netctl (简体中文)

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Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary end Netctl 是 Arch Linux 中基于命令行的网络管理器,它是 Arch 的新项目,会替换掉 netcfg

安装

netctl 软件包已经进入[core]. 安装 netctl 会替换掉无人维护的netcfg

建议阅读

开发者为了完善 man 文档投入了大量的精力,建议用户使用前阅读如下文档:

  • netctl
  • netctl.profile
  • netctl.special

Configuration

netctl may be used to introspect and control the state of the systemd services for the network profile manager. Example configuration files are provided for the user to assist them in configuring their network connection. These example profiles are located in /etc/netctl/examples/. The common configurations include:

  • ethernet-dhcp
  • ethernet-static
  • wireless-wpa
  • wireless-wpa-static

To use an example profile, simply copy one of them from /etc/netctl/examples/<profile> to /etc/netctl/<profile> and configure it to your needs:

# cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl/my-wireless-wpa

Once you have created your profile, make an attempt to establish a connection using the newly created profile by running:

# netctl start <profile>

If issuing the above command results in a failure, then use journalctl -xn and netctl status <profile> in order to obtain a more in depth explanation of the failure. Make the needed corrections to the failed configuration and retest.

Once the profile is started successfully then it can be enabled using netctl enable <profile>. This will create the proper symlink for the profile to be used by netctl-auto@.service.

Note: The systemd service netctl-auto@<interface>.service will need to be enabled in order to allow automatic wireless connection at boot to become functional.
Note: If there is ever a need to alter a currently enabled profile. execute netctl reenable <profile> to apply the changes.

Migrating from netcfg

netctl uses /etc/netctl to store its profiles, not /etc/network.d (netcfg's profile storage location).

In order to migrate from netcfg, at least the following is needed:

  • Move network profile files to the new directory.
  • Rename variables therein according to netctl.profile(5) (most have only become CamelCase i.e CONNECTION= becomes Connection=).
  • Unquote interface variables and other variables that don't strictly need quoting (this is mainly a style thing).
  • Run netctl enable <profile> for every profile in the old NETWORKS array. 'last' doesn't work this way, see netctl.special(7).
  • Use netctl list / netctl start <profile> instead of netcfg-menu. wifi-menu remains available.

Password encryption (256-bit PSK)

Users not wishing to have their passwords stored in plain text have the option of generating a 256-bit Encrypted PSK.

If you have not done so already, install wpa_actiond from the [core] repository using pacman

 # pacman -S wpa_actiond

Next, generate your 256-bit Encrypted PSK using wpa_passphrase:

Usage: wpa_passphrase [ssid] [passphrase]
$ wpa_passphrase archlinux freenode

In a second terminal window copy the example file wireless-wpa from /etc/netctl/examples to /etc/netctl.

# cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl/wireless-wpa

You will then need to edit /etc/netctl/wireless-wpa using your favorite text editor and add the Encrypted Pre-shared Key that was generated earlier using wpa_passphrase, to the Key variable of this profile.

Once completed your network profile wireless-wpa containing a 256-bit Encrypted PSK should resemble:

/etc/netctl/wireless-wpa
Description='A simple WPA encrypted wireless connection using 256-bit Encrypted PSK'
Interface=wlp2s2
Connection=wireless
Security=wpa
IP=dhcp
ESSID=archlinux
Key=\"64cf3ced850ecef39197bb7b7b301fc39437a6aa6c6a599d0534b16af578e04a
Note: Make sure to use the special non-quoted rules for Key= that are explained at the end of netctl.profile(5)

Support

Official announcement thread: https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=157670

Tips and Tricks

As of April 2013 there is no netctl alternative to 'netcfg current'. If you relied on it for something, like a status bar for a tiling window manager, you can now use:

netctl list|grep \*|sed 's/\*//'|sed 's/\ //'