc-git}}}}
 
+
* {{App|Sonata|Elegant Python GTK+ client.|http://www.nongnu.org/sonata/|{{Pkg|sonata}}}}
*{{App|Patchfork|Web client for MPD written in PHP and Ajax|http://mpd.wikia.com/wiki/Client:Pitchfork|{{AUR|patchfork-git}}}}.
+
* {{App|Xfce MPD Panel Plugin|MPD plugin for [[Xfce]]4 panel.|http://goodies.xfce.org/projects/panel-plugins/xfce4-mpc-plugin|{{Pkg|xfce4-mpc-plugin}}}}
 +
* {{App|Xfmpc|Graphical GTK+ MPD client focusing on low footprint.|http://goodies.xfce.org/projects/applications/xfmpc|{{Pkg|xfmpc}}}}
 +
* {{App|ympd|Standalone MPD Web GUI written in C, utilizing Websockets and Bootstrap/JS.|https://ympd.org/|{{AUR|ympd}}}}
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
Line 237: Line 244:
 
* [http://forum.musicpd.org/ MPD Forum]
 
* [http://forum.musicpd.org/ MPD Forum]
 
* [http://www.musicpd.org/doc/user/ MPD User Manual]
 
* [http://www.musicpd.org/doc/user/ MPD User Manual]
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Music Player Daemon|Wikipedia article]]
 +
* [https://github.com/MusicPlayerDaemon/MPD GitHub repository]
 +
* {{Pkg|mopidy}} is an alternative to MPD written in Python. Note it is not a complete MPD replacement, its advantage is that it has plug-ins for playing music from cloud services like Spotify, SoundCloud, and Google Play Music. However, the project is not that active and some of its plugins are not maintained.

Latest revision as of 08:25, 27 October 2018

MPD (music player daemon) is an audio player that has a server-client architecture. It plays audio files, organizes playlists and maintains a music database, all while using very few resources. In order to interface with it, a separate client is needed.

Installation

Install the mpd package, or mpd-gitAUR for the development version.

Configuration

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: Is there any reason for #System-wide configuration? (Discuss in Talk:Music Player Daemon#)

MPD is able to run in #Per-user configuration or #System-wide configuration mode (settings apply to all users). Also it is possible to run multiple instances of MPD in a #Multi-MPD setup. The way of setting up MPD depends on the way it is intended to be used: a local per-user configuration is easier to setup and may prove more adapted on a desktop system.

In order for MPD to be able to playback audio, ALSA, optionally with PulseAudio, must be setup and working. The #Audio configuration section thereafter describes the parameters needed for ALSA or PulseAudio.

MPD is configured in the file mpd.conf(5) which can be located in various paths depending on the setup chosen (system-wide or per-user). In short, the two common locations used are:

  1. ~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf in per-user configuration mode, this is the first location searched,
  2. /etc/mpd.conf in system-wide configuration.

For indication, some of the most commonly used configuration options are listed thereafter:

  • pid_file - The file where MPD stores its process ID
  • db_file - The music database
  • state_file - MPD's current state is noted here
  • playlist_directory - The folder where playlists are saved into
  • music_directory - The folder that MPD scans for music
  • sticker_file - The sticker database

Per-user configuration

MPD can be configured per-user. Running it as a normal user has the benefits of:

  • Regrouping into one single directory ~/.config/mpd/ (or any other directory under $HOME) all the MPD configuration files.
  • Avoiding unforeseen directory and file permission errors.

Configure the location of files and directories

Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

Reason: ~/.config is not recommended, it's just the default. (Discuss in Talk:Music Player Daemon#)

In user mode, the configuration is read from $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/mpd/mpd.conf. We will assume here $XDG_CONFIG_HOME equals ~/.config which is the recommended XDG base directory specification.

To build the user configuration, the MPD configuration example included in the package is a good starting point, copy it using the following lines:

$ mkdir ~/.config/mpd
$ cp /usr/share/doc/mpd/mpdconf.example ~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf

A good practice is to use this newly created ~/.config/mpd/ directory to store, together with the configuration file, other MPD related files like the database or the playlists. The user must have read write access to this directory.

Then edit the configuration file in order to specify the required and optional files and directories:

~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf
# Recommended location for database
db_file            "~/.config/mpd/database"

# Logs to systemd journal
log_file           "syslog"

# The music directory is by default the XDG directory, uncomment to amend and choose a different directory
#music_directory    "~/music"

# Uncomment to refresh the database whenever files in the music_directory are changed
#auto_update "yes"

# Uncomment to enable the functionalities
#playlist_directory "~/.config/mpd/playlists"
#pid_file           "~/.config/mpd/pid"
#state_file         "~/.config/mpd/state"
#sticker_file       "~/.config/mpd/sticker.sql"

If playlists are enabled in the configuration, the specified playlist directory must be created:

$ mkdir ~/.config/mpd/playlists

MPD can now be started (an optional custom location for the configuration file can be specified):

$ mpd [config_file]

In order to build the database file, MPD must scan into the music_directory defined above. A MPD client is required to request this task, for example with mpc the command is:

$ mpc update

or alternatively one can set the option auto_update to "yes" in the configuration to refresh the database whenever files are changed in music_directory.

Audio configuration

If ALSA is used, autodetection of the default device should work out of the box without any particular setting. If not, the syntax for ALSA audio output definition is provided thereafter; the required name parameter specifies a unique name for the audio output. The exact device as displayed using aplay --list-pcm from the package alsa-utils can optionally be indicated with the device option.

~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf
audio_output {
        type          "alsa"
        name          "ALSA sound card"
        # Optional
        #device        "iec958:CARD=Intel,DEV=0"
        #mixer_control "PCM"
}

Users of PulseAudio will need to make the following modification:

~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf
audio_output {
        type            "pulse"
        name            "pulse audio"
}

User will also have to edit /etc/pulse/client.conf and change the autospawn option to yes in order to allow the MPD user to use PulseAudio. It will be necessary to restart PulseAudio after making this modification.

Autostart with systemd

The mpd package provides a user service file. The service starts the process as user, there is no need to change permission nor use the user and group variables in the MPD configuration file.

start/enable the user unit mpd.service (i.e. with the --user flag).

Note: The configuration file is read from ~/.config/mpd/mpd.conf, see systemd#Editing provided units if you would like to indicate a custom configuration file path.

Autostart on tty login

To start MPD on login add the following to ~/.profile or another autostart file:

# MPD daemon start (if no other user instance exists)
[ ! -s ~/.config/mpd/pid ] && mpd

Scripted configuration

The following tool provides assistance for MPD configuration:

  • mpd-configure — Create a MPD configuration optimized for bit perfect audio playback, without any resampling or conversion, using the ALSA interface hardware address (hw:x,y)
https://github.com/ronalde/mpd-configure || no package

System-wide configuration

Note: Users of PulseAudio with a system-wide MPD configuration have to implement a workaround in order to run MPD as its own user!

The default /etc/mpd.conf keeps the setup in /var/lib/mpd which is assigned to user as well as primary group MPD.

Music directory

The music directory is defined by the option music_directory in the configuration file /etc/mpd.conf.

MPD needs to have execute permission on all parent directories of the music collection and also read access to all directories containing music files. This may conflict with the default configuration of the user directory, like ~/Music, where the music is stored.

While there are several solutions to this issue, one of these should be most practical:

  • Switch to the #Per-user configuration mode instead
  • Add the mpd user to the user's group and grant group execute permission to the user directory. This way the mpd user has permission to open the user directory:
# gpasswd -a mpd user_group
$ chmod 710 /home/user_directory
  • Store the music collection in a different path, either:
    • by moving it entirely,
    • with a bind mount,
    • or with Btrfs#Subvolumes (you should make this change persistent with an entry to /etc/fstab ).

The MPD configuration file must define only one music directory. If the music collection is contained under multiple directories, create symbolic links under the main music directory in /var/lib/mpd. Remember to set permissions accordingly on the directories being linked.

Start with systemd

MPD can be controlled with mpd.service using systemd. The first startup can take some time as MPD will scan your music directory.

Test everything by starting a client application (ncmpc is a light and easy to use client), and play some music!

Socket activation

mpd provides a mpd.socket unit. If mpd.socket is enabled (and mpd.service is disabled), systemd will not start MPD immediately, it will just listen to the appropriate sockets. Then, whenever an MPD client attempts to connect to one of these sockets, systemd will start mpd.service and transparently hand over control of these ports to the MPD process.

If you prefer to listen to different UNIX sockets or network ports (even multiple sockets of each type), or if you prefer not to listen to network ports at all, edit the mpd.socket unit appropriately and modify /etc/mpd.conf to match the configuration (see mpd.conf(5) for details).

User id startup workflow

MPD should never run as root, you may use the user option in the configuration to make MPD change its user id after initialization. Do not use this option if you start MPD as an unprivileged user. To describe how MPD drops its superuser privileges and switch to those of the user set in the configuration, the steps of a normal MPD startup are listed thereafter:

  1. Since MPD is started as root by systemd, it first reads the /etc/mpd.conf file.
  2. MPD reads the user variable in the configuration, and changes from root to this user.
  3. MPD then reads the rest of the configuration file and configures itself accordingly. Uses of ~ in the configuration file points to the home user's directory, and not root's directory.

Multi-MPD setup

Running an icecast server

For a second MPD (e.g., with icecast output to share music over the network) using the same music and playlist as the one above, simply copy the above configuration file and make a new file (e.g., /home/username/.mpd/config-icecast), and only change the log_file, error_file, pid_file, and state_file parameters (e.g., mpd-icecast.log, mpd-icecast.error, and so on); using the same directory paths for the music and playlist directories would ensure that this second MPD would use the same music collection as the first one e.g., creating and editing a playlist under the first daemon would affect the second daemon as well. Users do not have to create the same playlists all over again for the second daemon. Call this second daemon the same way from ~/.xinitrc above. (Just be sure to have a different port number, so as to not conflict with the first MPD daemon).

Satellite setup

The method above works, but at least in theory could lead to issues with the database, when both MPD instances try to write to the same database file. MPD has a satellite mode where one instance can receive the database from an already running MPD instance.

in your config-icecast add this, where host and port reflect your primary MPD server.

database {
    plugin "proxy"
    host "localhost"
    port "6600"
}

Clients

A separate client is needed to control MPD. See a long list of clients at the mpd website. Popular options are:

Console

  • clerk — MPD client using Rofi.
https://github.com/carnager/clerk || clerk-gitAUR
  • FMUI — Console user interface created with fzf and mpc.
https://github.com/seebye/fmui || fmui-gitAUR
  • mpc — Command line user interface for MPD server.
http://www.musicpd.org/clients/mpc/ || mpc
  • ncmpc — Ncurses client for MPD.
http://www.musicpd.org/clients/ncmpc/ || ncmpc
  • ncmpcpp — Almost exact clone of ncmpc with some new features written in C++ (tag editor, search engine).
http://ncmpcpp.rybczak.net/ || ncmpcpp
  • ncmpy — Curses-based MPD client written in Python.
http://ncmpcpp.rybczak.net/ || ncmpyAUR
  • nncmpp — Yet another MPD client. It is in effect a simplified TUI version of Sonata.
http://ncmpcpp.rybczak.net/ || nncmpp-gitAUR
  • pms — Highly configurable and accessible ncurses client written in Go.
https://ambientsound.github.io/pms/ || pmus-gitAUR
  • vimpc — Ncurses based MPD client with vi-like key bindings.
https://github.com/boysetsfrog/vimpc || vimpc-gitAUR

Graphical

  • Ario — Very feature-rich GTK3 GUI client for MPD, inspired by Rhythmbox.
http://ario-player.sourceforge.net/ || ario
  • Cantata — High-feature, Qt4, Qt5 or KDE client for MPD with very configurable interface.
https://github.com/CDrummond/cantata || cantata
  • GMPC — Gnome Music Player Client. GTK+ frontend for MPD. It is designed to be lightweight and easy to use, while providing full access to all of MPD's features. Users are presented with several different methods to browse through their music. It can be extended by plugins, of which many are available.
http://gmpclient.org/ || gmpc
  • pymp'd — A GTK+ front end client for the music playing daemon MPD.
http://pympd.sourceforge.net || pympd
  • QMPDClient — Qt4 GUI client.
http://bitcheese.net/wiki/QMPDClient || qmpdclient
  • Quimup — Simple Qt5 frontend for MPD written in C++.
https://sourceforge.net/projects/quimup/ || quimupAUR
  • RompЯ — Web client for MPD.
https://fatg3erman.github.io/RompR/ || romprAUR
  • SkyMPC — Simple MPD client, powered by Qt5.
https://github.com/soramimi/SkyMPC || skympc-gitAUR
  • Sonata — Elegant Python GTK+ client.
http://www.nongnu.org/sonata/ || sonata
  • Xfce MPD Panel Plugin — MPD plugin for Xfce4 panel.
http://goodies.xfce.org/projects/panel-plugins/xfce4-mpc-plugin || xfce4-mpc-plugin
  • Xfmpc — Graphical GTK+ MPD client focusing on low footprint.
http://goodies.xfce.org/projects/applications/xfmpc || xfmpc
  • ympd — Standalone MPD Web GUI written in C, utilizing Websockets and Bootstrap/JS.
https://ympd.org/ || ympdAUR

See also

  • MPD Forum
  • MPD User Manual
  • Wikipedia article
  • GitHub repository
  • mopidy is an alternative to MPD written in Python. Note it is not a complete MPD replacement, its advantage is that it has plug-ins for playing music from cloud services like Spotify, SoundCloud, and Google Play Music. However, the project is not that active and some of its plugins are not maintained.