netctl (日本語)

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zh-CN:NetctlTemplate:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary end Netctl は netcfg を置き換える新しい Arch のプロジェクトです。Netctl は Arch Linux の CLI ベースのネットワーク管理の将来(そして現在)です。


netctl パッケージが公式リポジトリから利用できます。netctl をインストールすると netcfg が置き換えられます。


質の高い man ページを作成するために相当な尽力がなされました。netctl を使う前にユーザーは以下の man ページを読んで下さい:

netctlnetcfg は衝突するパッケージです。プロファイルを間違って設定していると、netctl をインストールした後、接続がなくなってしまいます。


netctl をネットワークプロファイルマネージャのための systemd のサービスの状態を確認・操作するために使うことができます。ネットワーク接続を設定するのをアシストするために設定サンプルファイルが提供されています。これらのサンプルプロファイルは /etc/netctl/examples/ にあります。一般的な設定として以下が含まれています:

  • ethernet-dhcp
  • ethernet-static
  • wireless-wpa
  • wireless-wpa-static

サンプルプロファイルを使うには、プロファイルのどれかを /etc/netctl/examples/ から /etc/netctl/ にコピーしてあなたの設定にあわせてプロファイルを修正して下さい:

# cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl/


# netctl start <profile>

上のコマンドが失敗する場合、journalctl -xnnetctl status <profile> を使って失敗の詳細情報を取得して下さい。そして設定を修正してから再テストして下さい。

Automatic Operation

Just One Profile

If you are using only one profile, once that profile is started successfully, it can be enabled using

# netctl enable <profile> 

This will create and enable a systemd service that will start when the computer boots.

Multiple Profiles

Whereas with netcfg there was net-auto-wireless.service and net-auto-wired.service, netctl uses netctl-auto@<interface>.service for wireless profiles, and netctl-ifplugd@<interface>.service for wired profiles. In order to make the netctl-auto@<interface>.service work for wireless interfaces, the package wpa_actiond is required to be installed. In order to make the netctl-ifplugd@<interface>.service work for wired interfaces, the package ifplugd is required to be installed. Configure /etc/ifplugd/ifplugd.conf accordingly.

Once your profiles are set and verified to be working, simply enable these services with

# systemctl enable netctl-auto@<interface>.service 
# systemctl enable netctl-ifplugd@<interface>.service  

If you have previously enabled a profile through netctl, run

# netctl disable <profile> 

to prevent the profile from starting twice at boot, and possibly causing issues with wpa_supplicant.

Note: If there is ever a need to alter a currently enabled profile, execute netctl reenable <profile> to apply the changes.

Migrating from netcfg

Warning: netctl conflicts with netcfg so disable existing netcfg@<profile> service before installing netctl.

netctl uses /etc/netctl to store its profiles, not /etc/network.d (netcfg's profile storage location).

In order to migrate from netcfg, at least the following is needed:

  • Move network profile files to the new directory.
  • Rename variables therein according to netctl.profile(5) (Most variable names have only UpperCamelCase i.e CONNECTION= becomes Connection=).
  • For static IP configuration make sure the Address= variables have a netmask after the IP (e.g. Address=('' '') in the example profile).
  • If you setup a wireless profile according in the wireless-wpa-configsection example, note that this overrides wpa_supplicant options defined above the brackets. For a connection to a hidden wireless network, add scan_ssid=1 to the options in the wireless-wpa-configsection; Hidden=yes does not work there.
  • Unquote interface variables and other variables that don't strictly need quoting (this is mainly a style thing).
  • Run netctl enable <profile> for every profile in the old NETWORKS array. 'last' doesn't work this way, see netctl.special(7).
  • Use netctl list / netctl start <profile> instead of netcfg-menu. wifi-menu remains available.

Password encryption (256-bit PSK)

Users not wishing to have their passwords stored in plain text have the option of generating a 256-bit Encrypted PSK.

If you have not done so already, install wpa_actiond from the Official Repositories.

Next, generate your 256-bit Encrypted PSK using wpa_passphrase:

Usage: wpa_passphrase [ssid] [passphrase]
$ wpa_passphrase archlinux freenode

In a second terminal window copy the example file wireless-wpa from /etc/netctl/examples to /etc/netctl.

# cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl/wireless-wpa

You will then need to edit /etc/netctl/wireless-wpa using your favorite text editor and add the Encrypted Pre-shared Key that was generated earlier using wpa_passphrase, to the Key variable of this profile.

Once completed your network profile wireless-wpa containing a 256-bit Encrypted PSK should resemble:

Description='A simple WPA encrypted wireless connection using 256-bit Encrypted PSK'
Note: Make sure to use the special non-quoted rules for Key= that are explained at the end of netctl.profile(5).



Tips and Tricks

2013年4月現在、netcfg current のかわりになるコマンドは netctl にありません。タイル型ウィンドウマネージャのステータスバーなどでこのコマンドを使っている場合は、次のコマンドで代用できます:

# netctl list | sed -n 's/^\* //p'

もしくは、netctl-auto を使って接続している場合:

# wpa_cli -i <interface> status | sed -n 's/^id_str=//p'