Difference between revisions of "Netcfg (Español)"

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{{Article summary text|Una guia para configurar la red usando netcfg y scripts de perfiles de red.}}
{{Article summary text|Una guia para configurar la red usando netcfg y scripts de perfiles de red.}}
{{Article summary heading|Overview}}
{{Article summary heading|Overview}}
{{Article summary text|{{Networking overview}}}}
{{Article summary text|{{Networking overview (Español)}}}}
{{Article summary heading|Resources}}
{{Article summary heading|Resources}}
{{Article summary wiki|Netcfg Tips}}
{{Article summary wiki|Netcfg Tips}}

Revision as of 23:59, 21 October 2012

ro:Netcfg zh-CN:Netcfg Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary link Template:Article summary end

Netcfg es usado para configurar y manejar las conexiones de red vía perfiles.Soporta varios tipos de conexión, como wireless, Ethernet, PPP. También es capaz de iniciar/detener conexiones muchas-a-una, esto es, múltiples conexiones dentro del mismo perfil, opcionalmente unidas. Además, es útil para los usuarios que buscan un medio sencillo y robusto de la gestión de múltiples configuraciones de red (por ejemplo, los usuarios de portátiles). Con la eliminación del soporte a initscripts/SysV, netcfg es una de las opciones disponibles para que los usuarios puedan gestionar la conectividad bajo systemd.

Note: netcfg >= 2.8.9 elimina la compatibilidad con /etc/rc.conf. Los usuarios de Netcfg deberán configurar todas las interfaces en /etc/conf.d/netcfg en lugar de en /etc/rc.conf.

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Notes: please use the first argument of the template to provide more detailed indications. (Discuss in Talk:Netcfg (Español)#)


In the simplest cases, users must at least know the name of their network interface(s) (e.g. eth0, wlan0). If configuring a static IP address, the IP addresses of the default gateway and name server(s) must also be known.

If connecting to a wireless network, have some basic information ready. For a wireless network this includes what type of security is used, the network name (ESSID), and any passphrase or encryption keys. Additionally, ensure the proper drivers and firmware are installed for the wireless device, as described in Wireless Setup.


The netcfg package is available in the official repositories. As of netcfg version 2.5.x, optional dependencies include wpa_actiond, which is required for automatic/roaming wireless connections, and ifplugd, which is required for automatic Ethernet configuration. See the announcement.

Users wanting Bash completion support for netcfg, install the bash-completion package from the official repositories.


Network profiles are stored in /etc/network.d/. To minimize the potential for errors, copy an example configuration from /etc/network.d/examples/ to /etc/network.d/mynetwork. The file name is the name of the network profile, and mynetwork is used as an example throughout this article.

Depending on the connection type and security, use one of the following examples from /etc/network.d/examples/ as a base.

Warning: Be wary of examples found on the internet as they often contain deprecated options that may cause problems!
Connection Type Example Profile Information
Wired Dynamic IP ethernet-dhcp
Static IP ethernet-static
Routed ethernet-iproute Can be checked with route from the net-tools package.
Wireless WPA-Personal wireless-wpa Uses a passphrase/pre-shared key.
WPA-Enterprise wireless-wpa-config The wpa_supplicant configuration is external.
wireless-wpa-configsection The wpa_supplicant configuration is stored as a string.

Modify the new configuration file, /etc/network.d/mynetwork:

  • Set INTERFACE to the correct wireless or Ethernet interface. This can be checked with ip link and iwconfig.
  • Ensure the ESSID and KEY (passphrase) are set correctly for wireless connections. Typos in these fields are common errors.
    • Note that WEP string keys (not hex keys) must be specified with a leading s: (e.g. KEY="s:somepasskey").
Note: Netcfg configurations are valid Bash scripts. Any configuration involving special characters such as $ or \ needs to be quoted correctly otherwise it will be interpreted by Bash. To avoid interpretation, use single quotes or backslash escape characters where appropriate.
Note: Network information (e.g. wireless passkey) will be stored in plain text format, so users may want to change the permissions on the newly created profile (e.g. chmod 0600 /etc/network.d/mynetwork) to make it readable by root only.
Note: For WPA-Personal, it is also possible to encode the WPA passkey into a hexadecimal string. Save the new hexadecimal string into the wireless WPA profile in /etc/network.d/mynetwork as the value of the KEY variable (make sure this will be the only KEY variable enabled), to look similar to this: KEY='7b271c9a7c8a6ac07d12403a1f0792d7d92b5957ff8dfd56481ced43ec6a6515'. That should disable the need to reveal the passkey.

Manual Operation

To connect a profile:

# netcfg mynetwork

To disconnect a profile:

# netcfg down mynetwork

If successful, users can configure netcfg to connect automatically or during boot. If the connection fails, see Netcfg Troubleshooting for solutions and for how to ask for help.

Additionally, see:

$ netcfg help

Automatic Operation


Edit the NETWORKS array in /etc/conf.d/netcfg to refer to your network config file /etc/network.d/mynetwork.

NETWORKS=(mynetwork yournetwork)

Start the service on startup:

# systemctl enable netcfg.service

Alternatively, the profiles that were active at last shutdown can be restored by setting the NETWORKS array to last.


Finally, net-profiles can be configured to display a menu – allowing users to choose a desired profile – by setting the contents of the NETWORKS array to menu:


Additionally, the dialog package is required.

Tip: Access the menu at any time by running netcfg-menu in a terminal.


This allows users to automatically connect to wireless networks with proper roaming support. To use this feature, the wpa_actiond package is required. Note that wireless-wpa-config profiles do not work with net-auto-wireless. Convert them to wireless-wpa-configsection instead.

Specify the desired wireless interface with the WIRELESS_INTERFACE variable in /etc/conf.d/netcfg or define a list of wireless networks that should be automatically connected with the AUTO_PROFILES variable in /etc/conf.d/netcfg.

Note: If AUTO_PROFILES is not set, all wireless networks will be tried.

Enable the net-auto-wireless.service so systemd manages it.

# systemctl enable net-auto-wireless.service


This allows users to automatically connect to wired networks. To use this feature, the ifplugd package is required.

Specify the desired wired interface with the WIRED_INTERFACE variable in /etc/conf.d/netcfg.

Enable the net-auto-wired.service so systemd manages it.

# systemctl enable net-auto-wired.service

The daemon starts an ifplugd process which runs /etc/ifplugd/netcfg.action when the status of the wired interface changes (e.g. a cable is plugged in or unplugged). On plugging in a cable, attempts are made to start any profiles with CONNECTION = "ethernet" or "ethernet-iproute" and INTERFACE = WIRED_INTERFACE until one of them succeeds.

Note: DHCP profiles are tried before static ones, which could lead to undesired results in some cases. However, one can tell netcfg to prefer a particular interface by adding AUTO_WIRED=1 to the desired profile.
Note: The net-auto-wired daemon cannot start multiple ifplugd processes for multiple interfaces (unlike ifplugd's own /etc/rc.d/ifplugd which can).