NetworkManager (Česky)

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NetworkManager je program pro poskytování detekce a konfigureace pro systém k automatickému připojení k síti. Funkcionalit NetworkManageru může být použitelná jak pro bezdrátové tak i pro drátové sítě. Pro bezdrátové sítě, NetworkManager upřednostňuje známé bezdrátové sítě a má schopnost vhodně přepínat do nejhodnověrnějších sítí. NetworkManager-vnímající aplikace mohou přepínat mezi online a offline módem. NetworkManager also prefers wired connections over wireless ones, má podporu pro modemová připojení a určitých druhů VPN. NetworkManager byl původně vyvynut společností RedHat a nyní je hostován projektem GNOME.

Základní instalace

NetworkManager je dostupný z oficiálních repozitářů:

# pacman -S networkmanager

Grafická nástavba

Ke konfiguraci a snadnému přístupu k NetworkManageru bude mnoho lidí chtít nainstalovat miniaplikaci. Tato GUI nástavba se obvykle usadí v system tray (nebo oznamovací oblasti) a dovolí výběr sítě a nastavení NetworkManageru. Různé miniaplikace existují pro rozdílné druhy desktopů.

GNOME

GNOME miniaplikace (dříve gnome-network-manager) je dostatečně odlehčené a pracuje přes všechna prostředí:

# pacman -S network-manager-applet

Jestliže chcete uchovávat autentizační detaily (Wireless/DSL) a zapnout globální nastavení připojení, např "dostupnost pro všechny uživatele":

# pacman -S gnome-keyring

KDE4

KNetworkManager nadstavba je dostupná v KDE verzy 4.4 jako plasma widget:

# pacman -S kdeplasma-applets-networkmanagement

GNOME protějšek pracuje stejně pěkně nebo dokonce lépe (má více prvků a detekuje víc hardweru).

Template:Poznámka

KDE3

Ačkoliv již není podporován, Template:Package AUR je dostupný z AUR. Název balíčku:

knetworkmanager

Openbox

GNOME miniaplikace pracuje dobře s xfce4-notifyd notification daemon:

# pacman -S network-manager-applet xfce4-notifyd hicolor-icon-theme gnome-icon-theme

Jestliže chcete uchovávat autentikační detaily (Wireless/DSL):

# pacman -S gnome-keyring

K vyhnutí se nm-applet dbus chybám, upravte ~/.xinitrc a změňte "exec openbox-session" na "exec ck-launch-session openbox-session".

Aby Openboxový autostart.sh nastartoval nm-applet dobře, bude možná potřeba smazat soubor /etc/xdg/autostart/nm-applet.desktop (Je možné, že bude potřeba mazat tento soubor po každé změně v network-manager-apletu)

Potom v autostart.sh, nastartuje nm-applet tímto řádkem:

(sleep 3 && /usr/bin/nm-applet --sm-disable) &

Ostatní desktopy a Okenní manažery

Je doporučeno používat GNOME miniaplikaci. Také je potřeba zajistit, že GNOME hicolor theme je nainstalováno, kvůli zobrazení této miniaplikace:

# pacman -S hicolor-icon-theme gnome-icon-theme

Příkazový řádek

Balíček Networkmanager od verze 0.8.1 obsahuje nmcli

Nastavení

NetworkManager vyžaduje pár dodatečných kroků, aby mohl pracovat korektně.

Ověřte, že váš Template:Filename je správný, před tím než budete pokračovat. Jestliže jste se předčasně pokoušeli připojit před následujícím krokem, NetworkManager to může oznámit. Příklad hostname řádku v Template:Filename:

#<ip-address> <hostname.domain.org>           <hostname>                        
127.0.0.1     localhost.localdomain localhost dell-latitude

Vypnutí současného síťového nastavení

Kvůli správnému otestování NetworkManageru, budete chtít vypnout své současné síťové nastavení. Zaprvé (Při použítí Arch Linux síťových skriptů) zastavte sítě:

/etc/rc.d/network stop

Ukončete vaše NIC's (Network Interface Controllers, tj. síťové karty). Například:

ifconfig eth0  down
ifconfig wlan0 down

Upravte Template:Filename a kde je definováno DHCP nebo statická IP adresa, okomentujte:

#eth0="dhcp"                                                                    
#wlan0="dhcp"                                                                   
INTERFACES=(!eth0 !wlan0)

Úprava démonů

Musíte odstranit základního network démona a přidat networkmanager démona, za dbus démona:

DAEMONS=( ...dbus networkmanager... )

Ujistěte se, že balíček Template:Package Official je nainstalován tak jak to NetworkManager vyžaduje. Ke nastartování ostatních služeb (démonů) které vyžaduje síťové připojení si ukážeme v následující sekcí na jejich nastavení. Ačkoliv je zde NetworkManager démon nastartován, nepřipojí se (v základu) do sítě dokud není miniaplikace nahraná a specifikace miniapletu potřebné k připojení. To znamená, že síťové služby je potřeba specifikovat NetworkManageru až když běží.

Síťové služby s NetworkManager Dispatcher

Je zde pár síťových služeb, které nebudou chtít běžet na rozhraní spuštěném NetworkManagerem. Dobrým příkladem jsou openntpd a síťová souborová připojení různých typů (například netfs). NetworkManager má schopnost spustit tyto služby když se připojujete k síti (interface up), a zastavit je když už nejsou potřeba (interface down).

Pro použítí těchto pruvku může být přidán skript do adresáře Template:Filename. Tyto skripty potřebují mít uživatelské právo ke spuštění. Kvůli bezpečnosti je dobrým zvykem udělat jejich vlastníkem uživatele root:root a příznak zápisu jen pro vlastníka.

Warning: Z bezpečnostních důvodů byste měli vypnout právo zápisu pro skupiny a ostatní. Například použít masku 755. Jinak Dispatcher může odmítnout vykonat skrip s chybovou zprávou "nm-dispatcher.action: Script could not be executed: writable by group or other, or set-UID." in /var/log/messages.log

Skripty budou spouštěny v abecedním pořadí v čase připojení (s argumenty interface up), a v obráceném abecedním pořadí v čase odpojení (interface down). Pro zajištění správného pořadí, je běžné použití číslic před jménem skriptu (například Template:Filename nebo Template:Filename (který zajišťuje že portmapper je spuštěn před pokusem o přimountování NFS).

Následují skript nastartuje démona openntpd když je rozhraní spouštěno. Uložte soubor jako Template:Filename a udělte mu práva ke spuštění.

#!/bin/sh

INTERFACE=$1 # The interface which is brought up or down
STATUS=$2 # The new state of the interface

case "$STATUS" in
    'up') # $INTERFACE is up
	exec /etc/rc.d/openntpd start
	;;
    'down') # $INTERFACE is down
	# Check for active interface and down if no one active
	if [ ! `nm-tool|grep State|cut -f2 -d' '` == "connected" ]; then
		exec /etc/rc.d/openntpd stop
	fi
	;;
esac
Warning: if you connect to foreign or public networks, be aware of what services you are starting and what servers you expect to be available for them to connect to. You could make a security hole by starting the wrong services while connected to a public network.

Use dispatcher to connect to a vpn after a network-connection is established

In this example we want to connect automatically to a vpn-connection we defined previously with NetworkManager. First thing to to is to create the dispatcher-script that defines what to do after we connected to the network.

1. Create the dispatcher script in Template:Filename

case "$2" in
       up)
               sudo -u username DISPLAY=:0 /usr/bin/python /etc/NetworkManager/vpn-up.py
               ;;
esac

Remember to make it executable with chmod +x and change username to the right one.

2. Create the Template:Filename and change network-ESSID to the desired one. You'll find the code here.

Now NetworkManager should try to connect to your vpn which you had defined in your profile.

Proxy settings

Network Manager does not directly handle proxy settings, but if you are using GNOME, you could use proxydriver wich handles proxy settings using Network Manager's informations. Package Template:Package AUR is in the AUR.

In order for proxydriver to be able to change the proxy settings, you would need to execute this command, as part of the GNOME startup process ( System->Preferences->Startup Applications):

xhost +si:localuser:your_username

See: Proxy settings

Testing

NetworkManager applets are designed to load upon login so no further configuration should be necessary for most users. If you have already disabled your previous network settings and disconnected from your network, you can now test if NetworkManager will work. First start the daemon:

/etc/rc.d/networkmanager start

Some applets will provide you with a .desktop file so that the NetworkManager applet can be loaded through the application menu. If it doesn't, you're going to either have to discover the command to use or logout and login again to start the applet. Once the applet is started, it will likely begin polling network connections with for auto-configuration with a DHCP server.

To start the GNOME applet in non-xdg-compliant Window Managers like Awesome:

nm-applet --sm-disable &

For static IPs you will have to configure NetworkManager to understand them. The process usually involves right-clicking the applet and selecting something like 'Edit Connections'.

Troubleshooting

Some fixes to common problems.

Permission problems

Make sure consolekit is installed and use

exec ck-launch-session wm

instead of

exec wm

in Template:Filename. Most Display Managers will take care of consolekit automatically, but if you use SLiM, follow SLiM#PolicyKit.

Network Management Disabled

Sometimes when NM shuts down the pid (state) file does not get removed and you will get a 'Network management disabled' message. If this happens, you'l have to remove it manually:

rm /var/lib/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.state

If this happens upon reboot, you can add an action to your Template:Filename to have it removed upon bootup:

nmpid=/var/lib/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.state
[ -f $nmpid ] && rm $nmpid

NetworkManager prevents DHCPCD from using resolv.conf.head and resolv.conf.tail

Sometimes it's problematic to add static items to resolv.conf when it's constantly rewritten by nm and dhcpcd. You can use networkmanager-dhclient package from AUR but a better solution is to use this simple script:

#!/bin/bash
# 
# /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/99-resolv.conf-head_and_tail
# Include /etc/resolv.conf.head and /etc/resolv.conf.tail to /etc/resolv.conf
#
# scripts in the /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/ directory
# are called alphabetically and are passed two parameters:
# $1 is the interface name, and $2 is “up” or “down” as the
# case may be.

resolvconf='/etc/resolv.conf';
cat "$resolvconf"{.head,,.tail} 2>/dev/null > "$resolvconf".tmp
mv -f "$resolvconf".tmp "$resolvconf"

Preserving changes to resolv.conf

NetworkManager will attempt to write DNS information from DHCP into /etc/resolv.conf, overwriting the existing contents. To prevent this, you can set the immutable bit on the file (as root):

# chattr +i /etc/resolv.conf

To modify the file in the future, first remove the immutable bit:

# chattr -i /etc/resolv.conf

DHCP problems

If you have problems with getting an IP via DHCP try to add the following to your Template:Filename:

 interface "eth0" {
   send dhcp-client-identifier 01:aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff;
 }

Where Template:Codeline is the MAC-adress of this NIC.

How to bypass Gnome keyring for normal users connecting with wireless

It's super simple! First, create a group called networkmanager with the following command (or any other method you prefer):

# groupadd networkmanager

Then add your user to that group using the following command (or any other preferred method):

# gpasswd -a username networkmanager

Replace username in the above command with your actual username.

Now, as root, launch nm-connection-editor and configure the connections:

# nm-connection-editor

Put a check mark next to "Available to all users" and apply the settings.

Now you won't be bothered by Gnome keyring! (citation needed) Also, if you additionally enable "connect automatically", your connection will be available and connected before you even log in to your desktop, making your whole startup process even faster!

Missing default route

On at least one KDE4 system, no default route was created when establishing wireless connections with NetworkManager. Changing the route settings of the wireless connection to remove the default selection "Use only for resources on this connection" solved the issue.

3G modem not detected

If NetworkManager (from v0.7.999) does not detect your 3G modem, but you still can connect using wvdial, try installing modemmanager package using Template:Codeline and restart NetworkManager daemon with Template:Codeline. Replug your modem or restart. This utility provides support for hardware not in networkmanager's default database.

VPN problems in Networkmanager 0.7.999

If you get the error message "invalid secrets" when trying to connect to your VPN provider using the PPTP protocol, try installing the git versions instead: networkmanager, nm-applet and the pptp plugin.

Switching off WLAN on laptops

Sometimes networkmanager won't work when you disable your Wifi-adapter with a switch on your laptop and try to enable it again afterwards. This is often a problem with rfkill. Install rfkill from the repo:

# pacman -S rfkill

and use

$ watch -n1 rfkill list all

to check if the driver notifies rfkill about the wireless adapter's status. If one identifier stays blocked after you switch on the adapter you could try to manually unblock it with (where X is the number of the identifier provided by the above output):

# rfkill event unblock X

Static IP Settings Revert To DHCP

Due to an unresolved bug, when changing default connections to static IP, nm-applet may not properly store the configuration change, and will revert to automatic DHCP. A workaround for this issue follows.

Edit the default connection (eg "Auto eth0") in nm-applet. Change the connection name (eg "my eth0"), uncheck the "Available to all users" checkbox, change your static IP settings as desired, and click Apply. This will save a new connection with the given name.

Next, you will want to make the default connection not connect automatically. To do so, run

$ sudo nm-connection-editor  # you must use sudo, not su

In the connection editor, edit the default connection (eg "Auto eth0") and uncheck "Connect automatically". Click Apply and close the connection editor.

Tips and tricks

Checking if networking is up inside a cron job or script

Some cron jobs require networking to be up to succeed. You may wish to avoid running these jobs when the network is down. To accomplish this, add an if test for networking that queries NetworkManager's nm-tool and checks the state of networking. The test shown here succeeds if any interface is up, and fails if they are all down. This is convenient for laptops that might be hardwired, might be on wireless, or might be off the network.

if [ `nm-tool|grep State|cut -f2 -d' '` == "connected" ]; then
       #Whatever you want to do if the network is online
else
       #Whatever you want to do if the network is offline - note, this and the else above are optional
fi

This useful for a cron.hourly script that runs fpupdate for the F-Prot virus scanner signature update, as an example. Another way it might be useful, with a little modification, is to differentiate between networks using various parts of the output from nm-tool; for example, since the active wireless network is denoted with an asterisk, you could grep for the network name and then grep for a literal asterisk.

Automatically unlock keyring after login

Gnome

  1. Right click on the NM icon in your panel and select Edit Connections and open the Wireless tab
  2. Select the connection you want to work with and click the Edit button
  3. Check the boxes “Connect Automatically” and “Available to all users”

Log out and log back in to complete.

Note: The following method is dated and known not to work on at least one machine!

*In Template:Filename (or your corresponding daemon in /etc/pam.d), add these lines at the end of the "auth" and "session" blocks if they do not exist already:

 auth            optional        pam_gnome_keyring.so
 session         optional        pam_gnome_keyring.so  auto_start
 password    optional    pam_gnome_keyring.so
Next time you log in, you should be asked if you want the password to be unlocked automatically on login.

KDE

Note: See http://live.gnome.org/GnomeKeyring/Pam for reference, and if you are using kde / kdm, you can use pam-keyring-tool from the AUR.
  • Put a script like the following in ~/.kde4/Autostart:
 $!/bin/sh
 echo PASSWORD | /usr/bin/pam-keyring-tool --unlock --keyring=default -s
Similar should work with openbox, lxde, etc.

Automatically connect on boot

Since version 0.7 the NetworkManager is able to connect on boot, before a user has logged in and unlocked the keyring.

  • First make sure that the keyfile plugin is loaded; Template:Filename should look like this:
 [main]
 plugins=keyfile
  • If this was not in the file before, you have to restart nm-system-settings:
 # killall -TERM nm-system-settings
or simply reboot.
  • Now grant your user the right to modify system-connections:

With polkit:

Place the following in /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/10-org-freedesktop-network-manager-settings.pkla

[Allow user YOURUSERNAME to create wireless connections for all users]
Identity=unix-user:YOURUSERNAME
Action=org.freedesktop.network-manager-settings.system.modify
ResultAny=no
ResultInactive=no
ResultActive=yes
Finally, in the connection-editor (of the gnome applet), check the Available to all users box.

The connection is now saved in /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/"CONNECTION NAME". On reboot, NetworkManager will try to connect to it, when in range.

Note: As per this bug report, knetworkmanager does not yet implement this feature. You will need to use the GNOME network applet (nm-applet). Install it as described above in this page, "killall knetworkmanager", then start nm-applet.
Please vote for the bug!

Ignore specific devices

Sometimes it is desired, that network manager ignores some devices and do not try to get an IP.

  • First you have to find out the Hal UDI (e.g. with lshal):
 ...
 info.product = 'Networking Interface'  (string)
 info.subsystem = 'net'  (string)
 info.udi = '/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/net_00_1f_11_01_06_55'  (string)
 linux.hotplug_type = 2  (0x2)  (int)
 linux.subsystem = 'net'  (string)
 ...
  • Add the udi to /etc/NetworkManager/nm-system-settings.conf:
 [keyfile]
   unmanaged-devices=/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/net_00_1f_11_01_06_55
Multiple devices can be specified, delimited by semicolons:
 [keyfile]
   unmanaged-devices=/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/net_00_1f_11_01_06_55;/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/net_00_2c_6d_e2_08_af

You do not need to restart NetworkManager for the changes to take effect.

  • Ignoring a type of device at boot time.

this script was used to ignore all ethernet devices at boot time of a archiso build, it can be changed to ignore wifi devices etc. /!\being used on a non-persistant filesystem, the nm-system-settings.conf is default at run time

  #!/bin/sh
  # author: tim noise <darknoise@drkns.net>
  COUNT=0
  TARGET_FILE="/etc/NetworkManager/nm-system-settings.conf"
  for i in `lshal | grep -A6 'Networking Interface' | awk -F "'" '/info.udi = / {print $2}'`; do
      if [ $COUNT = 0 ]; then
          COUNT=$COUNT+1;
          echo "unmanaged-devices=$i" >> $TARGET_FILE
      else
          echo -n ";$i" >> $TARGET_FILE
      fi
  done
  printf "\n" >> $TARGET_FILE