Difference between revisions of "NIS"

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[[Category:Security (English)]]
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[[Category:Security]]
{{stub}}
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[[fr:NIS]]
=Introduction=
+
  
 
NIS is a protocol developed by Sun to allow one to defer user authentication to a server. The server software is in the ypserv package, and the client software is in the yp-tools package. ypbind-mt is also available, which is a multi threaded version of the client daemon.
 
NIS is a protocol developed by Sun to allow one to defer user authentication to a server. The server software is in the ypserv package, and the client software is in the yp-tools package. ypbind-mt is also available, which is a multi threaded version of the client daemon.
  
'''Note:''' obviously this article is far from finished. hopefully in the future that will change, but in the meantime check the [[NIS#More resources|More resources section]].
+
{{note|This article somewhat unfinished. In the future that will change, but in the meantime check the [[NIS#More resources|More resources section]].}}
  
==How to set up a NIS client==
+
== NIS Server ==
  
The first step is to install the tools that you need. This provides the configuration files and general tools needed to use NIS.
+
=== Install Packages ===
 +
Make sure packages ypbind-mt, ypserv, and yp-tools are installed:
 +
# pacman -S ypbind-mt yp-tools ypserv
  
# pacman -S yp-tools ypbind-mt
+
=== Configuration ===
  
Next put your NIS domain name into the file /etc/conf.d/nisdomainname.
+
==== /etc/hosts ====
  
Now edit the /etc/yp.conf file and add your ypserver or nis server.
+
Add your server's '''external''' (not 127.0.0.1) IP address to the hosts file. Make sure it is the first non-commented line in the file, yes, even above the localhost line, like so:
 +
#
 +
# /etc/hosts: static lookup table for host names
 +
#
 
   
 
   
  ypserver your.nis.server
+
  #<ip-address> <hostname.domain.org> <hostname>
 +
#::1 localhost.localdomain localhost
 +
192.168.1.10  nis_server.domain.com  nis_server
 +
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost nis_server
 +
# End of file
  
Start the rpcbind and ypbind daemons (add them to your [[rc.conf]] file if you want it to start automatically).
+
This is due to a peculiarity in ypinit (maybe it's a bug, maybe it's a feature), which will '''always''' add the first line in /etc/hosts to the list of ypservers.
  
# /etc/rc.d/rpcbind start
+
==== /etc/nisdomainname ====
# /etc/rc.d/ypbind start
+
  
To test the setup so far you can run the command yptest:
+
Add the domain name to /etc/nisdomainname:
  
  # yptest
+
  # NISDOMAINNAME="nis-domain-name"
  
If it works you will, among other things, see the contents of the NIS user database (which is printed in the same format as /etc/passwd).
+
==== /etc/ypserv.conf ====
  
To actually use NIS to log in you have to edit /etc/nsswitch.conf.  Modify the lines for passwd, group and shadow to read:
+
Add rules to /etc/ypserv.conf for your your nis clients of this form:
  
  passwd: files nis
+
  # ip-address-of-client : nis-domain-name : rule : security
group: files nis
+
shadow: files nis
+
  
And then do not forget
+
For example:
  
  # /etc/rc.d/ypbind restart
+
  # 192.168. : home-domain : * : port
  
See [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/NIS-HOWTO/settingup_client.html section 7 of The Linux NIS HOWTO] for further information on configuring NIS clients.
+
For more information see {{ic|man ypserv.conf}}.
  
==How to set up a NIS server==
+
==== /var/yp/Makefile ====
  
Make sure packages ypbind-mt, ypserv, and yp-tools are installed:
+
Add or remove files you would like NIS to use to /var/yp/Makefile under the "all" rule.
  
# sudo pacman -S ypbind-mt yp-tools ypserv
+
Default:
  
Add the domain name to /etc/conf.d/nisdomainname:
+
# all: passwd group hosts rpc services netid protocols netgrp \
 +
#        shadow # publickey networks ethers bootparams printcap mail \
 +
#        # amd.home auto.master auto.home auto.local passwd.adjunct \
 +
#        # timezone locale netmasks
  
# NISDOMAINNAME="nis-domain-name"
+
After that you have to build your NIS database:
  
Add rules to /etc/ypserv.conf for your your nis clients of this form:
+
# cd /var/yp
 +
# make
  
# ip-address-of-client : nis-domain-name : rule : security
+
Or you can do it in a more automated fashion:
  
For example:
+
# /usr/lib/yp/ypinit -m
  
# 192.168. : home-domain : * : port
+
If you use this way you may skip manually adding lines to /var/yp/ypservers.
  
For more information see `man ypserv.conf`.
+
==== /var/yp/securenets ====
  
Add or remove files you would like NIS to use to /var/yp/Makefile under the "all" rule.
+
Add rules to /var/yp/securenets to restrict access:
  
Default:
+
# 255.255.0.0 192.168.0.0 # Gives access to anyone in 192.168.0.0/16
  
# all:  passwd group hosts rpc services netid protocols netgrp \
+
Be sure to comment out this line, as it gives access to anyone.
#        shadow # publickey networks ethers bootparams printcap mail \
+
#        # amd.home auto.master auto.home auto.local passwd.adjunct \
+
#        # timezone locale netmasks
+
  
Add rules to /var/yp/securenets to restrict access:
+
# 0.0.0.0      0.0.0.0
  
# 255.255.0.0 192.168.0.0 # Gives access to anyone in 192.168.0.0/16
+
==== /var/yp/ypservers ====
  
Be sure to comment out this line, as it gives access to anyone.
+
Add your server to /var/yp/ypservers:
  
# 0.0.0.0      0.0.0.0
+
# your.nis.server
  
Add the domain name of your server to /var/yp/ypservers:
+
=== Start NIS Daemons ===
 +
{{note|The daemons MUST be started in this order.}}
  
# my.nis.server
+
Start rpcbind if it isn't already started:
 +
# systemctl start rpcbind
  
==More resources==
+
Start ypbind:
 +
# systemctl start ypbind
 +
 
 +
Start ypserv:
 +
# systemctl start ypserv
 +
 
 +
Use systemctl enable instead of start to make the daemons load at every boot.
 +
 
 +
== NIS Client ==
 +
 
 +
===  Install Packages ===
 +
The first step is to install the tools that you need. This provides the configuration files and general tools needed to use NIS.
 +
# pacman -S yp-tools ypbind-mt
 +
 
 +
=== Configuration ===
 +
==== Set your domain name ====
 +
# ypdomainname EXAMPLE.COM
 +
 
 +
Now edit the /etc/yp.conf file and add your ypserver or nis server.
 +
ypserver nis_server
 +
 
 +
==== /etc/hosts ====
 +
It may be a good idea to add your NIS server to /etc/hosts
 +
192.168.1.10  nis_server.domain.com  nis_server
 +
 
 +
==== Start NIS Daemons ====
 +
{{note|The daemons MUST be started in this order.}}
 +
Start the rpcbind and ypbind daemons.
 +
# systemctl start rpcbind
 +
# systemctl start ypbind
 +
 
 +
Use systemctl enable instead of start to make the daemons load at every boot.
 +
 
 +
==== Early testing ====
 +
To test the setup so far you can run the command yptest:
 +
# yptest
 +
 
 +
If it works you will, among other things, see the contents of the NIS user database (which is printed in the same format as /etc/passwd).
 +
 
 +
==== /etc/nsswitch.conf ====
 +
To actually use NIS to log in you have to edit /etc/nsswitch.conf.  Modify the lines for passwd, group and shadow to read:
 +
passwd: files nis
 +
group: files nis
 +
shadow: files nis
 +
 
 +
And then do not forget
 +
 
 +
# systemctl restart ypbind
 +
 
 +
See [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/NIS-HOWTO/settingup_client.html section 7 of The Linux NIS HOWTO] for further information on configuring NIS clients.
 +
== More resources ==
 
*[http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/NIS-HOWTO/ The Linux NIS HOWTO],very helpful and generally applicable to Arch Linux.
 
*[http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/NIS-HOWTO/ The Linux NIS HOWTO],very helpful and generally applicable to Arch Linux.
 
*[http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/NIS.html YoLinux NIS tutorial]
 
*[http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/NIS.html YoLinux NIS tutorial]
 
*[http://www.linuxhomenetworking.com/wiki/index.php/Quick_HOWTO_:_Ch30_:_Configuring_NIS Quick HOWTO, Configuring NIS]
 
*[http://www.linuxhomenetworking.com/wiki/index.php/Quick_HOWTO_:_Ch30_:_Configuring_NIS Quick HOWTO, Configuring NIS]

Revision as of 21:58, 19 October 2013


NIS is a protocol developed by Sun to allow one to defer user authentication to a server. The server software is in the ypserv package, and the client software is in the yp-tools package. ypbind-mt is also available, which is a multi threaded version of the client daemon.

Note: This article somewhat unfinished. In the future that will change, but in the meantime check the More resources section.

NIS Server

Install Packages

Make sure packages ypbind-mt, ypserv, and yp-tools are installed:

# pacman -S ypbind-mt yp-tools ypserv

Configuration

/etc/hosts

Add your server's external (not 127.0.0.1) IP address to the hosts file. Make sure it is the first non-commented line in the file, yes, even above the localhost line, like so:

#
# /etc/hosts: static lookup table for host names
#

#<ip-address>	<hostname.domain.org>	<hostname>
#::1		localhost.localdomain	localhost
192.168.1.10   nis_server.domain.com   nis_server
127.0.0.1	localhost.localdomain	localhost nis_server
# End of file

This is due to a peculiarity in ypinit (maybe it's a bug, maybe it's a feature), which will always add the first line in /etc/hosts to the list of ypservers.

/etc/nisdomainname

Add the domain name to /etc/nisdomainname:

# NISDOMAINNAME="nis-domain-name"

/etc/ypserv.conf

Add rules to /etc/ypserv.conf for your your nis clients of this form:

# ip-address-of-client : nis-domain-name : rule : security

For example:

# 192.168. : home-domain : * : port

For more information see man ypserv.conf.

/var/yp/Makefile

Add or remove files you would like NIS to use to /var/yp/Makefile under the "all" rule.

Default:

# all:  passwd group hosts rpc services netid protocols netgrp \
#         shadow # publickey networks ethers bootparams printcap mail \
#         # amd.home auto.master auto.home auto.local passwd.adjunct \
#         # timezone locale netmasks

After that you have to build your NIS database:

# cd /var/yp
# make

Or you can do it in a more automated fashion:

# /usr/lib/yp/ypinit -m

If you use this way you may skip manually adding lines to /var/yp/ypservers.

/var/yp/securenets

Add rules to /var/yp/securenets to restrict access:

# 255.255.0.0 192.168.0.0 # Gives access to anyone in 192.168.0.0/16

Be sure to comment out this line, as it gives access to anyone.

# 0.0.0.0      0.0.0.0

/var/yp/ypservers

Add your server to /var/yp/ypservers:

# your.nis.server

Start NIS Daemons

Note: The daemons MUST be started in this order.

Start rpcbind if it isn't already started:

# systemctl start rpcbind

Start ypbind:

# systemctl start ypbind

Start ypserv:

# systemctl start ypserv

Use systemctl enable instead of start to make the daemons load at every boot.

NIS Client

Install Packages

The first step is to install the tools that you need. This provides the configuration files and general tools needed to use NIS.

# pacman -S yp-tools ypbind-mt

Configuration

Set your domain name

# ypdomainname EXAMPLE.COM

Now edit the /etc/yp.conf file and add your ypserver or nis server.

ypserver nis_server

/etc/hosts

It may be a good idea to add your NIS server to /etc/hosts

192.168.1.10   nis_server.domain.com   nis_server

Start NIS Daemons

Note: The daemons MUST be started in this order.

Start the rpcbind and ypbind daemons.

# systemctl start rpcbind
# systemctl start ypbind

Use systemctl enable instead of start to make the daemons load at every boot.

Early testing

To test the setup so far you can run the command yptest:

# yptest

If it works you will, among other things, see the contents of the NIS user database (which is printed in the same format as /etc/passwd).

/etc/nsswitch.conf

To actually use NIS to log in you have to edit /etc/nsswitch.conf. Modify the lines for passwd, group and shadow to read:

passwd: files nis
group: files nis
shadow: files nis

And then do not forget

# systemctl restart ypbind

See section 7 of The Linux NIS HOWTO for further information on configuring NIS clients.

More resources