Difference between revisions of "NIS"

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[[Category:Security]]
 
[[Category:Security]]
{{stub}}
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[[fr:NIS]]
 +
[[ja:NIS]]
 +
Network Information Service (NIS) is a protocol developed by Sun to allow one to defer user authentication to a server. The server software is in the {{Pkg|ypserv}} package, and the client software is in the {{Pkg|yp-tools}} package. {{Pkg|ypbind-mt}} is also available, which is a multi threaded version of the client daemon.
  
NIS is a protocol developed by Sun to allow one to defer user authentication to a server. The server software is in the ypserv package, and the client software is in the yp-tools package. ypbind-mt is also available, which is a multi threaded version of the client daemon.
+
{{note|This article somewhat unfinished. In the future that will change, but in the meantime check the [[#More resources|More resources section]].}}
  
{{note|Obviously this article is far from finished. hopefully in the future that will change, but in the meantime check the [[NIS#More resources|More resources section]].}}
+
== NIS Server ==
  
== NIS Client ==
+
=== Install Packages ===
 +
[[Install]] the {{pkg|ypbind-mt}}, {{pkg|ypserv}}, and {{pkg|yp-tools}} packages.
  
The first step is to install the tools that you need. This provides the configuration files and general tools needed to use NIS.
+
=== Configuration ===
# pacman -S yp-tools ypbind-mt
+
  
Next put your NIS domain name into the file /etc/conf.d/nisdomainname.
+
==== /etc/hosts ====
  
Now edit the /etc/yp.conf file and add your ypserver or nis server.
+
Add your server's '''external''' (not 127.0.0.1) IP address to the hosts file. Make sure it is the first non-commented line in the file, yes, even above the localhost line, like so:
  ypserver your.nis.server
+
#
 +
# /etc/hosts: static lookup table for host names
 +
#
 +
 +
#<ip-address> <hostname.domain.org> <hostname>
 +
  #::1 localhost.localdomain localhost
 +
192.168.1.10  nis_server.domain.com  nis_server
 +
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost nis_server
 +
# End of file
  
Start the rpcbind and ypbind daemons (add them to your [[rc.conf]] file if you want it to start automatically).
+
This is due to a peculiarity in ypinit (maybe it's a bug, maybe it's a feature), which will '''always''' add the first line in {{ic|/etc/hosts}} to the list of ypservers.
# /etc/rc.d/rpcbind start
+
# /etc/rc.d/ypbind start
+
  
To test the setup so far you can run the command yptest:
+
==== /etc/nisdomainname ====
# yptest
+
  
If it works you will, among other things, see the contents of the NIS user database (which is printed in the same format as /etc/passwd).
+
Add the domain name to {{ic|/etc/nisdomainname}}:
 
+
To actually use NIS to log in you have to edit /etc/nsswitch.conf.  Modify the lines for passwd, group and shadow to read:
+
passwd: files nis
+
group: files nis
+
shadow: files nis
+
 
+
And then do not forget
+
 
+
# /etc/rc.d/ypbind restart
+
 
+
See [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/NIS-HOWTO/settingup_client.html section 7 of The Linux NIS HOWTO] for further information on configuring NIS clients.
+
 
+
== NIS Server ==
+
 
+
== Install Packages ==
+
Make sure packages ypbind-mt, ypserv, and yp-tools are installed:
+
# pacman -S ypbind-mt yp-tools ypserv
+
 
+
== Configuration ==
+
 
+
=== /etc/conf.d/nisdomainname ===
+
 
+
Add the domain name to /etc/conf.d/nisdomainname:
+
  
 
  # NISDOMAINNAME="nis-domain-name"
 
  # NISDOMAINNAME="nis-domain-name"
  
=== /etc/ypserv.conf ===
+
==== /etc/ypserv.conf ====
  
 
Add rules to /etc/ypserv.conf for your your nis clients of this form:
 
Add rules to /etc/ypserv.conf for your your nis clients of this form:
Line 62: Line 46:
 
For more information see {{ic|man ypserv.conf}}.
 
For more information see {{ic|man ypserv.conf}}.
  
=== /var/yp/Makefile ===
+
==== /var/yp/Makefile ====
  
 
Add or remove files you would like NIS to use to /var/yp/Makefile under the "all" rule.
 
Add or remove files you would like NIS to use to /var/yp/Makefile under the "all" rule.
Line 72: Line 56:
 
  #        # amd.home auto.master auto.home auto.local passwd.adjunct \
 
  #        # amd.home auto.master auto.home auto.local passwd.adjunct \
 
  #        # timezone locale netmasks
 
  #        # timezone locale netmasks
 
Due to recent changes in networking in Archlinux you have to change the line:
 
 
# LOCALDOMAIN = `/bin/domainname`
 
 
to
 
 
# LOCALDOMAIN = `/bin/hostname -d`
 
  
 
After that you have to build your NIS database:
 
After that you have to build your NIS database:
Line 86: Line 62:
 
  # make
 
  # make
  
=== /var/yp/securenets ===
+
Or you can do it in a more automated fashion:
 +
 
 +
# /usr/lib/yp/ypinit -m
 +
 
 +
If you use this way you may skip manually adding lines to /var/yp/ypservers.
 +
 
 +
==== /var/yp/securenets ====
  
 
Add rules to /var/yp/securenets to restrict access:
 
Add rules to /var/yp/securenets to restrict access:
Line 96: Line 78:
 
  # 0.0.0.0      0.0.0.0
 
  # 0.0.0.0      0.0.0.0
  
=== /var/yp/ypservers ===
+
==== /var/yp/ypservers ====
  
Add the domain name of your server to /var/yp/ypservers:
+
Add your server to /var/yp/ypservers:
  
 
  # your.nis.server
 
  # your.nis.server
  
== Start NIS Daemons ==
+
==== Set your domain name ====
=== initscripts ===
+
# ypdomainname EXAMPLE.COM
 +
 
 +
Now edit the /etc/yp.conf file and add your ypserver or nis server.
 +
ypserver nis_server
 +
 
 +
=== Start NIS Daemons ===
 
{{note|The daemons MUST be started in this order.}}
 
{{note|The daemons MUST be started in this order.}}
  
Start rpcbind if it isn't already started:
+
[[Start/enable]] the following systemd units:
# rc.d start rpcbind
+
* {{ic|rpcbind.service}}
 +
* {{ic|ypbind.service}}
 +
* {{ic|ypserv.service}}
 +
* {{ic|yppasswdd.service}} (to allow clients to change their password with {{ic|passwd}})
  
Start ypbind:
+
== NIS Client ==
# rc.d start ypbind
+
  
Start ypserv:
+
===  Install Packages ===
  # rc.d start ypserv
+
The first step is to install the tools that you need. This provides the configuration files and general tools needed to use NIS.
 +
  # pacman -S yp-tools ypbind-mt
  
If you want these to start automatically on startup, add them to your DAEMONS array in rc.conf:
+
=== Configuration ===
  DAEMONS=(... rpcbind ypbind ypserv ...)
+
==== Set your domain name ====
 +
  # ypdomainname EXAMPLE.COM
  
Make sure they go after network in the array.
+
You can apply this permanently by editing /etc/nisdomainname and adding:
 +
# NISDOMAINNAME="EXAMPLE.COM"
  
=== systemd ===
+
Now edit the /etc/yp.conf file and add your ypserver or nis server.
Simply use the systemctl command to enable and start the ypbind service:
+
  ypserver nis_server
  # systemctl enable ypbind.service
+
  
 +
==== /etc/hosts ====
 +
It may be a good idea to add your NIS server to /etc/hosts
 +
192.168.1.10  nis_server.domain.com  nis_server
 +
 +
==== Start NIS Daemons ====
 +
{{note|The daemons MUST be started in this order.}}
 +
[[Start/enable]] the {{ic|rpcbind.service}} and {{ic|ypbind.service}} systemd units.
 +
 +
==== Early testing ====
 +
To test the setup so far you can run the command yptest:
 +
# yptest
 +
 +
If it works you will, among other things, see the contents of the NIS user database (which is printed in the same format as /etc/passwd).
 +
 +
==== /etc/nsswitch.conf ====
 +
To actually use NIS to log in you have to edit /etc/nsswitch.conf.  Modify the lines for passwd, group and shadow to read:
 +
passwd: files nis
 +
group: files nis
 +
shadow: files nis
 +
 +
And then do not forget
 +
 +
# systemctl restart ypbind
 +
 +
==== /etc/pam.d/passwd ====
 +
To allow a user on a client machine to change their password on the server, be sure that {{ic|yppasswdd.service}} is started/enabled on the server.
 +
 +
Edit {{ic|/etc/pam.d/passwd}} on the client to add the {{ic|nis}} parameter to {{ic|password/pam_unix.so}}:
 +
password    required    pam_unix.so sha512 shadow nullok nis
 +
 +
See [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/NIS-HOWTO/settingup_client.html section 7 of The Linux NIS HOWTO] for further information on configuring NIS clients.
 
== More resources ==
 
== More resources ==
 
*[http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/NIS-HOWTO/ The Linux NIS HOWTO],very helpful and generally applicable to Arch Linux.
 
*[http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/NIS-HOWTO/ The Linux NIS HOWTO],very helpful and generally applicable to Arch Linux.
 
*[http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/NIS.html YoLinux NIS tutorial]
 
*[http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/NIS.html YoLinux NIS tutorial]
 
*[http://www.linuxhomenetworking.com/wiki/index.php/Quick_HOWTO_:_Ch30_:_Configuring_NIS Quick HOWTO, Configuring NIS]
 
*[http://www.linuxhomenetworking.com/wiki/index.php/Quick_HOWTO_:_Ch30_:_Configuring_NIS Quick HOWTO, Configuring NIS]

Latest revision as of 14:16, 27 May 2016

Network Information Service (NIS) is a protocol developed by Sun to allow one to defer user authentication to a server. The server software is in the ypserv package, and the client software is in the yp-tools package. ypbind-mt is also available, which is a multi threaded version of the client daemon.

Note: This article somewhat unfinished. In the future that will change, but in the meantime check the More resources section.

NIS Server

Install Packages

Install the ypbind-mt, ypserv, and yp-tools packages.

Configuration

/etc/hosts

Add your server's external (not 127.0.0.1) IP address to the hosts file. Make sure it is the first non-commented line in the file, yes, even above the localhost line, like so:

#
# /etc/hosts: static lookup table for host names
#

#<ip-address>	<hostname.domain.org>	<hostname>
#::1		localhost.localdomain	localhost
192.168.1.10   nis_server.domain.com   nis_server
127.0.0.1	localhost.localdomain	localhost nis_server
# End of file

This is due to a peculiarity in ypinit (maybe it's a bug, maybe it's a feature), which will always add the first line in /etc/hosts to the list of ypservers.

/etc/nisdomainname

Add the domain name to /etc/nisdomainname:

# NISDOMAINNAME="nis-domain-name"

/etc/ypserv.conf

Add rules to /etc/ypserv.conf for your your nis clients of this form:

# ip-address-of-client : nis-domain-name : rule : security

For example:

# 192.168. : home-domain : * : port

For more information see man ypserv.conf.

/var/yp/Makefile

Add or remove files you would like NIS to use to /var/yp/Makefile under the "all" rule.

Default:

# all:  passwd group hosts rpc services netid protocols netgrp \
#         shadow # publickey networks ethers bootparams printcap mail \
#         # amd.home auto.master auto.home auto.local passwd.adjunct \
#         # timezone locale netmasks

After that you have to build your NIS database:

# cd /var/yp
# make

Or you can do it in a more automated fashion:

# /usr/lib/yp/ypinit -m

If you use this way you may skip manually adding lines to /var/yp/ypservers.

/var/yp/securenets

Add rules to /var/yp/securenets to restrict access:

# 255.255.0.0 192.168.0.0 # Gives access to anyone in 192.168.0.0/16

Be sure to comment out this line, as it gives access to anyone.

# 0.0.0.0      0.0.0.0

/var/yp/ypservers

Add your server to /var/yp/ypservers:

# your.nis.server

Set your domain name

# ypdomainname EXAMPLE.COM

Now edit the /etc/yp.conf file and add your ypserver or nis server.

ypserver nis_server

Start NIS Daemons

Note: The daemons MUST be started in this order.

Start/enable the following systemd units:

  • rpcbind.service
  • ypbind.service
  • ypserv.service
  • yppasswdd.service (to allow clients to change their password with passwd)

NIS Client

Install Packages

The first step is to install the tools that you need. This provides the configuration files and general tools needed to use NIS.

# pacman -S yp-tools ypbind-mt

Configuration

Set your domain name

# ypdomainname EXAMPLE.COM

You can apply this permanently by editing /etc/nisdomainname and adding:

# NISDOMAINNAME="EXAMPLE.COM"

Now edit the /etc/yp.conf file and add your ypserver or nis server.

ypserver nis_server

/etc/hosts

It may be a good idea to add your NIS server to /etc/hosts

192.168.1.10   nis_server.domain.com   nis_server

Start NIS Daemons

Note: The daemons MUST be started in this order.

Start/enable the rpcbind.service and ypbind.service systemd units.

Early testing

To test the setup so far you can run the command yptest:

# yptest

If it works you will, among other things, see the contents of the NIS user database (which is printed in the same format as /etc/passwd).

/etc/nsswitch.conf

To actually use NIS to log in you have to edit /etc/nsswitch.conf. Modify the lines for passwd, group and shadow to read:

passwd: files nis
group: files nis
shadow: files nis

And then do not forget

# systemctl restart ypbind

/etc/pam.d/passwd

To allow a user on a client machine to change their password on the server, be sure that yppasswdd.service is started/enabled on the server.

Edit /etc/pam.d/passwd on the client to add the nis parameter to password/pam_unix.so:

password     required     pam_unix.so sha512 shadow nullok nis

See section 7 of The Linux NIS HOWTO for further information on configuring NIS clients.

More resources