Difference between revisions of "Netctl (简体中文)"

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{{Lowercase title}}
 
{{Lowercase title}}
[[Category:Networking]]
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[[Category:Networking (简体中文)]]
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[[en:Netctl]]
 
[[fr:Netctl]]
 
[[fr:Netctl]]
[[zh-CN:Netctl]]
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[[es:Netctl]]
 
{{Article summary start}}
 
{{Article summary start}}
 
{{Article summary text|用netctl和网络配置脚本设置网络的指南。}}
 
{{Article summary text|用netctl和网络配置脚本设置网络的指南。}}
 
{{Article summary end}}
 
{{Article summary end}}
 +
{{TranslationStatus (简体中文)|Netctl|2013-04-11|253699}}
 
Netctl 是 Arch Linux 中基于命令行的网络管理器,它是 Arch 的新项目,会替换掉 [[netcfg]]
 
Netctl 是 Arch Linux 中基于命令行的网络管理器,它是 Arch 的新项目,会替换掉 [[netcfg]]
  
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*netctl.special
 
*netctl.special
  
==Configuration==
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==配置==
  
{{ic|netctl}} may be used to introspect and control the state of the systemd services for the network profile manager. Example configuration files are provided for the user to assist them in configuring their network connection. These example profiles are located in {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples/}}. The common configurations include:
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{{ic|netctl}} 可以用来检查和控制 systemd 网络配置管理服务的状态。软件提供了一些配置文件的示例以供参考。这些示例位于{{ic|/etc/netctl/examples/}},包括:
 
*ethernet-dhcp
 
*ethernet-dhcp
 
*ethernet-static
 
*ethernet-static
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*wireless-wpa-static
 
*wireless-wpa-static
  
To use an example profile, simply copy one of them from {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples/<profile>}} to {{ic|/etc/netctl/<profile>}} and configure it to your needs:
+
要使用示例配置,将他们从{{ic|/etc/netctl/examples/<profile>}}复制到{{ic|/etc/netctl/<profile>}}然后进行修改:
 
  # cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl/my-wireless-wpa
 
  # cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl/my-wireless-wpa
  
Once you have created your profile, make an attempt to establish a connection using the newly created profile by running:
+
创建完配置后,通过如下方法建立连接:
 
  # netctl start <profile>
 
  # netctl start <profile>
  
If issuing the above command results in a failure, then use {{ic|journalctl -xn}} and {{ic|netctl status <profile>}} in order to obtain a more in depth explanation of the failure. Make the needed corrections to the failed configuration and retest.
+
如果命令出错,可以使用 {{ic|journalctl -xn}} {{ic|netctl status <profile>}} 检查出错原因。修正重新设置。
  
Once the profile is started successfully then it can be {{ic|enabled}} using {{ic|netctl enable <profile>}}. This will create the proper symlink for the profile to be used by {{ic|netctl-auto@.service}}.
+
配置成功启动后,可以用 {{ic|netctl enable <profile>}} 启用. 此命令会建立正确的软链接供{{ic|netctl-auto@.service}}使用。
  
{{Note|The systemd service {{ic|netctl-auto@<interface>.service}} will need to be enabled in order to allow automatic wireless connection at boot to become functional.}}
+
{{注意|需要启用{{ic|netctl-auto@<interface>.service}}才能在系统启动时自动配置无线连接。}}
  
{{Note|If there is ever a need to alter a currently enabled profile. execute {{ic|netctl reenable <profile>}} to apply the changes.}}
+
如果需要修改当前启用的配置,请执行
 +
# netctl reenable <profile>
  
===Migrating from netcfg===
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===netcfg 迁移的方法===
  
{{ic|netctl}} uses {{ic|/etc/netctl}} to store its profiles, ''not'' {{ic|/etc/network.d}} ({{ic|netcfg}}'s profile storage location).
+
{{ic|netctl}} 使用 {{ic|/etc/netctl}} 保存配置,而'''不是''' {{ic|/etc/network.d}} ({{ic|netcfg}}保存配置的位置).
  
In order to migrate from netcfg, at least the following is needed:
+
netcfg 迁移,请执行:
*Move network profile files to the new directory.
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*将老的网络配置移动到新目录
*Rename variables therein according to netctl.profile(5) (most have only become CamelCase i.e CONNECTION= becomes Connection=).
+
*根据 netctl.profile(5) 修改变量名称(主要是大小写变化,例如 CONNECTION= 变成 Connection=).
*Unquote interface variables and other variables that don't strictly need quoting (this is mainly a style thing).
+
*接口变量和其他变量不再需要引号(这仅仅是风格变化).
*Run {{ic|netctl enable <profile>}} for every profile in the old NETWORKS array. 'last' doesn't work this way, see netctl.special(7).
+
*为每一个配置执行{{ic|netctl enable <profile>}} 'last' 工作方式有变化,参阅 netctl.special(7).
*Use {{ic|netctl list}} / {{ic|netctl start <profile>}} instead of netcfg-menu. wifi-menu remains available.
+
*使用 {{ic|netctl list}} / {{ic|netctl start <profile>}} 替换 netcfg-menu. wifi-menu 依然保留。
  
===Password encryption (256-bit PSK)===
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===密码加密(256-bit PSK)===
  
Users ''not'' wishing to have their passwords stored in ''plain text'' have the option of generating a 256-bit Encrypted PSK.
+
不想'''用明文保存密码'''的用户可以使用 256 位加密 PSK.
  
If you have not done so already, install {{pkg|wpa_actiond}} from the [[Official Repositories#&#91;core&#93;|&#91;core&#93;]] repository using [[pacman]]
+
先用[[Pacman|pacman]] 安装[[Official Repositories#&#91;core&#93;|&#91;core&#93;]]软件仓库中的{{pkg|wpa_actiond}}。
  # pacman -S wpa_actiond
+
  
Next, generate your 256-bit Encrypted PSK using [[WPA_supplicant#Configuration_file|wpa_passphrase]]:
+
然后用[[WPA_supplicant#Configuration_file|wpa_passphrase]]生成256位加密 PSK:
 
{{hc|Usage: wpa_passphrase [ssid] [passphrase]|
 
{{hc|Usage: wpa_passphrase [ssid] [passphrase]|
 
2=$ wpa_passphrase archlinux freenode|
 
2=$ wpa_passphrase archlinux freenode|
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   psk=64cf3ced850ecef39197bb7b7b301fc39437a6aa6c6a599d0534b16af578e04a
 
   psk=64cf3ced850ecef39197bb7b7b301fc39437a6aa6c6a599d0534b16af578e04a
 
}
 
}
{{Note|This information will be used in your profile so do not close the terminal}}
 
 
}}
 
}}
 +
{{注意|这些信息会在配置中使用,请不要关闭终端。}}
  
In a second terminal window copy the example file {{ic|wireless-wpa}} from {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples}} to {{ic|/etc/netctl}}.
+
在第二个终端将{{ic|/etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa}} 复制到 {{ic|/etc/netctl}}
 
  # cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl/wireless-wpa
 
  # cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl/wireless-wpa
  
You will then need to edit {{ic|/etc/netctl/wireless-wpa}} using your favorite text editor and add the ''Encrypted Pre-shared Key'' that was generated earlier using wpa_passphrase, to the {{ic|'''Key'''}} variable of this profile.
+
编辑{{ic|/etc/netctl/wireless-wpa}},将之前生成的''Encrypted Pre-shared Key''设置到{{ic|'''Key'''}}
  
Once completed your network profile {{ic|wireless-wpa}} containing a 256-bit Encrypted PSK should resemble:
+
完成后的{{ic|wireless-wpa}}应该类似于:
 
{{hc|/etc/netctl/wireless-wpa|2=
 
{{hc|/etc/netctl/wireless-wpa|2=
 
Description='A simple WPA encrypted wireless connection using 256-bit Encrypted PSK'
 
Description='A simple WPA encrypted wireless connection using 256-bit Encrypted PSK'
Line 83: Line 85:
 
Key=\"64cf3ced850ecef39197bb7b7b301fc39437a6aa6c6a599d0534b16af578e04a
 
Key=\"64cf3ced850ecef39197bb7b7b301fc39437a6aa6c6a599d0534b16af578e04a
 
}}
 
}}
{{Note|1=Make sure to use the '''special non-quoted rules''' for Key= that are explained at the end of [https://github.com/joukewitteveen/netctl/blob/master/docs/netctl.profile.5.txt netctl.profile(5)]}}
+
{{注意|1=请使用'''special non-quoted rules''' 设置 Key=,参阅 [https://github.com/joukewitteveen/netctl/blob/master/docs/netctl.profile.5.txt netctl.profile(5)]}}
  
==Support==
+
==支持==
Official announcement thread: https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=157670
+
官方通知帖: https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=157670
  
==Tips and Tricks==
+
==提示和技巧==
As of April 2013 there is no netctl alternative to 'netcfg current'. If you relied on it for something, like a status bar for a tiling window manager, you can now use:
+
目前还没有功能能够替换 'netcfg current'. 如果需要,请使用:
 
  netctl list|grep \*|sed 's/\*//'|sed 's/\ //'
 
  netctl list|grep \*|sed 's/\*//'|sed 's/\ //'

Revision as of 23:54, 12 April 2013

Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary end

翻译状态: 本文是英文页面 Netctl翻译,最后翻译时间:2013-04-11,点击这里可以查看翻译后英文页面的改动。

Netctl 是 Arch Linux 中基于命令行的网络管理器,它是 Arch 的新项目,会替换掉 netcfg

安装

netctl 软件包已经进入[core]. 安装 netctl 会替换掉无人维护的netcfg

建议阅读

开发者为了完善 man 文档投入了大量的精力,建议用户使用前阅读如下文档:

  • netctl
  • netctl.profile
  • netctl.special

配置

netctl 可以用来检查和控制 systemd 网络配置管理服务的状态。软件提供了一些配置文件的示例以供参考。这些示例位于/etc/netctl/examples/,包括:

  • ethernet-dhcp
  • ethernet-static
  • wireless-wpa
  • wireless-wpa-static

要使用示例配置,将他们从/etc/netctl/examples/<profile>复制到/etc/netctl/<profile>然后进行修改:

# cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl/my-wireless-wpa

创建完配置后,通过如下方法建立连接:

# netctl start <profile>

如果命令出错,可以使用 journalctl -xnnetctl status <profile> 检查出错原因。修正重新设置。

配置成功启动后,可以用 netctl enable <profile> 启用. 此命令会建立正确的软链接供netctl-auto@.service使用。

注意: 需要启用netctl-auto@<interface>.service才能在系统启动时自动配置无线连接。

如果需要修改当前启用的配置,请执行

# netctl reenable <profile>

从 netcfg 迁移的方法

netctl 使用 /etc/netctl 保存配置,而不是 /etc/network.d (netcfg保存配置的位置).

从 netcfg 迁移,请执行:

  • 将老的网络配置移动到新目录
  • 根据 netctl.profile(5) 修改变量名称(主要是大小写变化,例如 CONNECTION= 变成 Connection=).
  • 接口变量和其他变量不再需要引号(这仅仅是风格变化).
  • 为每一个配置执行netctl enable <profile> 'last' 工作方式有变化,参阅 netctl.special(7).
  • 使用 netctl list / netctl start <profile> 替换 netcfg-menu. wifi-menu 依然保留。

密码加密(256-bit PSK)

不想用明文保存密码的用户可以使用 256 位加密 PSK.

先用pacman 安装[core]软件仓库中的wpa_actiond

然后用wpa_passphrase生成256位加密 PSK:

Usage: wpa_passphrase [ssid] [passphrase]
$ wpa_passphrase archlinux freenode
注意: 这些信息会在配置中使用,请不要关闭终端。

在第二个终端将/etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa 复制到 /etc/netctl

# cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl/wireless-wpa

编辑/etc/netctl/wireless-wpa,将之前生成的Encrypted Pre-shared Key设置到Key

完成后的wireless-wpa应该类似于:

/etc/netctl/wireless-wpa
Description='A simple WPA encrypted wireless connection using 256-bit Encrypted PSK'
Interface=wlp2s2
Connection=wireless
Security=wpa
IP=dhcp
ESSID=archlinux
Key=\"64cf3ced850ecef39197bb7b7b301fc39437a6aa6c6a599d0534b16af578e04a
注意: 请使用special non-quoted rules 设置 Key=,参阅 netctl.profile(5)

支持

官方通知帖: https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=157670

提示和技巧

目前还没有功能能够替换 'netcfg current'. 如果需要,请使用:

netctl list|grep \*|sed 's/\*//'|sed 's/\ //'