Difference between revisions of "Netctl"

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[[ru:Netctl]]
 
[[ru:Netctl]]
 
[[zh-CN:Netctl]]
 
[[zh-CN:Netctl]]
{{Article summary start}}
+
{{Related articles start}}
{{Article summary text|A guide to configuring the network using netctl and network profile scripts.}}
+
{{Related|Network configuration}}
{{Article summary heading|Overview}}
+
{{Related|Wireless network configuration}}
{{Article summary text|{{Networking overview}}}}
+
{{Related|NetworkManager}}
{{Article summary heading|Resources}}
+
{{Related|Wicd}}
{{Article summary wiki|Bridge with netctl}}
+
{{Related|Bridge with netctl}}
{{Article summary end}}
+
{{Related articles end}}
  
Netctl is a CLI-based tool used to configure and manage network connections via profiles. It is a native Arch Linux project that replaces the old ''netcfg'' utility.
+
''netctl'' is a CLI-based tool used to configure and manage network connections via profiles. It is a native Arch Linux project that replaces the old ''netcfg'' utility.
  
 
== Installation ==
 
== Installation ==
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The {{Pkg|netctl}} package is available in the [[official repositories]]. Installing netctl will replace {{AUR|netcfg}}.  
 
The {{Pkg|netctl}} package is available in the [[official repositories]]. Installing netctl will replace {{AUR|netcfg}}.  
  
{{Pkg|netctl}} and {{AUR|netcfg}} are conflicting packages. You will be potentially connectionless after installing '''netctl''' if your profiles are misconfigured.
+
{{Pkg|netctl}} and {{AUR|netcfg}} are conflicting packages. You will be potentially connectionless after installing ''netctl'' if your profiles are misconfigured.
  
{{Note|It may be a good idea to use {{ic|1=systemctl --type=service}} to ensure that no other service is running that may want to configure the network. Multiple networking services will conflict.}}
+
{{Note|It may be a good idea to use {{ic|1=systemctl --type=service}} to ensure that no other service is running that may want to configure the network. Multiple networking services will conflict.}}
  
 
== Required reading ==
 
== Required reading ==
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== Configuration ==
 
== Configuration ==
  
{{ic|netctl}} uses profiles to manage network connections, profile files are stored in {{ic|/etc/netctl/}}. Example configuration files are provided for the user to assist them in configuring their network connection. These example profiles are located in {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples/}}. The common configurations include:
+
''netctl'' uses profiles to manage network connections, profile files are stored in {{ic|/etc/netctl/}}. Example configuration files are provided for the user to assist them in configuring their network connection. These example profiles are located in {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples/}}. The common configurations include:
 
* ethernet-dhcp
 
* ethernet-dhcp
 
* ethernet-static
 
* ethernet-static
 
* wireless-wpa
 
* wireless-wpa
 
* wireless-wpa-static
 
* wireless-wpa-static
 
For wireless settings, you can use {{ic|wifi-menu -o}} to generate the profile file in {{ic|/etc/netctl/}}.
 
  
 
To use an example profile, simply copy one of them from {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples/}} to {{ic|/etc/netctl/}} and configure it to your needs:
 
To use an example profile, simply copy one of them from {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples/}} to {{ic|/etc/netctl/}} and configure it to your needs:
 +
 
  # cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl/''profile''
 
  # cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl/''profile''
 +
 +
{{Note|You will most probably '''need''' to edit the interface name in the profile. As of v197, udev no longer assigns network interface names according to the wlanX and ethX naming scheme. Please do not assume that your wireless interface is named wlan0, or that your wired interface is named eth0. You can use the command {{ic|ip link}} to discover the names of your interfaces.}}
 +
 +
{{Tip|For wireless settings, you can use {{ic|wifi-menu -o}} to generate the profile file in {{ic|/etc/netctl/}}.}}
  
 
Once you have created your profile, make an attempt to establish a connection using the newly created profile by running:
 
Once you have created your profile, make an attempt to establish a connection using the newly created profile by running:
 +
 
  # netctl start ''profile''
 
  # netctl start ''profile''
  
{{Note|''profile'' is the file name, not including the full path. Providing the full path will make netctl return with an error code.}}
+
{{Note|''profile'' is the file name, not including the full path. Providing the full path will make ''netctl'' exit with an error code.}}
  
 
If issuing the above command results in a failure, then use {{ic|journalctl -xn}} and {{ic|netctl status ''profile''}} in order to obtain a more in depth explanation of the failure. Make the needed corrections to the failed configuration and retest.
 
If issuing the above command results in a failure, then use {{ic|journalctl -xn}} and {{ic|netctl status ''profile''}} in order to obtain a more in depth explanation of the failure. Make the needed corrections to the failed configuration and retest.
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=== Automatic operation ===
 
=== Automatic operation ===
  
If you use only one profile (per interface) or want to switch profiles manually, the [[#Basic method|basic method]] will do. Most common examples are servers, workstations, routers etc.
+
If you use only one profile (per interface) or want to switch profiles manually, the [[#Basic method|Basic method]] will do. Most common examples are servers, workstations, routers etc.
  
 
If you need to switch multiple profiles frequently, use [[#Automatic switching of profiles|Automatic switching of profiles]]. Most common examples are laptops.
 
If you need to switch multiple profiles frequently, use [[#Automatic switching of profiles|Automatic switching of profiles]]. Most common examples are laptops.
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==== Basic method ====
 
==== Basic method ====
  
With this method, you can statically start only one profile per interface. First manually check that the profile can be started  successfully, then it can be {{ic|enabled}} using
+
With this method, you can statically start only one profile per interface. First manually check that the profile can be started  successfully, then it can be enabled using
  
 
  # netctl enable ''profile''
 
  # netctl enable ''profile''
  
This will create and enable a [[systemd]] service that will start when the computer boots.
+
This will create and enable a [[systemd]] service that will start when the computer boots. Changes to the profile file will not propagate to the service file automatically. After such changes, it is necessary to reenable the profile:
 +
 
 +
# netctl reenable ''profile''
  
 
{{Note|The connection is only established if the profile can be started succesfully at boot time (or when the service starts). That specifically means, in case of wired connection the cable must be plugged-in, in case of wireless connection the network must be in range.}}
 
{{Note|The connection is only established if the profile can be started succesfully at boot time (or when the service starts). That specifically means, in case of wired connection the cable must be plugged-in, in case of wireless connection the network must be in range.}}
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==== Automatic switching of profiles ====
 
==== Automatic switching of profiles ====
  
{{ic|netctl}} provides two special [[systemd]] services for automatic switching of profiles: {{ic|netctl-auto@''interface''.service}} for wireless interfaces, and {{ic|netctl-ifplugd@''interface''.service}} for wired interfaces. Using {{ic|netctl-auto@''interface''.service}}, netctl profiles change as you move from range of one network into range of other network. Using {{ic|netctl-ifplugd@''interface''.service}}, netctl profiles change as you plug the cable in and out.
+
''netctl'' provides two special [[systemd]] services for automatic switching of profiles:
  
{{Note|{{ic|netcfg}} used {{ic|net-auto-wireless.service}} and {{ic|net-auto-wired.service}} for this purpose.}}
+
* For wired interfaces: {{ic|netctl-ifplugd@''interface''.service}}. Using this netctl profiles change as you plug the cable in and out.
 +
* For wireless interfaces: {{ic|netctl-auto@''interface''.service}}. Using this netctl profiles change as you move from range of one network into range of other network.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|''netcfg'' used {{ic|net-auto-wireless.service}} and {{ic|net-auto-wired.service}} for this purpose.}}
  
 
First [[pacman|install]] required packages:
 
First [[pacman|install]] required packages:
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* Package {{Pkg|ifplugd}} is required to use {{ic|netctl-ifplugd@''interface''.service}}.
 
* Package {{Pkg|ifplugd}} is required to use {{ic|netctl-ifplugd@''interface''.service}}.
  
Now configure all profiles that {{ic|netctl-auto@''interface''.service}} or {{ic|netctl-ifplugd@''interface''.service}} can start. If you want some wireless profile '''not''' to be started automatically by {{ic|netctl-auto@''interface''.service}}, you have to explicitly add {{ic|1=ExcludeAuto=yes}} to that profile. You can use {{ic|1=Priority=}} to set priority of some profile when multiple profiles are available. {{ic|netctl-ifplugd@''interface''.service}} will prefer profiles, which use dhcp. To prefer a profile with a static IP, you can use {{ic|1=AutoWired=yes}}. See {{ic|netctl.profile(5)}} for details.
+
Now configure all profiles that {{ic|netctl-auto@''interface''.service}} or {{ic|netctl-ifplugd@''interface''.service}} can start.
  
{{Warning|Automatic selection of a WPA-enabled profile by netctl-auto is not possible with option {{ic|1=Security=wpa-config}}, please use {{ic|1=Security=wpa-configsection}} instead.}}
+
If you want some wireless profile '''not''' to be started automatically by {{ic|netctl-auto@''interface''.service}}, you have to explicitly add {{ic|1=ExcludeAuto=yes}} to that profile. You can use {{ic|1=Priority=}} to set priority of some profile when multiple profiles are available. {{ic|netctl-ifplugd@''interface''.service}} will prefer profiles, which use [[Wikipedia:DHCP|DHCP]]. To prefer a profile with a static IP, you can use {{ic|1=AutoWired=yes}}. See {{ic|netctl.profile(5)}} for details.
 +
 
 +
{{Warning|Automatic selection of a WPA-enabled profile by ''netctl-auto'' is not possible with option {{ic|1=Security=wpa-config}}, please use {{ic|1=Security=wpa-configsection}} instead.}}
  
 
Once your profiles are set and verified to be working, simply enable these services using ''systemctl'':
 
Once your profiles are set and verified to be working, simply enable these services using ''systemctl'':
 +
 
  # systemctl enable netctl-auto@''interface''.service  
 
  # systemctl enable netctl-auto@''interface''.service  
 
  # systemctl enable netctl-ifplugd@''interface''.service   
 
  # systemctl enable netctl-ifplugd@''interface''.service   
  
{{Warning|If any of the profiles contain errors, such as an empty {{ic|1=Key=}} variable, the unit will fail to load at boot.}}
+
{{Warning|
 +
* If any of the profiles contain errors, such as an empty or misquoted {{ic|1=Key=}} variable, the unit will fail to load with the message {{ic|"Failed to read or parse configuration '/run/network/wpa_supplicant_wlan0.conf'}}, even when that profile is not being used.
 +
* This method conflicts with the [[#Basic method|Basic method]]. If you have previously enabled a profile through ''netctl'', run {{ic|netctl disable ''profile''}} to prevent the profile from starting twice at boot.
 +
}}
  
{{Warning|This method conflicts with the [[#Basic method|basic method]]. If you have previously enabled a profile through {{ic|netctl}}, run {{bc|# netctl disable ''profile''}} to prevent the profile from starting twice at boot.}}
+
Since netctl 1.3, it possible to manually control an interface otherwise managed by netctl-auto without having to stop the netctl-auto service. This is done using the netctl-auto command. To have a list of available actions just run:
 +
  # netctl-auto --help
  
 
=== Migrating from netcfg ===
 
=== Migrating from netcfg ===
  
{{ic|netctl}} uses {{ic|/etc/netctl}} to store its profiles, ''not'' {{ic|/etc/network.d}} ({{ic|netcfg}}'s profile storage location).
+
''netctl'' uses {{ic|/etc/netctl/}} to store its profiles, '''not''' {{ic|/etc/network.d/}} (used by ''netcfg'').
  
In order to migrate from netcfg, at least the following is needed:
+
In order to migrate from ''netcfg'', at least the following is needed:
 
* Disable the netcfg service: {{ic|systemctl disable netcfg.service}}.
 
* Disable the netcfg service: {{ic|systemctl disable netcfg.service}}.
* Uninstall netcfg and install netctl.
+
* Uninstall ''netcfg'' and install ''netctl''.
 
* Move network profile files to the new directory.
 
* Move network profile files to the new directory.
 
* Rename variables therein according to {{ic|netctl.profile(5)}} (Most variable names have only {{ic|UpperCamelCase}} i.e {{ic|CONNECTION}} becomes {{ic|Connection}}).
 
* Rename variables therein according to {{ic|netctl.profile(5)}} (Most variable names have only {{ic|UpperCamelCase}} i.e {{ic|CONNECTION}} becomes {{ic|Connection}}).
Line 108: Line 124:
 
* Run {{ic|netctl enable ''profile''}} for every profile in the old {{ic|NETWORKS}} array. ''last'' doesn't work this way, see {{ic|netctl.special(7)}}.
 
* Run {{ic|netctl enable ''profile''}} for every profile in the old {{ic|NETWORKS}} array. ''last'' doesn't work this way, see {{ic|netctl.special(7)}}.
 
* Use {{ic|netctl list}} and/or {{ic|netctl start ''profile''}} instead of ''netcfg-menu''. ''wifi-menu'' remains available.
 
* Use {{ic|netctl list}} and/or {{ic|netctl start ''profile''}} instead of ''netcfg-menu''. ''wifi-menu'' remains available.
* Unlike {{ic|netcfg}}, by default {{ic|netctl}} fails to bring up a [[wikipedia:Network interface controller|NIC]] when it is not connected to another powered up NIC. To solve this problem, add {{ic|1=SkipNoCarrier=yes}} at the end of your {{ic|/etc/netctl/''profile''}}.
+
* Unlike ''netcfg'', by default ''netctl'' fails to bring up a [[wikipedia:Network interface controller|NIC]] when it is not connected to another powered up NIC. To solve this problem, add {{ic|1=SkipNoCarrier=yes}} at the end of your {{ic|/etc/netctl/''profile''}}.
  
 
=== Passphrase obfuscation (256-bit PSK) ===
 
=== Passphrase obfuscation (256-bit PSK) ===
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{{Note|Although "encrypted", the key that you put in the profile configuration is enough to connect to a WPA-PSK network. Therefore this process is only useful for hiding the human-readable version of the passphrase. This will not prevent anyone with read access to this file from connecting to the network. You should ask yourself if there is any use in this at all, since using the same passphrase for anything else is a very poor security measure.}}
 
{{Note|Although "encrypted", the key that you put in the profile configuration is enough to connect to a WPA-PSK network. Therefore this process is only useful for hiding the human-readable version of the passphrase. This will not prevent anyone with read access to this file from connecting to the network. You should ask yourself if there is any use in this at all, since using the same passphrase for anything else is a very poor security measure.}}
  
Users ''not'' wishing to have the passphrase to their wireless network stored in ''plain text'' have the option of storing the corresponding 256-bit pre-shared key (PSK) instead, which is calculated from the passphrase and the SSID using standard algorithms.
+
Users '''not''' wishing to have the passphrase to their wireless network stored in ''plain text'' have the option of storing the corresponding 256-bit pre-shared key (PSK) instead, which is calculated from the passphrase and the SSID using standard algorithms.
  
* Method 1: Use {{ic|wifi-menu -o}} to generate a config file in {{ic|/etc/netctl}}  
+
* Method 1: Use {{ic|wifi-menu -o}} to generate a config file in {{ic|/etc/netctl/}}  
* Method 2: Manual settings as follows. If the passphrase fails, try removing the \" in Key= (see note below)
+
* Method 2: Manual settings as follows.
  
 
For both methods it is suggested to {{ic|chmod 600 /etc/netctl/<config_file>}} to prevent user access to the password.
 
For both methods it is suggested to {{ic|chmod 600 /etc/netctl/<config_file>}} to prevent user access to the password.
  
 
Calculate your 256-bit PSK using [[WPA_supplicant#Configuration_file|wpa_passphrase]]:
 
Calculate your 256-bit PSK using [[WPA_supplicant#Configuration_file|wpa_passphrase]]:
{{hc|$ wpa_passphrase archlinux freenode|2=
+
{{hc|$ wpa_passphrase ''your_essid'' ''passphrase''|2=
 
   network={
 
   network={
   ssid="archlinux"
+
   ssid="''your_essid''"
   #psk="freenode"
+
   #psk="''passphrase''"
 
   psk=64cf3ced850ecef39197bb7b7b301fc39437a6aa6c6a599d0534b16af578e04a
 
   psk=64cf3ced850ecef39197bb7b7b301fc39437a6aa6c6a599d0534b16af578e04a
 
}
 
}
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In a second terminal window, copy the example file {{ic|wireless-wpa}} from {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples}} to {{ic|/etc/netctl}}:
 
In a second terminal window, copy the example file {{ic|wireless-wpa}} from {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples}} to {{ic|/etc/netctl}}:
 +
 
  # cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl/wireless-wpa
 
  # cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl/wireless-wpa
  
You will then need to edit {{ic|/etc/netctl/wireless-wpa}} using your favorite text editor and add the ''pre-shared key'', that was generated earlier using wpa_passphrase, to the {{ic|'''Key'''}} variable of this profile.
+
You will then need to edit {{ic|/etc/netctl/wireless-wpa}} using your favorite text editor and add the ''pre-shared key'', that was generated earlier using wpa_passphrase, to the {{ic|Key}} variable of this profile.
  
 
Once completed your network profile {{ic|wireless-wpa}} containing a 256-bit PSK should resemble:
 
Once completed your network profile {{ic|wireless-wpa}} containing a 256-bit PSK should resemble:
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Security=wpa
 
Security=wpa
 
IP=dhcp
 
IP=dhcp
ESSID=archlinux
+
ESSID=''your_essid''
 
Key=\"64cf3ced850ecef39197bb7b7b301fc39437a6aa6c6a599d0534b16af578e04a
 
Key=\"64cf3ced850ecef39197bb7b7b301fc39437a6aa6c6a599d0534b16af578e04a
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Note|Make sure to use the '''special non-quoted rules''' for {{ic|1=Key=}} that are explained at the end of [https://github.com/joukewitteveen/netctl/blob/master/docs/netctl.profile.5.txt netctl.profile(5)].}}
+
{{Note|
 +
* Make sure to use the '''special quoting rules''' for the {{ic|Key}} variable as explained at the end of [https://github.com/joukewitteveen/netctl/blob/master/docs/netctl.profile.5.txt netctl.profile(5)].
 +
* If the passphrase fails, try removing the {{ic|\"}} in the {{ic|Key}} variable.}}
  
 
== Tips and tricks ==
 
== Tips and tricks ==
  
=== Replace 'netcfg current' ===
+
=== Using a GUI ===
  
As of April 2013 there is no netctl alternative to {{ic|netcfg current}}. If you relied on it for something, like a status bar for a tiling window manager, you can now use:
+
If you want a graphical user interface to manage netctl and your connections, you can install {{AUR|netgui}}. Note, however, that netgui is still in beta status and you should be familiar with the general netctl syntax to debug possible issues.
  
# netctl list | awk '/*/ {print $2}'
+
=== Replace 'netcfg current' ===
  
or, when {{ic|netctl-auto}} was used to connect:
+
If you used {{ic|netcfg current}} in the past, you can use {{ic|# netctl-auto current}} as a replacement for connections started with {{ic|netctl-auto}} (feature since netctl-1.3).
  
# wpa_cli -i ''interface'' status | sed -n 's/^id_str=//p'
+
To manually parse the connections, you can also use:
  
{{Note|Since netctl-1.3 (currently in <nowiki>[testing]</nowiki>), {{ic|netctl-auto}} does have a {{ic|current}} command: {{bc|# netctl-auto current}}}}
+
# netctl list | awk '/*/ {print $2}'
  
 
=== Eduroam ===
 
=== Eduroam ===
  
 
Some universities use a system called "Eduroam" to manage their wireless networks. For this system, a WPA config-section profile with the following format is often useful:
 
Some universities use a system called "Eduroam" to manage their wireless networks. For this system, a WPA config-section profile with the following format is often useful:
 +
 
{{hc|/etc/netctl/wlan0-eduroam|<nowiki>
 
{{hc|/etc/netctl/wlan0-eduroam|<nowiki>
 
Description='Eduroam-profile for <user>'
 
Description='Eduroam-profile for <user>'
Line 176: Line 196:
 
WPAConfigSection=(
 
WPAConfigSection=(
 
  'ssid="eduroam"'
 
  'ssid="eduroam"'
  'proto=RSN'
+
  'proto=RSN WPA'
 
  'key_mgmt=WPA-EAP'
 
  'key_mgmt=WPA-EAP'
'pairwise=CCMP'
 
 
  'auth_alg=OPEN'
 
  'auth_alg=OPEN'
 
  'eap=PEAP'
 
  'eap=PEAP'
 
  'identity="<user>"'
 
  'identity="<user>"'
 
  'password="<password>"'
 
  'password="<password>"'
 +
)</nowiki>
 +
}}
 +
 +
{{Tip|To prevent storing your password as plaintext, you can generate a password hash with {{ic|$ echo -n <password> &#124; iconv -t utf16le &#124; openssl md4}}. Then use it as {{ic|'password&#61;hash:<hash>'}}.}}
 +
 +
For TTLS and certified universities this setup works:
 +
 +
{{hc|/etc/netctl/wlan0-eduroam|<nowiki>
 +
Description='Eduroam university'
 +
Interface=wlan0
 +
Connection=wireless
 +
Security=wpa-configsection
 +
IP=dhcp
 +
ESSID=eduroam
 +
WPAConfigSection=(
 +
    'ssid="eduroam"'
 +
    'proto=RSN WPA'
 +
    'key_mgmt=WPA-EAP'
 +
    'eap=TTLS'
 +
    'anonymous_identity="anonymous@domain_university"'
 +
    'identity="XXX@domain_university"'
 +
    'password="XXX"'
 +
    'ca_path="/etc/ssl/certs/"'
 +
    'ca_path2="/etc/ssl/certs/"'
 +
    'phase2="auth=PAP"'
 
)</nowiki>
 
)</nowiki>
 
}}
 
}}
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==== Wired to wireless failover ====
 
==== Wired to wireless failover ====
  
This example describes how to use ''bonding'' to fallback to wireless when the wired ethernet goes down. The presence of network connection on each interface is detected and ''dhcpcd'' is started when connection on either or both interfaces is established.
+
This example describes how to use ''bonding'' to fallback to wireless when the wired ethernet goes down. It is assumed that ''dhcpcd'' service is running for all interfaces as by default.
  
You'll need additional packages from the official repositories: {{Pkg|ifplugd}}, {{Pkg|ifenslave}} and {{Pkg|wpa_supplicant}}.
+
You'll need additional packages from the official repositories: <s>{{Pkg|ifplugd}}</s>, {{Pkg|ifenslave}} and {{Pkg|wpa_supplicant}}.
  
 
First configure the {{ic|bonding}} driver to use {{ic|active-backup}}:
 
First configure the {{ic|bonding}} driver to use {{ic|active-backup}}:
Line 229: Line 273:
 
}}
 
}}
  
The {{ic|max_bonds}} option avoids the {{ic|Interface bond0 already exists}} error.
+
The {{ic|max_bonds}} option avoids the {{ic|Interface bond0 already exists}} error. {{ic|fail_over_mac<nowiki>=</nowiki>active}} setting may be added if MAC filtering is used.  
  
 
Next, configure a netctl profile to enslave the two hardware interfaces:
 
Next, configure a netctl profile to enslave the two hardware interfaces:
Line 238: Line 282:
 
Connection=bond
 
Connection=bond
 
BindsToInterfaces=('eth0' 'wlan0')
 
BindsToInterfaces=('eth0' 'wlan0')
IP='no'
+
IP='dhcp'
 
SkipNoCarrier='no'
 
SkipNoCarrier='no'
 
}}
 
}}
Line 246: Line 290:
 
  # netctl enable failover
 
  # netctl enable failover
  
Configure ''wpa_supplicant'' to associate with known networks. This can be done with a netctl profile (remember to use {{ic|1=IP='no'}}) and a ''wpa_supplicant'' service running constantly, or on-demand with ''wpa_cli''. Ways to do this are covered on the [[wpa_supplicant]] page.
+
Configure ''wpa_supplicant'' to associate with known networks. This can be done with a netctl profile (remember to use {{ic|1=IP='no'}}) and a ''wpa_supplicant'' service running constantly, or on-demand with ''wpa_cli''. Ways to do this are covered on the [[wpa_supplicant]] page. To run ''wpa_supplicant'' constantly create ''wpa_supplicant'' config file {{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant-wlan0.conf}} and then run:
  
Create an ''ifplugd'' action for automatic DHCP assignment on the bonded interface:
+
# systemctl enable wpa_supplicant@wlan0
  
{{hc|/etc/ifplugd/bond_dhcp.action|2=
+
Set {{ic|1=IP='no'}} in wired network profile. IP address should be assigned to ''bond0'' interface only.
#!/bin/sh
+
  
case "$2" in
+
If you have a wired and wireless connection to the same network, you can probably now disconnect and reconnect the wired connection without losing connectivity. In most cases, even streaming music won't skip!
  up)
+
    systemctl start "dhcpcd@$1.service" && exit 0
+
    ;;
+
  down)
+
    systemctl stop "dhcpcd@$1.service" && exit 0
+
    ;;
+
  *)
+
    echo "Wrong arguments" > /dev/stderr
+
    ;;
+
esac
+
exit 1
+
}}
+
  
and make it executable
+
=== DHCP timeout issues ===
  
# chmod +x /etc/ifplugd/bond_dhcp.action
+
If you are having timeout issues when requesting leases via DHCP you can set the timeout value higher than netctl's 30 seconds by default. Create a file in {{ic|/etc/netctl/hooks/}} or {{ic|/etc/netctl/interfaces/}}, add {{ic|1=TimeoutDHCP=40}} to it for a timeout of 40 seconds and make the file executable.
  
Then create the [[systemd]] service which starts ''ifplugd'' for {{ic|bond0}}:
+
=== Using any interface ===
 +
In some cases it may be desirable to allow a profile to use any interface on the system. A common example use case is using a common disk image across many machines with differing hardware (this is especially useful if they are headless). If you use the kernel's naming scheme, and your machine has only one ethernet interface, you can probably guess that eth0 is the right interface. If you use udev's [http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames/ Predictable Network Interface Names], however, names will be assigned based on the specific hardware itself (e.g. enp1s0), rather than simply the order that the hardware was detected (e.g. eth0, eth1). This means that a netctl profile may work on one machine and not another, because they each have different interface names.
  
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/net-auto-bonded@.service|2=
+
A quick and dirty solution is to make use of the {{ic|/etc/netctl/interfaces/}} directory. Choose a name for your interface alias ({{ic|en-any}} in this example), and write the following to a file with that name (making sure it is executable).
[Unit]
+
{{hc|/etc/netctl/interfaces/en-any|<nowiki>
Description=Provides automatic dhcp resolution for bonded failover connection
+
#!/bin/bash
Requires=netctl@failover.service
+
for interface in /sys/class/net/en*; do
After=netctl@failover.service
+
        break;
 +
done
 +
Interface=$(basename $interface)
 +
echo "en-any: using interface $Interface";
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
Then create a profile that uses the interface. Pay special attention to the {{ic|Interfaces}} directive. The rest are only provided as examples.
 +
{{hc|/etc/netctl/wired|<nowiki>
 +
Description='Wired'
 +
Interface=en-any
 +
Connection=ethernet
 +
IP=static
 +
Address=('192.168.1.15/24')
 +
Gateway='192.168.1.1'
 +
DNS=('192.168.1.1')
 +
</nowiki>}}
  
[Service]
+
When the {{ic|wired}} profile is started, any machine using the two files above will automatically bring up and configure the first ethernet interface found on the system, regardless of what name udev assigned to it. Note that this is not the most robust way to go about configuring interfaces. If you use multiple interfaces, netctl may try to assign the same interface to them, and will likely cause a disruption in connectivity. If you don't mind a more complicated solution, {{ic|netctl-auto}} is likely to be more reliable.
ExecStart=/usr/bin/ifplugd -i %i -r /etc/ifplugd/bond_dhcp.action -fIns
+
 
+
[Install]
+
WantedBy=multi-user.target
+
}}
+
 
+
Enable the net-auto-bonded service and reboot:
+
 
+
# systemctl enable net-auto-bonded@bond0.service
+
# reboot
+
 
+
If you have a wired and wireless connection to the same network, you can probably now disconnect and reconnect the wired connection without losing connectivity. In most cases, even streaming music won't skip!
+
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
  
 
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=157670 Official announcement thread]
 
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=157670 Official announcement thread]
 +
* There is a cinnamon applet available in the AUR: {{AUR|cinnamon-applet-netctl-systray-menu}}

Revision as of 07:30, 7 March 2014

netctl is a CLI-based tool used to configure and manage network connections via profiles. It is a native Arch Linux project that replaces the old netcfg utility.

Installation

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: Optional dependencies should be mentioned. (Discuss in Talk:Netctl#)

The netctl package is available in the official repositories. Installing netctl will replace netcfgAUR.

netctl and netcfgAUR are conflicting packages. You will be potentially connectionless after installing netctl if your profiles are misconfigured.

Note: It may be a good idea to use systemctl --type=service to ensure that no other service is running that may want to configure the network. Multiple networking services will conflict.

Required reading

It is advisable to read the following man pages before using netctl:

Configuration

netctl uses profiles to manage network connections, profile files are stored in /etc/netctl/. Example configuration files are provided for the user to assist them in configuring their network connection. These example profiles are located in /etc/netctl/examples/. The common configurations include:

  • ethernet-dhcp
  • ethernet-static
  • wireless-wpa
  • wireless-wpa-static

To use an example profile, simply copy one of them from /etc/netctl/examples/ to /etc/netctl/ and configure it to your needs:

# cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl/profile
Note: You will most probably need to edit the interface name in the profile. As of v197, udev no longer assigns network interface names according to the wlanX and ethX naming scheme. Please do not assume that your wireless interface is named wlan0, or that your wired interface is named eth0. You can use the command ip link to discover the names of your interfaces.
Tip: For wireless settings, you can use wifi-menu -o to generate the profile file in /etc/netctl/.

Once you have created your profile, make an attempt to establish a connection using the newly created profile by running:

# netctl start profile
Note: profile is the file name, not including the full path. Providing the full path will make netctl exit with an error code.

If issuing the above command results in a failure, then use journalctl -xn and netctl status profile in order to obtain a more in depth explanation of the failure. Make the needed corrections to the failed configuration and retest.

Automatic operation

If you use only one profile (per interface) or want to switch profiles manually, the Basic method will do. Most common examples are servers, workstations, routers etc.

If you need to switch multiple profiles frequently, use Automatic switching of profiles. Most common examples are laptops.

Basic method

With this method, you can statically start only one profile per interface. First manually check that the profile can be started successfully, then it can be enabled using

# netctl enable profile

This will create and enable a systemd service that will start when the computer boots. Changes to the profile file will not propagate to the service file automatically. After such changes, it is necessary to reenable the profile:

# netctl reenable profile
Note: The connection is only established if the profile can be started succesfully at boot time (or when the service starts). That specifically means, in case of wired connection the cable must be plugged-in, in case of wireless connection the network must be in range.
Tip: To enable static IP profile on wired interface no matter if the cable is connected or not, use SkipNoCarrier=yes in your profile.

Automatic switching of profiles

netctl provides two special systemd services for automatic switching of profiles:

  • For wired interfaces: netctl-ifplugd@interface.service. Using this netctl profiles change as you plug the cable in and out.
  • For wireless interfaces: netctl-auto@interface.service. Using this netctl profiles change as you move from range of one network into range of other network.
Note: netcfg used net-auto-wireless.service and net-auto-wired.service for this purpose.

First install required packages:

  • Package wpa_actiond is required to use netctl-auto@interface.service.
  • Package ifplugd is required to use netctl-ifplugd@interface.service.

Now configure all profiles that netctl-auto@interface.service or netctl-ifplugd@interface.service can start.

If you want some wireless profile not to be started automatically by netctl-auto@interface.service, you have to explicitly add ExcludeAuto=yes to that profile. You can use Priority= to set priority of some profile when multiple profiles are available. netctl-ifplugd@interface.service will prefer profiles, which use DHCP. To prefer a profile with a static IP, you can use AutoWired=yes. See netctl.profile(5) for details.

Warning: Automatic selection of a WPA-enabled profile by netctl-auto is not possible with option Security=wpa-config, please use Security=wpa-configsection instead.

Once your profiles are set and verified to be working, simply enable these services using systemctl:

# systemctl enable netctl-auto@interface.service 
# systemctl enable netctl-ifplugd@interface.service  
Warning:
  • If any of the profiles contain errors, such as an empty or misquoted Key= variable, the unit will fail to load with the message "Failed to read or parse configuration '/run/network/wpa_supplicant_wlan0.conf', even when that profile is not being used.
  • This method conflicts with the Basic method. If you have previously enabled a profile through netctl, run netctl disable profile to prevent the profile from starting twice at boot.

Since netctl 1.3, it possible to manually control an interface otherwise managed by netctl-auto without having to stop the netctl-auto service. This is done using the netctl-auto command. To have a list of available actions just run:

 # netctl-auto --help

Migrating from netcfg

netctl uses /etc/netctl/ to store its profiles, not /etc/network.d/ (used by netcfg).

In order to migrate from netcfg, at least the following is needed:

  • Disable the netcfg service: systemctl disable netcfg.service.
  • Uninstall netcfg and install netctl.
  • Move network profile files to the new directory.
  • Rename variables therein according to netctl.profile(5) (Most variable names have only UpperCamelCase i.e CONNECTION becomes Connection).
  • For static IP configuration make sure the Address variables have a netmask after the IP (e.g. Address=('192.168.1.23/24' '192.168.1.87/24') in the example profile).
  • If you setup a wireless profile according in the wireless-wpa-configsection example, note that this overrides wpa_supplicant options defined above the brackets. For a connection to a hidden wireless network, add scan_ssid=1 to the options in the wireless-wpa-configsection; Hidden=yes does not work there.
  • Unquote interface variables and other variables that don't strictly need quoting (this is mainly a style thing).
  • Run netctl enable profile for every profile in the old NETWORKS array. last doesn't work this way, see netctl.special(7).
  • Use netctl list and/or netctl start profile instead of netcfg-menu. wifi-menu remains available.
  • Unlike netcfg, by default netctl fails to bring up a NIC when it is not connected to another powered up NIC. To solve this problem, add SkipNoCarrier=yes at the end of your /etc/netctl/profile.

Passphrase obfuscation (256-bit PSK)

Note: Although "encrypted", the key that you put in the profile configuration is enough to connect to a WPA-PSK network. Therefore this process is only useful for hiding the human-readable version of the passphrase. This will not prevent anyone with read access to this file from connecting to the network. You should ask yourself if there is any use in this at all, since using the same passphrase for anything else is a very poor security measure.

Users not wishing to have the passphrase to their wireless network stored in plain text have the option of storing the corresponding 256-bit pre-shared key (PSK) instead, which is calculated from the passphrase and the SSID using standard algorithms.

  • Method 1: Use wifi-menu -o to generate a config file in /etc/netctl/
  • Method 2: Manual settings as follows.

For both methods it is suggested to chmod 600 /etc/netctl/<config_file> to prevent user access to the password.

Calculate your 256-bit PSK using wpa_passphrase:

$ wpa_passphrase your_essid passphrase
network={
  ssid="your_essid"
  #psk="passphrase"
  psk=64cf3ced850ecef39197bb7b7b301fc39437a6aa6c6a599d0534b16af578e04a
}
Note: This information will be used in your profile, so do not close the terminal.

In a second terminal window, copy the example file wireless-wpa from /etc/netctl/examples to /etc/netctl:

# cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl/wireless-wpa

You will then need to edit /etc/netctl/wireless-wpa using your favorite text editor and add the pre-shared key, that was generated earlier using wpa_passphrase, to the Key variable of this profile.

Once completed your network profile wireless-wpa containing a 256-bit PSK should resemble:

/etc/netctl/wireless-wpa
Description='A simple WPA encrypted wireless connection using 256-bit PSK'
Interface=wlp2s2
Connection=wireless
Security=wpa
IP=dhcp
ESSID=your_essid
Key=\"64cf3ced850ecef39197bb7b7b301fc39437a6aa6c6a599d0534b16af578e04a
Note:
  • Make sure to use the special quoting rules for the Key variable as explained at the end of netctl.profile(5).
  • If the passphrase fails, try removing the \" in the Key variable.

Tips and tricks

Using a GUI

If you want a graphical user interface to manage netctl and your connections, you can install netguiAUR. Note, however, that netgui is still in beta status and you should be familiar with the general netctl syntax to debug possible issues.

Replace 'netcfg current'

If you used netcfg current in the past, you can use # netctl-auto current as a replacement for connections started with netctl-auto (feature since netctl-1.3).

To manually parse the connections, you can also use:

# netctl list | awk '/*/ {print $2}'

Eduroam

Some universities use a system called "Eduroam" to manage their wireless networks. For this system, a WPA config-section profile with the following format is often useful:

/etc/netctl/wlan0-eduroam
Description='Eduroam-profile for <user>'
Interface=wlan0
Connection=wireless
Security=wpa-configsection
IP=dhcp
WPAConfigSection=(
 'ssid="eduroam"'
 'proto=RSN WPA'
 'key_mgmt=WPA-EAP'
 'auth_alg=OPEN'
 'eap=PEAP'
 'identity="<user>"'
 'password="<password>"'
)
Tip: To prevent storing your password as plaintext, you can generate a password hash with $ echo -n <password> | iconv -t utf16le | openssl md4. Then use it as 'password=hash:<hash>'.

For TTLS and certified universities this setup works:

/etc/netctl/wlan0-eduroam
Description='Eduroam university'
Interface=wlan0 
Connection=wireless
Security=wpa-configsection
IP=dhcp
ESSID=eduroam
WPAConfigSection=(
    'ssid="eduroam"'
    'proto=RSN WPA'
    'key_mgmt=WPA-EAP'
    'eap=TTLS'
    'anonymous_identity="anonymous@domain_university"'
    'identity="XXX@domain_university"'
    'password="XXX"'
    'ca_path="/etc/ssl/certs/"'
    'ca_path2="/etc/ssl/certs/"'
    'phase2="auth=PAP"'
)

Bonding

From kernel documentation:

The Linux bonding driver provides a method for aggregating multiple network interfaces into a single logical "bonded" interface. The behavior of the bonded interfaces depends on the mode. Generally speaking, modes provide either hot standby or load balancing services. Additionally, link integrity monitoring may be performed.

Load balancing

To use bonding with netctl, additional package from official repositories is required: ifenslave.

Copy /etc/netctl/examples/bonding to /etc/netctl/bonding and edit it, for example:

/etc/netctl/bonding
Description='Bond Interface'
Interface='bond0'
Connection=bond
BindsToInterfaces=('eth0' 'eth1')
IP=dhcp
IP6=stateless

Now you can disable your old configuration and set bonding to be started automatically. Switch to the new profile, for example:

# netctl switch-to bonding
Note: This uses the round-robin policy, which is the default for the bonding driver. See official documentation for details.
Tip: To check the status and bonding mode:
$ cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0

Wired to wireless failover

This example describes how to use bonding to fallback to wireless when the wired ethernet goes down. It is assumed that dhcpcd service is running for all interfaces as by default.

You'll need additional packages from the official repositories: ifplugd, ifenslave and wpa_supplicant.

First configure the bonding driver to use active-backup:

/etc/modprobe.d/bonding.conf
options bonding mode=active-backup
options bonding miimon=100
options bonding primary=eth0
options bonding max_bonds=0

The max_bonds option avoids the Interface bond0 already exists error. fail_over_mac=active setting may be added if MAC filtering is used.

Next, configure a netctl profile to enslave the two hardware interfaces:

/etc/netctl/failover
Description='A wired connection with failover to wireless'
Interface='bond0'
Connection=bond
BindsToInterfaces=('eth0' 'wlan0')
IP='dhcp'
SkipNoCarrier='no'

Enable the profile on startup.

# netctl enable failover

Configure wpa_supplicant to associate with known networks. This can be done with a netctl profile (remember to use IP='no') and a wpa_supplicant service running constantly, or on-demand with wpa_cli. Ways to do this are covered on the wpa_supplicant page. To run wpa_supplicant constantly create wpa_supplicant config file /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant-wlan0.conf and then run:

# systemctl enable wpa_supplicant@wlan0

Set IP='no' in wired network profile. IP address should be assigned to bond0 interface only.

If you have a wired and wireless connection to the same network, you can probably now disconnect and reconnect the wired connection without losing connectivity. In most cases, even streaming music won't skip!

DHCP timeout issues

If you are having timeout issues when requesting leases via DHCP you can set the timeout value higher than netctl's 30 seconds by default. Create a file in /etc/netctl/hooks/ or /etc/netctl/interfaces/, add TimeoutDHCP=40 to it for a timeout of 40 seconds and make the file executable.

Using any interface

In some cases it may be desirable to allow a profile to use any interface on the system. A common example use case is using a common disk image across many machines with differing hardware (this is especially useful if they are headless). If you use the kernel's naming scheme, and your machine has only one ethernet interface, you can probably guess that eth0 is the right interface. If you use udev's Predictable Network Interface Names, however, names will be assigned based on the specific hardware itself (e.g. enp1s0), rather than simply the order that the hardware was detected (e.g. eth0, eth1). This means that a netctl profile may work on one machine and not another, because they each have different interface names.

A quick and dirty solution is to make use of the /etc/netctl/interfaces/ directory. Choose a name for your interface alias (en-any in this example), and write the following to a file with that name (making sure it is executable).

/etc/netctl/interfaces/en-any
#!/bin/bash
for interface in /sys/class/net/en*; do
        break;
done
Interface=$(basename $interface)
echo "en-any: using interface $Interface";

Then create a profile that uses the interface. Pay special attention to the Interfaces directive. The rest are only provided as examples.

/etc/netctl/wired
Description='Wired'
Interface=en-any
Connection=ethernet
IP=static
Address=('192.168.1.15/24')
Gateway='192.168.1.1'
DNS=('192.168.1.1')

When the wired profile is started, any machine using the two files above will automatically bring up and configure the first ethernet interface found on the system, regardless of what name udev assigned to it. Note that this is not the most robust way to go about configuring interfaces. If you use multiple interfaces, netctl may try to assign the same interface to them, and will likely cause a disruption in connectivity. If you don't mind a more complicated solution, netctl-auto is likely to be more reliable.

See also