NetworkManager (日本語)

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概要 help replacing me
NetworkManager のインストールと設定について – ネットワークをシンプルに簡単に設定するツールセット。
概括
Template:Networking overview (日本語)

NetworkManager はネットワークの検知とシステムの設定を自動で行いネットワークに接続するプログラムです。NetworkManager の機能は無線・有線両方のネットワークに使うことができます。無線ネットワークでは、NetworkManager は既知の無線ネットワークを優先し、一番信頼性のあるネットワークに切り替えることができます。NetworkManager 対応アプリケーションはオンラインとオフラインを切り替えることが可能です。また、NetworkManager では無線接続よりも有線接続が優先され、モデム接続や特定の VPN に対応しています。NetworkManager はもともとは Red Had によって開発されていましたが、現在では GNOME プロジェクトによってホストされています。

Contents

ベースインストール

NetworkManager は公式リポジトリにある networkmanager パッケージでインストールできます。

VPN サポート

Network Manager の VPN サポートはプラグインシステムをベースにしています。NetworkManager で VPN のサポートが必要なときは公式リポジトリから以下のパッケージの内どれかをインストールしてください:

グラフィカルフロントエンド

NetworkManager を簡単に使えるようにするためのアプレットをインストールすることができます。この GUI フロントエンドはシステムトレイ(や通知エリア)に収納され、NetworkManager のネットワーク選択や設定が可能です。異なるデスクトップにあわせて様々なアプレットが存在します。

GNOME

GNOME の network-manager-applet は軽量で全ての環境で動作します。

認証情報 (Wireless/DSL) を保存して接続設定を "全てのユーザーから使えるようにする" には GNOME Keyring をインストール・設定してください。

KDE

KNetworkManager フロントエンドは Plasma ウィジェットであり、公式リポジトリの kdeplasma-applets-networkmanagement として利用可能です。

Note: Wicd などの他のネットワーク管理ツールから変更するときは、デフォルトの 'Network Management Backend' を設定するのを忘れないで下さい システム設定 -> ハードウェア -> 情報ソース

Plasma ウィジェットと nm-applet の両方をインストールしていて、KDE を使っているときは nm-applet を起動したくないときは、次の行を /etc/xdg/autostart/nm-applet.desktop に加えて下さい:

NotShowIn=KDE

詳しくは Userbase page を見て下さい。

XFCE

network-manager-applet が XFCE で動作しますが、通知(とエラーメッセージ)を表示するために nm-applet には Freedesktop デスクトップ通知 (Galapago Project を見て下さい) の実装が必要です。通知を有効にするには xfce4-notifyd パッケージをインストールしてください。仕様を満たした実装を提供します。

通知デーモンがないと、nm-applet アプレットは以下のエラーを標準出力に表示します:

(nm-applet:24209): libnotify-WARNING **: Failed to connect to proxy
** (nm-applet:24209): WARNING **: get_all_cb: couldn't retrieve
system settings properties: (25) Launch helper exited with unknown
return code 1.
** (nm-applet:24209): WARNING **: fetch_connections_done: error
fetching connections: (25) Launch helper exited with unknown return
code 1.
** (nm-applet:24209): WARNING **: Failed to register as an agent:
(25) Launch helper exited with unknown return code 1

nm-applet は問題なく動作しますが、通知は表示されません。

Openbox

Openbox で正しく動作させるには、XFCE と同じ理由で GNOME アプレットに xfce4-notifyd 通知デーモンが必要です。また、システムトレイにアプレットを表示するには gnome-icon-theme パッケージが必要です。

認証情報 (Wireless/DSL) を保存するには gnome-keyring をインストール・設定してください。

Note: networkmanager デーモンが rc.conf にある場合、以下の設定は使われなかったりアプレットが2回起動します。

Openbox で nm-applet を正しく自動起動するには、/etc/xdg/autostart/nm-applet.desktop ファイルを削除する必要があるかもしれません (network-manager-applet がアップデートされるたびにこのファイルを削除する必要があります)。

autostart の中に、nm-applet を起動する行を書いて下さい:

(sleep 3 && /usr/bin/nm-applet --sm-disable) &

接続エラーが出る場合は、D-Bus ユーザーセッションが起動しているか確認してください。

他のデスクトップ・ウィンドウマネージャ

その他の場合は GNOME アプレットを使うことを推奨します。アプレットを表示するには gnome-icon-theme もインストールしておく必要があります。

接続情報を保存するには gnome-keyring をインストール・設定してください。

システムトレイを使わずに nm-applet を動作させるために、trayerstalonetray を使うことができます。例えば、以下のようなスクリプトを追加できます:

nmgui
 #!/bin/sh
 nm-applet    > /dev/null 2>/dev/null &
 stalonetray  > /dev/null 2>/dev/null
 killall nm-applet

stalonetray ウィンドウを閉じたときに、nm-applet も終了するので、ネットワーク設定で無駄なメモリが使われません。

コマンドライン

networkmanager パッケージは version 0.8.1 から nmcli を含んでいます。

設定

NetworkManager には正しく機能させるために必要なことがあります。

次に進む前に /etc/hosts が正しいことを確認してください。この手順を行う前に接続を試すと、NetworkManager が設定を変えてしまうことがあります。/etc/hosts の例:

/etc/hosts
127.0.0.1 localhost
::1       localhost

nss-myhostname を使っていない場合:

/etc/hosts
127.0.0.1 my-laptop localhost
::1       my-laptop localhost

現在のネットワーク設定を無効にする

正しく NetworkManager をテストするために現在のネットワーク設定を無効にしましょう。

まず、ネットワークデーモンを停止してください:

# systemctl stop net-auto-wireless.service

それから、現在のネットワークデーモンを無効にしてください。

# systemctl disable net-auto-wireless.service

最後に、NIC (Network Interface Controllers, ネットワークカード) を落として下さい。例えば (iproute2 パッケージを使用):

# ip link set eth0 down
# ip link set wlan0 down

NetworkManager を有効にする

NetworkManager デーモンが起動すると、自動的に設定済みの有効な "システム接続" に接続します。"ユーザー接続"や設定していない接続には nmcli やアプレットを使って設定・接続する必要があります。

次のコマンドで起動時に NetworkManager を有効にできます:

# systemctl enable NetworkManager

次のコマンドですぐに NetworkManager デーモンを起動できます:

# systemctl start NetworkManager

NetworkManager Wait Online を有効にする

ネットワークが立ち上がる前にサービスが起動して失敗する場合、NetworkManager サービスにあわせて NetworkManager-wait-online.service を使って下さい。ただし、ネットワークが設定されていないときでも殆どのネットワークデーモンは正しく立ち上がるので、これが必要になるのは稀です。 to connect to a VPN after a network-connection is established 次のコマンドで起動時に NetworkManager Wait Online を有効にできます:

# systemctl enable NetworkManager-wait-online

それでもサービスが正しく起動できない場合:

 NetworkManager-wait-online.service: main process exited, code=exited, status=1/FAILURE
 Failed to start Network Manager Wait Online
 Unit NetworkManger-wait-online.service entered failed state
 Starting Network.
 Reached target Network.

これは /usr/lib/systemd/system/NetworkManager-wait-online.service のタイムアウト設定が短すぎることが原因です。デフォルトのタイムアウトである 30 を高い値に修正してください。

PolicyKit パーミッションの設定

See General Troubleshooting#Session permissions for setting up a working session.

With a working session, you have several options for granting the necessary privileges to NetworkManager:

Option 1. Run a PolicyKit authentication agent when you log in, such as /usr/lib/polkit-gnome/polkit-gnome-authentication-agent-1 (part of polkit-gnome). You will be prompted for your password whenever you add or remove a network connection.

Option 2. Add yourself to the wheel group. You will not have to enter your password, but your user account may be granted other permissions as well, such as the ability to use sudo without entering the root password.

Option 3. Add yourself to the network group and create the following file:

/etc/polkit-1/rules.d/50-org.freedesktop.NetworkManager.rules
polkit.addRule(function(action, subject) {
  if (action.id.indexOf("org.freedesktop.NetworkManager.") == 0 && subject.isInGroup("network")) {
    return polkit.Result.YES;
  }
});

All users in the network group will be able to add and remove networks without a password. This will not work under systemd if you do not have an active session with systemd-logind.

ネットワークサービスと NetworkManager dispatcher

There are quite a few network services that you will not want running until NetworkManager brings up an interface. Good examples are OpenNTPD and network filesystem mounts of various types (e.g. netfs). NetworkManager has the ability to start these services when you connect to a network and stop them when you disconnect.

To use this feature, scripts can be added to the /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d directory. These scripts will need to have executable, user permissions. For security, it is good practice to make them owned by root:root and writable only by the owner.

The scripts will be run in alphabetical order at connection time, and in reverse alphabetical order at disconnect time. They receive two arguments: the name of the interface (e.g. eth0) and the status (up or down). To ensure what order they come up in, it is common to use numerical characters prior to the name of the script (e.g. 10_portmap or 30_netfs (which ensures that the portmapper is up before NFS mounts are attempted).

Warning: For security reason. You should disable write access for group and other. For example use 755 mask. In other case it can refuse to execute script, with error message "nm-dispatcher.action: Script could not be executed: writable by group or other, or set-UID." in /var/log/messages.log
Warning: if you connect to foreign or public networks, be aware of what services you are starting and what servers you expect to be available for them to connect to. You could make a security hole by starting the wrong services while connected to a public network.

OpenNTPD を起動

以下の例ではインターフェースが上がった時に OpenNTPD デーモンを起動しています。このファイルを /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/20_openntpd として保存して実行可能にしてください。

#!/bin/sh
interface=$1 status=$2
case $status in
  up)
    systemctl start openntpd
    ;;
  down)
    if ! nm-tool | awk '/State:/{print $2}' | grep -qs connected; then
      systemctl stop openntpd
    fi
    ;;
esac

リモートフォルダを sshfs でマウント

As the script is run in a very restrictive environment, you have to export SSH_AUTH_SOCK in order to connect to your SSH agent. There are different ways to accomplish this, see this link for more information. The example below works with gnome-keyring, and will ask you for the password if not unlocked already. In case NetworkManager connects automatically on login, it is likely gnome-keyring has not yet started and the export will fail (hence the sleep). The UUID to match can be found in /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/).

#!/bin/sh
USER='username'
REMOTE='user@host:/remote/path'
LOCAL='/local/path'

interface=$1 status=$2
if [ "$CONNECTION_UUID" = "<uuid>" ]; then
  case $status in
    up)
      export SSH_AUTH_SOCK=$(find /tmp -maxdepth 1 -type s -user "$USER" -name 'ssh')
      su "$USER" -c "sshfs $LOCAL $REMOTE"
      ;;
    down)
      fusermount -u "$LOCAL"
      ;;
  esac
fi

dispatcher を使ってネットワーク接続が確立された後に VPN に接続する

In this example we want to connect automatically to a previously defined VPN connection after connecting to a specific WiFi network. First thing to do is to create the dispatcher script that defines what to do after we are connected to the network.

1. Create the dispatcher script:
/etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/vpn-up
#!/bin/sh
VPN_NAME="name of VPN connection defined in NetworkManager"
ESSID="wifi network ESSID (not connection name)"

interface=$1 status=$2
case $status in
  up|vpn-down)
    if iwgetid | grep -qs ":\"$ESSID\""; then
      nmcli con up id "$VPN_NAME"
    fi
    ;;
  down)
    if iwgetid | grep -qs ":\"$ESSID\""; then
      if nmcli con status id "$VPN_NAME" | grep -qs activated; then
        nmcli con down id "$VPN_NAME"
      fi
    fi
    ;;
esac

Remember to make it executable with chmod +x and to make the VPN connection available to all users.

Trying to connect using this setup will fail and NetworkManager will complain about 'no valid VPN secrets', because of the way VPN secrets are stored which brings us to step 2:

2. Edit your VPN connection configuration file to make NetworkManager store the secrets by itself rather than inside a keyring that will be inaccessible for root: open up /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/<name of your VPN connection> and change the password-flags and secret-flags form 1 to 0.
Note: It may now be necessary to re-open the NetworkManager connection editor and re-enter the VPN passwords/secrets.

プロクシ設定

NetworkManager は直接プロクシ設定を扱いませんが、GNOME を使っている場合、NetworkManager の情報を使ってプロクシ設定を管理する proxydriver を使うことができます。AURproxydriverAUR パッケージを探して下さい。

In order for proxydriver to be able to change the proxy settings, you would need to execute this command, as part of the GNOME startup process (System -> Preferences -> Startup Applications):

xhost +si:localuser:your_username

参照: Proxy settings

テスト

NetworkManager applets are designed to load upon login so no further configuration should be necessary for most users. If you have already disabled your previous network settings and disconnected from your network, you can now test if NetworkManager will work. The first step is to start the networkmanager daemon.

Some applets will provide you with a .desktop file so that the NetworkManager applet can be loaded through the application menu. If it does not, you are going to either have to discover the command to use or logout and login again to start the applet. Once the applet is started, it will likely begin polling network connections with for auto-configuration with a DHCP server.

To start the GNOME applet in non-xdg-compliant window managers like Awesome:

nm-applet --sm-disable &

For static IPs you will have to configure NetworkManager to understand them. The process usually involves right-clicking the applet and selecting something like 'Edit Connections'.

トラブルシューティング

Some fixes to common problems.

No traffic via PPTP tunnel

PPTP connection logins successfully, you see ppp0 interface with correct VPN IP, but you cannot even ping remote IP. It is due to lack of MPPE (Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption) support in stock Arch pppd. It is recommended to first try with the stock Arch ppp as it may work as intended.

To solve the problem it should be sufficient to install ppp-mppeAUR from the AUR.

Network management disabled

Sometimes when NetworkManager shuts down but the pid (state) file does not get removed and you will get a 'Network management disabled' message. If this happens, you'll have to remove it manually:

# rm /var/lib/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.state

If this happens upon reboot, you can add an action to your /etc/rc.local to have it removed upon bootup:

nmpid=/var/lib/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.state
[ -f $nmpid ] && rm $nmpid

NetworkManager が DHCPCD に resolv.conf.head と resolv.conf.tail を使わせない

Sometimes it is problematic to add static items to resolv.conf when it is constantly rewritten by NetworkManager and dhcpcd. A simple solution is using the following script:

#!/bin/bash
# 
# /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/99-resolv.conf-head_and_tail
# Include /etc/resolv.conf.head and /etc/resolv.conf.tail to /etc/resolv.conf
#
# scripts in the /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/ directory
# are called alphabetically and are passed two parameters:
# $1 is the interface name, and $2 is “up” or “down” as the
# case may be.

resolvconf='/etc/resolv.conf';
cat "$resolvconf"{.head,,.tail} 2>/dev/null > "$resolvconf".tmp
mv -f "$resolvconf".tmp "$resolvconf"

このスクリプトは AUR からも利用できます

resolv.conf の変更を防ぐ

NetworkManager は DHCP から DNS 情報を /etc/resolv.conf に既存の中身を上書きして書き込もうと試みます。これを防ぐには、ファイルを変更不可に設定してください:

# chattr +i /etc/resolv.conf

ファイルを修正するには:

# chattr -i /etc/resolv.conf

DHCP 問題

If you have problems with getting an IP via DHCP, try to add the following to your /etc/dhclient.conf:

 interface "eth0" {
   send dhcp-client-identifier 01:aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff;
 }

Where aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff is the MAC address of this NIC. The MAC address can be found using the ip link show eth0 command from the iproute2 package.

For some (incompliant) routers, you will not be able to connect properly unless you comment the line

require dhcp_server_identifier

in /etc/dhcpcd.conf (note that this file is distinct from dhcpd.conf). This should not cause issues unless you have multiple DHCP servers on your network (not typical); see this page for more information.

ホストネーム問題

次の行を /etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.conf に加えて:

dhcp=dhcpcd

再起動してください。

systemctl restart NetworkManager

ソース: https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=152376

デフォルトの route が見つからない

On at least one KDE4 system, no default route was created when establishing wireless connections with NetworkManager. Changing the route settings of the wireless connection to remove the default selection "Use only for resources on this connection" solved the issue.

3G モデムが検知されない

If NetworkManager (from v0.7.999) does not detect your 3G modem, but you still can connect using wvdial, try installing modemmanager and restart NetworkManager daemon with rc.d restart networkmanager. It may also be necessary to replug or restart your modem. This utility provides support for hardware not in NetworkManager's default database.

ラップトップで WLAN をオフに切り替える

Sometimes NetworkManager will not work when you disable your WiFi adapter with a switch on your laptop and try to enable it again afterwards. This is often a problem with rfkill. Install rfkill from the official repositories and use

$ watch -n1 rfkill list all

to check if the driver notifies rfkill about the wireless adapter's status. If one identifier stays blocked after you switch on the adapter you could try to manually unblock it with (where X is the number of the identifier provided by the above output):

# rfkill event unblock X

固定 IP 設定を DHCP に戻す

Due to an unresolved bug, when changing default connections to static IP, nm-applet may not properly store the configuration change, and will revert to automatic DHCP.

To work around this issue you have to edit the default connection (e.g. "Auto eth0") in nm-applet, change the connection name (e.g. "my eth0"), uncheck the "Available to all users" checkbox, change your static IP settings as desired, and click Apply. This will save a new connection with the given name.

Next, you will want to make the default connection not connect automatically. To do so, run nm-connection-editor (not as root). In the connection editor, edit the default connection (eg "Auto eth0") and uncheck "Connect automatically". Click Apply and close the connection editor.

ノーマルユーザーで接続を編集できない

See #Set_up_PolicyKit_permissions.

隠れた無線ネットワークの削除

Since hidden network are not displayed in the selection list of the Wireless view, they cannot be forgotten (removed) with the GUI. You can delete one with the following command:

# rm /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/[SSID]

This works for any other connection.

VPN が Gnome で動作しない

When setting up openconnect or vpnc connections in NetworkManager while using Gnome, you'll sometimes never see the dialog box pop up and the following error appears in /var/log/errors.log:

localhost NetworkManager[399]: <error> [1361719690.10506] [nm-vpn-connection.c:1405] get_secrets_cb(): Failed to request VPN secrets #3: (6) No agents were available for this request.

This is caused by the Gnome NM Applet expecting dialog scripts to be at /usr/lib/gnome-shell, when NetworkManager's packages put them in /usr/lib/networkmanager. As a "temporary" fix (this bug has been around for a while now), make the following symlink(s):

# For OpenConnect
ln -s /usr/lib/networkmanager/nm-openconnect-auth-dialog /usr/lib/gnome-shell/ 
# For VPNC (i.e. Cisco VPN)
ln -s /usr/lib/networkmanager/nm-vpnc-auth-dialog /usr/lib/gnome-shell/

This may need to be done for any other NM VPN plugins as well, but these are the two most common.

Tips and tricks

wifi でインターネット接続を共有する

You can share your internet connection (eg.: 3G or wired) by few clicks using nm. You will need supported wifi card (Cards based on Atheros AR9xx or at least AR5xx are probably best choice)

Ad-hoc

  • pacman -S dnsmasq
  • custom dnsmasq.conf may interfere with nm (not sure about this, but i think so)
  • Click on nm-applet -> Create new wireless network
  • Follow wizard (if using WEP be sure to use 5 or 13 charactes long password, different lengths will fail)
  • Settings will remain stored for next time you'll need it

Real AP

Support of infrastructure mode (which is needed by Andoid phones as they don't intentionally support ad-hoc) is not currently supported by NetworkManager, but is in active development...

参照: http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Features/RealHotspot

cron ジョブやスクリプトでネットワークが立ち上がっているか確認する

Some cron jobs require networking to be up to succeed. You may wish to avoid running these jobs when the network is down. To accomplish this, add an if test for networking that queries NetworkManager's nm-tool and checks the state of networking. The test shown here succeeds if any interface is up, and fails if they are all down. This is convenient for laptops that might be hardwired, might be on wireless, or might be off the network.

if [ `nm-tool|grep State|cut -f2 -d' '` == "connected" ]; then
       #Whatever you want to do if the network is online
else
       #Whatever you want to do if the network is offline - note, this and the else above are optional
fi

This useful for a cron.hourly script that runs fpupdate for the F-Prot virus scanner signature update, as an example. Another way it might be useful, with a little modification, is to differentiate between networks using various parts of the output from nm-tool; for example, since the active wireless network is denoted with an asterisk, you could grep for the network name and then grep for a literal asterisk.

ログインのあと自動でキーリングを解除する

GNOME

  1. Right click on the nm-applet icon in your panel and select Edit Connections and open the Wireless tab
  2. Select the connection you want to work with and click the Edit button
  3. Check the boxes “Connect Automatically” and “Available to all users”

Log out and log back in to complete.

Note: The following method is dated and known not to work on at least one machine!
  • In /etc/pam.d/gdm (or your corresponding daemon in /etc/pam.d), add these lines at the end of the "auth" and "session" blocks if they do not exist already:
 auth            optional        pam_gnome_keyring.so
 session         optional        pam_gnome_keyring.so  auto_start
  • In /etc/pam.d/passwd, use this line for the 'password' block:
 password    optional    pam_gnome_keyring.so
Next time you log in, you should be asked if you want the password to be unlocked automatically on login.

KDE

Note: See http://live.gnome.org/GnomeKeyring/Pam for reference, and if you are using KDE with KDM, you can use pam-keyring-toolAUR from the AUR.

Put a script like the following in ~/.kde4/Autostart:

 #!/bin/sh
 echo PASSWORD | /usr/bin/pam-keyring-tool --unlock --keyring=default -s

Similar should work with Openbox, LXDE, etc.

SLiM ログインマネージャ

SLiM (日本語)#SLiM と Gnome Keyring を見て下さい。

特定のデバイスを無視する

Sometimes it may be desired that NetworkManager ignores specific devices and does not try to configure addresses and routes for them.You can quickly and easily ignore devices by MAC by using the following in /etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.conf :

[keyfile]
unmanaged-devices=mac:00:22:68:1c:59:b1;mac:00:1E:65:30:D1:C4

After you have put this in, restart NetworkManager, and you should be able to configure interfaces without NetworkManager altering what you have set.

接続の高速化

IPv6 を無効にする

Slow connection or reconnection to the network may be due to superfluous IPv6 queries in NetworkManager. If there is no IPv6 support on the local network, connecting to a network may take longer than normal while NetworkManager tries to establish an IPv6 connection that eventually times out. The solution is to disable IPv6 within NetworkManager which will make network connection faster. This has to be done once for every network you connect to.

  • Right-click on the network status icon.
  • Click on "Edit Connections".
  • Go to the "Wired" or "Wireless" tab, as appropriate.
  • Select the name of the network.
  • Click on "Edit".
  • Go to the "IPv6 Settings" tab.
  • In the "Method" dropdown, choose "Ignore/Disabled".
  • Click on "Save".

DHCPCD の ARP probing を無効にして DHCP をスピードアップ

dhcpcd contains an implementation of a recommendation of the DHCP standard (RFC2131 section 2.2) to check via ARP if the assigned IP address is really not taken. This seems mostly useless in home networks, so you can save about 5 seconds on every connect by adding the following line to /etc/dhcpcd.conf:

noarp

This is equivalent to passing --noarp to dhcpcd, and disables the described ARP probing, speeding up connections to networks with DHCP.

OpenDNS サーバーを使う

/etc/resolv.conf.opendns を以下のネームサーバで作成してください:

nameserver 208.67.222.222
nameserver 208.67.220.220

もしくは Google DNS サーバーを使って下さい:

nameserver 8.8.8.8
nameserver 8.8.4.4

そして DHCP サーバーを OpenDNS サーバーに置き換える dispatcher を作って下さい:

/etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/dns-servers-opendns
#!/bin/bash
# Use OpenDNS servers over DHCP discovered servers

cp -f /etc/resolv.conf.opendns /etc/resolv.conf

スクリプトを実行可能にします:

# chmod +x /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/dns-servers-opendns