Difference between revisions of "Network configuration"

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[[Category:Networking]]
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[[Category:Network configuration]]
[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
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[[cs:Network configuration]]
[[cs:Configuring Network]]
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[[el:Network configuration]]
[[es:Configuring Network]]
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[[es:Network configuration]]
 
[[fr:Connexions reseau]]
 
[[fr:Connexions reseau]]
[[it:Configuring Network]]
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[[it:Network configuration]]
[[ja:Network Configuration]]
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[[ja:ネットワーク設定]]
[[nl:Configuring Network]]
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[[nl:Network configuration]]
[[pt:Configuring Network]]
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[[pt:Network configuration]]
 
[[ro:Configurare retea]]
 
[[ro:Configurare retea]]
[[ru:Configuring Network]]
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[[ru:Network configuration]]
[[sk:Configuring Network]]
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[[sk:Network configuration]]
[[tr:Ağ_Yapılandırması]]
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[[zh-hans:Network configuration]]
[[zh-CN:Configuring Network]]
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[[zh-hant:Network configuration]]
{{Article summary start}}
+
{{Related articles start}}
{{Article summary text|A simple guide for setting up and troubleshooting network.}}
+
{{Related|Jumbo frames}}
{{Article summary heading|Overview}}
+
{{Related|Firewalls}}
{{Article summary text|{{Networking overview}}}}
+
{{Related|Wireless network configuration}}
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
+
{{Related|Network bridge}}
{{Article summary wiki|Jumbo Frames}}
+
{{Related|List of applications/Internet#Network managers}}
{{Article summary wiki|Firewalls}}
+
{{Related|Network Debugging}}
{{Article summary wiki|Samba}}
+
{{Related articles end}}
{{Article summary wiki|Wireless Setup}}
+
 
{{Article summary end}}
+
This page explains how to set up a '''wired''' connection to a network. If you need to set up '''wireless''' networking see the [[Wireless network configuration]] page.
  
 
== Check the connection ==
 
== Check the connection ==
{{Note|If you receive an error like {{ic|ping: icmp open socket: Operation not permitted}} when executing ping, try to re-install the {{ic|iputils}} package.}} 
 
  
Many times, the basic installation procedure has created a working network configuration. To check if this is so, use the following command:
+
The basic installation procedure typically has a functional network configuration. Use {{man|8|ping}} to check the connection:
  
{{Note|The {{ic|-c 3}} option calls it three times. See {{ic|man ping}} for more information.}}
+
{{hc|$ ping www.google.com|2=
 +
PING www.l.google.com (74.125.132.105) 56(84) bytes of data.
 +
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=1 ttl=50 time=17.0 ms
 +
...
 +
}}
  
{{hc|$ ping -c 3 www.google.com|2=
+
If the ping is successful (you see 64 bytes messages as above), then the network is configured. Press {{ic|Control-C}} to stop the ping.
PING www.l.google.com (74.125.224.146) 56(84) bytes of data.
 
64 bytes from 74.125.224.146: icmp_req=1 ttl=50 time=437 ms
 
64 bytes from 74.125.224.146: icmp_req=2 ttl=50 time=385 ms
 
64 bytes from 74.125.224.146: icmp_req=3 ttl=50 time=298 ms
 
  
--- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---
+
If the ping failed with an ''Unknown hosts'' error, it  means that your machine was unable to resolve this domain name. It may be related to your service provider or your router/gateway. Try pinging a static IP address to prove that your machine has access to the Internet:
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 1999ms
 
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 298.107/373.642/437.202/57.415 ms}}
 
  
If it works, then you may only wish to personalize your settings from the options below.
+
{{hc|$ ping 8.8.8.8|<nowiki>
 
 
If the previous command complains about unknown hosts, it means that your machine was unable to resolve this domain name. It might be related to your service provider or your router/gateway. You can try pinging a static IP address to prove that your machine has access to the Internet.
 
 
 
{{hc|$ ping -c 3 8.8.8.8|2=
 
 
PING 8.8.8.8 (8.8.8.8) 56(84) bytes of data.
 
PING 8.8.8.8 (8.8.8.8) 56(84) bytes of data.
 
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_req=1 ttl=53 time=52.9 ms
 
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_req=1 ttl=53 time=52.9 ms
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_req=2 ttl=53 time=72.5 ms
+
...
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_req=3 ttl=53 time=70.6 ms
+
</nowiki>}}
 
 
--- 8.8.8.8 ping statistics ---
 
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2002ms
 
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 52.975/65.375/72.543/8.803 ms}}
 
 
 
{{Note|{{ic|8.8.8.8}} is a static address that is easy to remember. It is the address of Google's primary DNS server, therefore it can be considered reliable, and is generally not blocked by content filtering systems and proxies.}}
 
 
 
If you are able to ping this address, you may try adding this nameserver to your {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} file.
 
 
 
== Set the hostname ==
 
 
 
A [[Wikipedia:Hostname|hostname]] is a unique name created to identify a machine on a network. To set the hostname:
 
# hostnamectl set-hostname '''myhostname'''
 
  
{{Note|You no longer need to edit {{ic|/etc/hosts}}, {{pkg|systemd}} will provide host name resolution, and is installed on all systems by default.}}
+
If you are able to ping {{ic|8.8.8.8}} but not {{ic|www.google.com}}, check your DNS configuration. See [[resolv.conf]] for details. The {{ic|hosts}} line in {{ic|/etc/nsswitch.conf}} is another place you can check.
  
To set the hostname temporarily (until a reboot), use the {{ic|hostname}} command from {{Pkg|inetutils}}:
+
If not, check for cable issues before diagnosing further.
  
# hostname ''myhostname''
+
{{Note|
 +
* If you receive an error like {{ic|ping: icmp open socket: Operation not permitted}} when executing ''ping'', try to re-install the {{Pkg|iputils}} package.
 +
* The {{ic|-c ''num''}} option can be used to make exactly {{ic|''num''}} pings, otherwise it pings infinitely and has to be terminated manually. See {{man|8|ping}} for more information.
 +
* {{ic|8.8.8.8}} is a static address that is easy to remember. It is the address of Google's primary DNS server, therefore it can be considered reliable, and is generally not blocked by content filtering systems and proxies.
 +
}}
  
== Device Driver ==
+
== Device driver ==
  
=== Check the driver status ===
+
=== Check the status ===
  
Udev should detect your network interface card ([[Wikipedia:Network_interface_controller|NIC]]) and automatically load the necessary module at start up. Check the "Ethernet controller" entry (or similar) from the {{ic|lspci -v}} output. It should tell you which kernel module contains the driver for your network device. For example:
+
[[udev]] should detect your [[Wikipedia:Network interface controller|network interface controller]] and automatically load the necessary module at start up. Check the "Ethernet controller" entry (or similar) from the {{ic|lspci -v}} output. It should tell you which kernel module contains the driver for your network device. For example:
  
 
{{hc|$ lspci -v|
 
{{hc|$ lspci -v|
02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Attansic Technology Corp. L1 Gigabit Ethernet Adapter (rev b0)
+
02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Attansic Technology Corp. L1 Gigabit Ethernet Adapter (rev b0)
 
  ...
 
  ...
 
  Kernel driver in use: atl1
 
  Kernel driver in use: atl1
  Kernel modules: atl1}}
+
  Kernel modules: atl1
 +
}}
  
 
Next, check that the driver was loaded via {{ic|dmesg <nowiki>|</nowiki> grep ''module_name''}}. For example:
 
Next, check that the driver was loaded via {{ic|dmesg <nowiki>|</nowiki> grep ''module_name''}}. For example:
  
$ dmesg | grep atl1
+
{{hc|<nowiki>$ dmesg | grep atl1</nowiki>|
    ...
+
...
    atl1 0000:02:00.0: eth0 link is up 100 Mbps full duplex
+
atl1 0000:02:00.0: eth0 link is up 100 Mbps full duplex
 +
}}
  
 
Skip the next section if the driver was loaded successfully. Otherwise, you will need to know which module is needed for your particular model.
 
Skip the next section if the driver was loaded successfully. Otherwise, you will need to know which module is needed for your particular model.
  
=== Load the device module ===
+
=== Load the module ===
  
Google for the right module/driver for the chipset. Once you know which module to use, you can [[Kernel modules#Loading|load it]] with:
+
Search in the Internet for the right module/driver for the chipset. Some common modules are {{ic|8139too}} for cards with a Realtek chipset, or {{ic|sis900}} for cards with a SiS chipset. Once you know which module to use, try to [[Kernel modules#Manual module handling|load it manually]]. If you get an error saying that the module was not found, it's possible that the driver is not included in Arch kernel. You may search the [[AUR]] for the module name.
  
# modprobe ''module_name''
+
If udev is not detecting and loading the proper module automatically during bootup, see [[Kernel modules#Automatic module handling]].
  
If udev is not detecting and loading the proper module automatically during bootup, you can add it to a {{ic|*.conf}} file from the {{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/}} folder so that you do not need to {{ic|modprobe}} it every time you boot. For example, if {{ic|tg3}} is the network module:
+
== Network management ==
 
 
# tee /etc/modules-load.d/tg3.conf <<< "tg3"
 
 
 
Other common modules are {{ic|8139too}} for cards with a Realtek chipset, or {{ic|sis900}} for cards with a SiS chipset.
 
 
 
== Network Interfaces ==
 
  
 
=== Device names ===
 
=== Device names ===
  
For motherboards that have integrated NICs, it is important to have fixed device name. Many configuration issues are caused by interface name changing.
+
For computers with multiple NICs, it is important to have fixed device names. Many configuration problems are caused by interface name changing.
 
 
[[Udev]] is responsible for which device gets which name. Systemd v197 introduced [http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames Predictable Network Interface Names], which automatically assigns static names to network devices. Interfaces are now prefixed with en (ethernet), wl (WLAN), or ww (WWAN) followed by an automatically generated identifier, creating an entry such as {{ic|enp0s25}}.
 
 
 
This behavior may be disabled by adding a symlink:
 
 
 
# ln -s /dev/null /etc/udev/rules.d/80-net-name-slot.rules
 
 
 
Users upgrading from an earlier systemd version will have a blank rules file created automatically. So if you want no use persistent device names, just delete the file.
 
  
==== Change device name ====
+
[[udev]] is responsible for which device gets which name. Systemd uses [http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames Predictable Network Interface Names], which automatically assigns static names to network devices. Interfaces are now prefixed with {{ic|en}} (wired/[[w:Ethernet|Ethernet]]), {{ic|wl}} (wireless/WLAN), or {{ic|ww}} ([[w:Wireless_WAN|WWAN]]) followed by an automatically generated identifier, creating an entry such as {{ic|enp0s25}}.
You can change the device name using {{ic|ifrename}} from package {{Pkg|wireless_tools}}.
 
  
Run ifrename directly:
+
{{Tip|This behavior may be disabled by adding {{ic|1=net.ifnames=0}} to the [[kernel parameters]].}}
  
# ifrename -i eth0 -n lan
+
{{Note|When changing the interface naming scheme, do not forget to update all network-related configuration files and custom systemd unit files to reflect the change.}}
  
or create config file ({{ic|/etc/iftab}}), for example:
+
==== Get current device names ====
  
lan mac 00:0C:6E:C6:94:81
+
Both wired and wireless device names can be found via:
internet mac 00:0C:6E:C6:94:82
 
  
and run
+
$ ls /sys/class/net
  
  # ifrename -c /etc/iftab
+
or
  
If you are using ppp, add into {{ic|/etc/ppp/ip-up}} script the following lines:
+
$ ip link
  
  IF=$1
+
Note that {{ic|lo}} is the [[W:Loop_device]] and not used in making network connections.
  ip link set dev $IF down
 
  /usr/sbin/ifrename -i $IF -n <NEWNAME>
 
  ip link set dev <NEWNAME> up
 
  
where <NEWNAME> is the new name for the ppp interface.
+
Wireless device names can also be retrieved using {{ic|iw dev}}. See also [[Wireless network configuration#Get the name of the interface]].
  
===== Udev rule =====
+
{{Tip|To change the device names, see [[#Change device name]] and [[#Revert to traditional device names]].}}
Another way is to define the name manually with an udev-rule. For example: 
 
{{hc|/etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules|2=
 
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff", NAME="net1"
 
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="ff:ee:dd:cc:bb:aa", NAME="net0"}}
 
A couple things to note:
 
  
* To get the MAC address of each card, use this command: {{ic|cat /sys/class/net/'''device-name'''/address}}<!-- {{ic|<nowiki>udevadm info -a -p /sys/class/net/<yourdevice> | grep address | tr [A-Z] [a-z]</nowiki>}} -->
+
==== Enabling and disabling network interfaces ====
* Make sure to use the lower-case hex values in your udev rules. It doesn't like upper-case.
 
{{Note|When choosing the static names '''it should be avoided to use names in the format of "eth''X''" and "wlan''X''"''', because this may lead to race conditions between the kernel and udev during boot. Instead, it is better to use interface names that are not used by the kernel as default, e.g.: {{ic|net0}}, {{ic|net1}}, {{ic|wifi0}}, {{ic|wifi1}}. For further details please see the [http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames systemd] documentation.}}
 
  
=== Get current device names ===
+
You can activate a network interface using:
  
Current NIC names can be found via sysfs
+
# ip link set ''interface'' up
  
{{hc|$ ls /sys/class/net|
+
To deactivate it do:
lo eth0 eth1 firewire0}}
 
  
=== Enabling and disabling network interfaces ===
+
# ip link set ''interface'' down
  
You can activate or deactivate network interfaces using:
+
To check the result for the interface {{ic|eth0}}:
 
 
# ip link set eth0 up
 
# ip link set eth0 down
 
 
 
To check the result:
 
  
 
{{hc|$ ip link show dev eth0|
 
{{hc|$ ip link show dev eth0|
 
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,PROMISC,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master br0 state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
 
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,PROMISC,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master br0 state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
[...]}}
+
...
 +
}}
  
== Configure the IP address ==
+
{{Note| If your default route is through interface {{ic|eth0}}, taking it down will also remove the route, and bringing it back up will not automatically reestablish the default route.  See [[#Manual assignment]] for reestablishing it.}}
  
You have two options: a dynamically assigned address using [[Wikipedia:Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol|DHCP]], or an unchanging "static" address.
 
 
 
=== Dynamic IP address ===
 
=== Dynamic IP address ===
  
==== Manually run DHCP Client Daemon ====
+
See [[#Network managers]] for a list of options in setting a dynamic IP address.
 
 
Please note that {{ic|dhcpcd}} is not {{ic|dhcpd}}.
 
 
 
{{hc|# dhcpcd eth0|
 
dhcpcd: version 5.1.1 starting
 
dhcpcd: eth0: broadcasting for a lease
 
...
 
dhcpcd: eth0: leased 192.168.1.70 for 86400 seconds}}
 
 
 
And now, {{ic|ip addr show dev eth0}} should show your inet address.
 
 
 
For some people, {{ic|dhclient}} (from the {{Pkg|dhclient}} package) works where {{ic|dhcpcd}} fails.
 
 
 
==== Run DHCP at boot ====
 
 
 
If you simply want to use DHCP for your Ethernet connection, you can use {{ic|dhcpcd@.service}} (provided by the {{Pkg|dhcpcd}} package).
 
 
 
To enable DHCP for {{ic|eth0}}, simply use:
 
 
 
# systemctl start dhcpcd@eth0
 
 
 
You can enable the service to automatically start at boot with:
 
 
 
# systemctl enable dhcpcd@eth0
 
 
 
If the dhcpd service starts before your network card module ({{bug|30235}}), manually add your network card to {{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/*.conf}}. For example, if your Realtek card needs {{ic|r8169}} to be loaded, create:
 
 
 
{{hc|/etc/modules-load.d/realtek.conf|
 
r8169}}
 
 
 
{{Tip|To find out which modules are used by your network card, use {{ic|lspci -k}}.}}
 
 
 
If you use DHCP and you do '''not''' want your DNS servers automatically assigned every time you start your network, be sure to add the following to the last section of {{ic|dhcpcd.conf}}:
 
 
 
{{hc|/etc/dhcpcd.conf|
 
nohook resolv.conf}}
 
 
 
To prevent {{ic|dhcpcd}} from adding domain name servers to {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}}, use the {{ic|nooption}} option:
 
 
 
{{hc|/etc/dhcpcd.conf|
 
nooption domain_name_servers}}
 
 
 
Then add your own DNS name server to {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}}.
 
 
 
You may use the {{Pkg|openresolv}} package if several different processes want to control {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} (e.g. {{Pkg|dhcpcd}} and a VPN client). No additional configuration for {{Pkg|dhcpcd}} is needed to use {{Pkg|openresolv}}.
 
 
 
{{Note|It is possible to have a static IP address using {{Pkg|dhcpcd}}. Simply edit your {{ic|/etc/conf.d/dhcpcd}} file to look something like this (where {{ic|x.x.x.x}} is your desired IP address):
 
 
 
{{bc|1=DHCPCD_ARGS="-q -s x.x.x.x"}}}}
 
  
 
=== Static IP address ===
 
=== Static IP address ===
  
There are various reasons why you may wish to assign static IP addresses on your network. For instance, one may gain a certain degree of predictability with unchanging addresses, or you may not have a DHCP server available.
+
A static IP address can be configured with most standard [[#Network managers|network managers]]. Independently of the tool you choose, you will probably need to be prepared with the following information:
 
 
{{Note|If you share your Internet connection from a Windows machine without a router, be sure to use static IP addresses on both computers to avoid LAN issues.}}
 
 
 
You need:
 
  
 
* Static IP address
 
* Static IP address
* [[Wikipedia:Subnetwork|Subnet mask]]
+
* Subnet mask, or possibly its [[wikipedia:Classless Inter-Domain Routing#CIDR notation|CIDR notation]], for example {{ic|/24}} is the CIDR notation of {{ic|255.255.255.0}} netmask.
 
* [[Wikipedia:Broadcast_address|Broadcast address]]
 
* [[Wikipedia:Broadcast_address|Broadcast address]]
 
* [[Wikipedia:Default_gateway|Gateway]]'s IP address
 
* [[Wikipedia:Default_gateway|Gateway]]'s IP address
 +
* Name server (DNS) IP addresses. See also [[resolv.conf]].
  
If you are running a private network, it is safe to use IP addresses in 192.168.*.* for your IP addresses, with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 and a broadcast address of 192.168.*.255. The gateway is usually 192.168.*.1 or 192.168.*.254.
+
If you are running a private network, it is safe to use IP addresses in {{ic|192.168.*.*}} for your IP addresses, with a subnet mask of {{ic|255.255.255.0}} and a broadcast address of {{ic|192.168.*.255}}. The gateway is usually {{ic|192.168.*.1}} or {{ic|192.168.*.254}}.
  
==== Manual assignment ====
+
{{Warning|
 +
* Make sure manually assigned IP addresses do not conflict with DHCP assigned ones. See [http://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f&#61;28&t&#61;16797 this forum thread].
 +
* If you share your Internet connection from a Windows machine without a router, be sure to use static IP addresses on both computers to avoid LAN problems.
 +
}}
  
You can assign a static IP address in the console:
+
{{Tip|Addresses can be calculated with the {{Pkg|ipcalc}} package; see [[#Calculating addresses]].}}
  
# ip addr add <IP address>/<subnet mask> dev <interface>
+
==== Manual assignment ====
  
For example:
+
It is possible to manually set up a static IP using only the {{pkg|iproute2}} package. This is a good way to test connection settings since the connection made using this method will not persist across reboots. First enable the [[#Device names|network interface]]:
  
  # ip addr add 192.168.1.2/24 dev eth0
+
  # ip link set ''interface'' up
  
{{Note|The subnet mask was specified using [[Wikipedia:CIDR_notation|CIDR notation]].}}
+
Assign a static IP address in the console:
  
For more options, see {{ic|man ip}}.
+
# ip addr add ''IP_address''/''subnet_mask'' broadcast ''broadcast_address'' dev ''interface''
  
Add your gateway like so:
+
Then add your gateway IP address:
  
  # ip route add default via <default gateway IP address>
+
  # ip route add default via ''default_gateway''
  
 
For example:
 
For example:
  
 +
# ip link set eth0 up
 +
# ip addr add 192.168.1.2/24 broadcast 192.168.1.255 dev eth0
 
  # ip route add default via 192.168.1.1
 
  # ip route add default via 192.168.1.1
  
If you the get the error "No such process", it means you have to run {{ic|ip link set dev eth0 up}} as root.
+
{{Tip|If you get the message {{ic|RTNETLINK answers: Network is unreachable}}, try to break up the route creation in the following two parts:
  
====Manual connection at boot using systemd====
+
# ip route add 192.168.1.1 dev eth0
This section details how to manually connect using [[systemd]].
+
# ip route add default via 192.168.1.1 dev eth0
 +
}}
  
{{Note|We use {{ic|net0}} as the interface name in these examples, you have to replace all occurrences (including those in the {{ic|BindsTo}} and {{ic|After}} values) with the name of the interface you are configuring.}}
+
To undo these steps (e.g. before switching to a dynamic IP), first remove any assigned IP address:
  
=====Using [[dhcpcd]]=====
+
# ip addr flush dev ''interface''
Create the file {{ic|/etc/systemd/system/network.service}} using your editor of choice. This example uses [[wpa_supplicant]].
 
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/network.service|<nowiki>
 
[Unit]
 
Description=Network Connectivity
 
Wants=network.target
 
Before=network.target
 
BindsTo=sys-subsystem-net-devices-net0.device
 
After=sys-subsystem-net-devices-net0.device
 
  
[Service]
+
Then remove any assigned gateway:
Type=oneshot
 
RemainAfterExit=yes
 
ExecStart=/sbin/ip link set dev net0 up
 
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/wpa_supplicant -B -i net0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf # Remove this for wired connections
 
ExecStart=/sbin/dhcpcd net0
 
  
ExecStop=/sbin/dhcpcd -k net0
+
# ip route flush dev ''interface''
ExecStop=/sbin/ip addr flush dev net0
 
ExecStop=/sbin/ip link set dev net0 down
 
  
[Install]
+
And finally disable the interface:
WantedBy=multi-user.target
 
</nowiki>}}
 
  
  # systemctl enable network
+
  # ip link set ''interface'' down
  
To test, reboot or stop all other network daemons and run as root:
+
For more options, see the {{man|8|ip}}. These commands can be automated using scripts and [[systemd#Writing unit files|systemd units]].
# systemctl start network
 
  
=====Using a static IP address=====
+
==== Calculating addresses ====
Create the file {{ic|/etc/systemd/system/network.service}} using your editor of choice. This example uses a static IP address and [[wpa_supplicant]].
 
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/network.service|<nowiki>
 
[Unit]
 
Description=Wireless Static IP Connectivity
 
Wants=network.target
 
Before=network.target
 
BindsTo=sys-subsystem-net-devices-net0.device
 
After=sys-subsystem-net-devices-net0.device
 
  
[Service]
+
You can use {{ic|ipcalc}} provided by the {{Pkg|ipcalc}} package to calculate IP broadcast, network, netmask, and host ranges for more advanced configurations. An example is using Ethernet over Firewire to connect a Windows machine to Linux. To improve security and organization, both machines have their own network with the netmask and broadcast configured accordingly.  
Type=oneshot
 
RemainAfterExit=yes
 
ExecStart=/sbin/ip link set dev net0 up
 
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/wpa_supplicant -B -i net0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf # Remove this for wired connections
 
ExecStart=/sbin/ip addr add 192.168.0.10/24 dev net0
 
ExecStart=/sbin/ip route add default via 192.168.0.1
 
  
ExecStop=/sbin/ip addr flush dev net0
+
Finding out the respective netmask and broadcast addresses is done with {{ic|ipcalc}}, by specifying the IP of the Linux NIC {{ic|10.66.66.1}} and the number of hosts (here two):
ExecStop=/sbin/ip link set dev net0 down
 
  
[Install]
+
{{hc|$ ipcalc -nb 10.66.66.1 -s 1|<nowiki>
WantedBy=multi-user.target
 
</nowiki>}}
 
 
 
Do not forget to enable it!
 
# systemctl enable network
 
 
 
To test, reboot or make sure all other network daemons are stopped and then run as root
 
# systemctl start network
 
 
 
==== Calculating addresses ====
 
 
 
You can use {{ic|ipcalc}} provided by the {{Pkg|ipcalc}} package to calculate IP broadcast, network, netmask, and host ranges for more advanced configurations. For example, I use ethernet over firewire to connect a windows machine to arch. For security and network organization, I placed them on their own network and configured the netmask and broadcast so that they are the only 2 machines on it. To figure out the netmask and broadcast addresses for this, I used ipcalc, providing it with the IP of the arch firewire nic 10.66.66.1, and specifying ipcalc should create a network of only 2 hosts.
 
 
 
{{hc|$ ipcalc -nb 10.66.66.1 -s 1|2=
 
 
Address:  10.66.66.1
 
Address:  10.66.66.1
  
Line 346: Line 206:
 
HostMax:  10.66.66.2
 
HostMax:  10.66.66.2
 
Broadcast: 10.66.66.3
 
Broadcast: 10.66.66.3
Hosts/Net: 2                    Class A, Private Internet}}
+
Hosts/Net: 2                    Class A, Private Internet
 +
</nowiki>}}
  
== Load configuration ==
+
=== Network managers ===
  
To test your settings either reboot the computer or reload the relevant systemd services:
+
There are many solutions to choose from, but remember that all of them are mutually exclusive; you should not run two daemons simultaneously. The following table compares the different connection managers. ''Automatically handles wired connection'' means that there is at least one option for the user to simply start the daemon without creating a configuration file.
  
# systemctl restart dhcpcd@eth0
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Connection manager || Automatically handles<br>wired connection || Official <br>GUI || [[Archiso]] [https://git.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/packages.both] || Console tools || Systemd units
 +
|-
 +
| [[ConnMan]] || {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{No}} || {{ic|connmanctl}} || {{ic|connman.service}}
 +
|-
 +
| [[dhcpcd]] || {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{Yes}} ({{grp|base}}) || {{ic|dhcpcd}} || {{ic|dhcpcd.service}}, {{ic|dhcpcd@''interface''.service}}
 +
|-
 +
| [[netctl]] || {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{Yes}} ({{grp|base}}) || {{ic|netctl}} || {{ic|netctl-ifplugd@''interface''.service}}
 +
|-
 +
| [[NetworkManager]] || {{Yes}} || {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{ic|nmcli}},{{ic|nmtui}} || {{ic|NetworkManager.service}}
 +
|-
 +
| [[systemd-networkd]] || {{No}} || {{No}} || {{Yes}} ({{grp|base}}) || || {{ic|systemd-networkd.service}}, {{ic|systemd-resolved.service}}
 +
|-
 +
| [[Wicd]] || {{Yes}} || {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{ic|wicd-curses}} || {{ic|wicd.service}}
 +
|}
  
Try pinging your gateway, DNS server, ISP provider and other Internet sites, in that order, to detect any connection problems along the way, as in this example:
+
See also [[List of applications#Network managers]].
  
$ ping -c 3 www.google.com
+
== Set the hostname ==
  
== Additional settings ==
+
A [[Wikipedia:Hostname|hostname]] is a unique name created to identify a machine on a network, configured in {{ic|/etc/hostname}}—see {{man|5|hostname}} and {{man|7|hostname}} for details. The file can contain the system's domain name, if any. To set the hostname, [[textedit|edit]] {{ic|/etc/hostname}} to include a single line with {{ic|''myhostname''}}:
  
=== ifplugd for laptops ===
+
{{hc|/etc/hostname|
 +
''myhostname''
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{{Tip|For advice on choosing a hostname, see [https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1178 RFC 1178].}}
 +
 
 +
Alternatively, using {{man|1|hostnamectl}}:
 +
 
 +
# hostnamectl set-hostname ''myhostname''
 +
 
 +
To temporarily set the hostname (until reboot), use {{man|1|hostname}} from {{Pkg|inetutils}}:
  
{{Pkg|ifplugd}} in [[Official Repositories]] is a daemon which will automatically configure your Ethernet device when a cable is plugged in and automatically unconfigure it if the cable is pulled. This is useful on laptops with onboard network adapters, since it will only configure the interface when a cable is really connected. Another use is when you just need to restart the network but do not want to restart the computer or do it from the shell.
+
# hostname ''myhostname''
  
By default it is configured to work for the {{ic|eth0}} device. This and other settings like delays can be configured in {{ic|/etc/ifplugd/ifplugd.conf}}.
+
To set the "pretty" hostname and other machine metadata, see {{man|5|machine-info|https://www.freedesktop.org/software/systemd/man/machine-info.html}}.
  
Enabling {{ic|net-auto-wired.service}} should start ifplugd on bootup if you have {{Pkg|netcfg}} installed, otherwise you can use {{ic|ifplugd@eth0.service}}.
+
=== Local network hostname resolution ===
  
=== Bonding or LAG ===
+
The pre-requisite is to [[#Set the hostname]], after which hostname resolution works on the local system itself:
  
You will need {{Pkg|netcfg}} from the [[Official Repositories]], as well as the {{AUR|netcfg-bonding}} package from the [[AUR]].
+
{{hc|$ ping ''myhostname''|2=
 +
PING myhostname (192.168.1.2) 56(84) bytes of data.
 +
64 bytes from myhostname (192.168.1.2): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.043 ms}}
  
Edit/create the following files:
+
To allow other machines to address the host by name, it is necessary to either:
  
{{hc|/etc/network.d/bonded|2=
+
* Configure the {{man|5|hosts}} file, or
CONNECTION="bonding"
+
* Enable a service which resolves the hostname.
INTERFACE="bond0"
 
SLAVES="eth0 eth1"
 
IP="dhcp"
 
DHCP_TIMEOUT=10}}
 
  
{{hc|/etc/modules-load.d/bonding.conf|
+
{{Note|1={{Pkg|systemd}} provides hostname resolution via the {{ic|myhostname}} nss module, enabled by default in {{ic|/etc/nsswitch.conf}}. However, clients may still rely on {{ic|/etc/hosts}}, see [https://lists.debian.org/debian-devel/2013/07/msg00809.html] [https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=87717#c55] for examples.}}
bonding}}
 
  
Set up netcfg to use the bond0 interface.
+
To configure the hosts file, add the following line to {{ic|/etc/hosts}}:
  
Start your network:
+
  127.0.1.1 ''myhostname''.localdomain ''myhostname''
  $ systemctl enable netcfg@bonded
 
  
{{Note|To change the bonding mode (default is round robin) to, e.g, dynamic link aggregation:
+
As a result the system resolves to both entries:  
  
Create {{ic|/etc/modprobe.d/bonding.conf}}:
+
{{hc|$ getent hosts|
 +
127.0.0.1      localhost
 +
127.0.1.1      myhostname.localdomain myhostname
 +
}}
  
{{hc|/etc/modprobe.d/bonding.conf|2=
+
For a system with a permanent IP address, that permanent IP address should be used instead of {{ic|127.0.1.1}}.
options bonding mode=4
 
options bonding miimon=100}}
 
  
For more information about the different bonding policies (and other driver settings) see the [http://sourceforge.net/projects/bonding/files/Documentation/ Linux Ethernet Bonding Driver HOWTO].}}
+
{{Note|1=Another option is to set up a full DNS server such as [[BIND]] or [[Unbound]], but that is overkill and too complex for most systems. For small networks and dynamic flexibility with hosts joining and leaving the network [[Wikipedia:Zero-configuration_networking|zero-configuration networking]] services may be more applicable:
 +
*[[Samba]] provides hostname resolution via Microsoft's '''NetBIOS'''. It only requires installation of {{Pkg|samba}} and enabling of the {{ic|nmbd.service}} service. Computers running Windows, macOS, or Linux with {{ic|nmbd}} running, will be able to find your machine.
 +
*[[Avahi]] provides hostname resolution via '''zeroconf''', also known as Avahi or Bonjour. It requires slightly more complex configuration than Samba: see [[Avahi#Hostname resolution]] for details. Computers running macOS, or Linux with an Avahi daemon running, will be able to find your machine. Windows does not have an built-in Avahi client or daemon.
 +
}}
  
To activate the new bonded ports modprobe {{ic|bonding}}, stop {{ic|network}} and start the {{ic|net-profiles}} service:
+
== Tips and tricks ==
 
# modprobe bonding
 
# systemctl stop network
 
# systemctl start net-profiles
 
  
To check the status and bonding mode:
+
=== Change device name ===
  
$ cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0
+
You can change the device name by defining the name manually with an udev-rule. For example:
  
==== Wired -> Wireless Failover ====
+
{{hc|/etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules|<nowiki>
 +
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff", NAME="net1"
 +
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="ff:ee:dd:cc:bb:aa", NAME="net0"
 +
</nowiki>}}
  
Using {{ic|bonding}} to fallback to wireless when the wired ethernet goes down, this also detects the presence of either network connection and starts dhcpcd when either or both are connected.
+
These rules will be applied automatically at boot.
  
You'll need {{Pkg|netcfg}}, {{Pkg|ifplugd}}, and {{Pkg|wpa_supplicant}} from the official repositories.
+
A couple of things to note:
  
First configure the bonding driver to use active-backup:
+
* To get the MAC address of each card, use this command: {{ic|cat /sys/class/net/''device_name''/address}}
 +
* Make sure to use the lower-case hex values in your udev rules. It doesn't like upper-case.
  
{{hc|/etc/modprobe.d/bonding.conf|2=
+
If the network card has a dynamic MAC, you can use {{ic|DEVPATH}}, for example:
options bonding mode=active-backup
 
options bonding miimon=100
 
options bonding primary=eth0
 
options bonding max_bonds=0}}
 
  
The `max-bonds` line avoids getting the "Interface bond0 already exists" error.
+
{{hc|/etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules|<nowiki>
 +
SUBSYSTEM=="net", DEVPATH=="/devices/platform/wemac.*", NAME="int"
 +
SUBSYSTEM=="net", DEVPATH=="/devices/pci*/*1c.0/*/net/*", NAME="en"
 +
</nowiki>}}
  
Next, configure a {{Pkg|netcfg}} profile to enslave the two hardware interfaces:
+
The device path should match both the new and old device name, since the rule may be executed more than once on bootup. For example, in the second rule, {{ic|"/devices/pci*/*1c.0/*/net/enp*"}} would be wrong since it will stop matching once the name is changed to {{ic|en}}. Only the system-default rule will fire the second time around, causing the name to be changed back to e.g. {{ic|enp1s0}}.
  
{{hc|/etc/network.d/failover|2=
+
To [[Udev#Testing_rules_before_loading|test]] your rules, they can be triggered directly from userspace, e.g. with {{ic|udevadm --debug test /sys/''DEVPATH''}}. Remember to first take down the interface you are trying to rename (e.g. {{ic|ip link set enp1s0 down}}).
CONNECTION="bond"
 
DESCRIPTION="A wired connection with failover to wireless"
 
INTERFACE="bond0"
 
SLAVE_INTERFACES=("eth0" "wlan0")
 
IP="no"
 
SKIPNOCARRIER="no"}}
 
  
Enable the profile on startup.
+
{{Note|When choosing the static names '''it should be avoided to use names in the format of "eth''X''" and "wlan''X''"''', because this may lead to race conditions between the kernel and udev during boot. Instead, it is better to use interface names that are not used by the kernel as default, e.g.: {{ic|net0}}, {{ic|net1}}, {{ic|wifi0}}, {{ic|wifi1}}. For further details please see the [http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames systemd] documentation.}}
  
# systemctl enable netcfg@failover
+
=== Revert to traditional device names ===
  
Configure wpa_supplicant to associate with known networks. This can be done with a netcfg profile (remember to use IP="no"), a wpa_supplicant service running constantly, or on-demand with [[wpa_cli]]. Ways to do this are covered on the [[wpa_supplicant]] page.
+
If you would prefer to retain traditional interface names such as eth0,  [http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames Predictable Network Interface Names] can be disabled by masking the udev rule:
  
Create an {{Pkg|ifplugd}} action for automatic DHCP assignment on the bonded interface:
+
  # ln -s /dev/null /etc/udev/rules.d/80-net-setup-link.rules
  
{{hc|/etc/ifplugd/bond_dhcp.action|2=
+
=== Set device MTU and queue length ===
#!/bin/sh
 
  
case "$2" in
+
You can change the device [[wikipedia:Maximum_transmission_unit|MTU]] and queue length by defining manually with an udev-rule. For example:
  up)
 
    systemctl start "dhcpcd@$1.service" && exit 0
 
    ;;
 
  down)
 
    systemctl stop "dhcpcd@$1.service" && exit 0
 
    ;;
 
  *)
 
    echo "Wrong arguments" > /dev/stderr
 
    ;;
 
esac
 
exit 1}}
 
  
and make it executable
+
{{hc|/etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules|<nowiki>
 +
ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", KERNEL=="wl*", ATTR{mtu}="1500", ATTR{tx_queue_len}="2000"
 +
</nowiki>}}
  
# chmod +x /etc/ifplugd/bond_dhcp.action
+
{{Note|
 +
* {{ic|mtu}}: For PPPoE, the MTU should be no larger than 1492. You can also set MTU via {{man|5|systemd.netdev}}.
 +
* {{ic|tx_queue_len}}: Small value for slower devices with a high latency like modem links and ISDN. High value is recommend for server connected over the high-speed Internet connections that perform large data transfers.
 +
}}
  
Then create the [[systemd]] service which starts ifplugd for bond0:
+
=== ifplugd for laptops ===
  
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/net-auto-bonded@.service|2=
+
{{Tip|[[dhcpcd]] provides the same feature out of the box.}}
[Unit]
 
Description=Provides automatic dhcp resolution for bonded failover connection
 
Requires=netcfg@failover.service
 
After=netcfg@failover.service
 
  
[Service]
+
{{Pkg|ifplugd}} is a daemon which will automatically configure your Ethernet device when a cable is plugged in and automatically unconfigure it if the cable is pulled. This is useful on laptops with onboard network adapters, since it will only configure the interface when a cable is really connected. Another use is when you just need to restart the network but do not want to restart the computer or do it from the shell.
ExecStart=/usr/bin/ifplugd -i %i -r /etc/ifplugd/bond_dhcp.action -fIns
 
  
[Install]
+
By default it is configured to work for the {{ic|eth0}} device. This and other settings like delays can be configured in {{ic|/etc/ifplugd/ifplugd.conf}}.
WantedBy=multi-user.target}}
 
  
Enable the net-auto-bonded service and reboot:
+
{{Note|[[netctl]] package includes {{ic|netctl-ifplugd@.service}}, otherwise you can use {{ic|ifplugd@.service}} from {{Pkg|ifplugd}} package. For example, [[enable]] {{ic|ifplugd@eth0.service}}.}}
  
# systemctl enable net-auto-bonded@bond0.service
+
=== Bonding or LAG ===
# reboot
 
  
If you have a wired and wireless connection to the same network, you can probably now disconnect and reconnect the wired connection without losing connectivity. In most cases, even streaming music won't skip!
+
See [[netctl#Bonding]] or [[Wireless bonding]].
  
 
=== IP address aliasing ===
 
=== IP address aliasing ===
  
IP aliasing is the process of adding more than one IP address to a network interface. With this, one node on a network can have multiple connections to a network, each serving a different purpose.
+
IP aliasing is the process of adding more than one IP address to a network interface. With this, one node on a network can have multiple connections to a network, each serving a different purpose. Typical uses are virtual hosting of Web and FTP servers, or reorganizing servers without having to update any other machines (this is especially useful for nameservers).
 
 
To use IP aliasing from [[netcfg]], change {{ic|POST_UP}} and {{ic|PRE_DOWN}} commands in your network profile to set up the additional IP addresses manually. See [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1036395#p1036395 here] for details.
 
  
 
==== Example ====
 
==== Example ====
  
You will need {{Pkg|netcfg}} from the [[Official Repositories]].
+
To manually set an alias, for some NIC, use {{Pkg|iproute2}} to execute
  
Prepare the configuration:
+
# ip addr add 192.168.2.101/24 dev eth0 label eth0:1
  
{{hc|/etc/network.d/mynetwork|2=
+
To remove a given alias execute
  
CONNECTION='ethernet'
+
# ip addr del 192.168.2.101/24 dev eth0:1
DESCRIPTION='Five different addresses on the same NIC.'
 
INTERFACE='eth0'
 
IP='static'
 
ADDR='192.168.1.10'
 
GATEWAY='192.168.1.1'
 
DNS=('192.168.1.1')
 
DOMAIN=''
 
POST_UP='x=0; for i in 11 12 13 14; do ip addr add 192.168.1.$i/24 brd 192.168.1.255 dev eth0 label eth0:$((x++)); done'
 
PRE_DOWN='for i in 11 12 13 14; do ip addr del 192.168.1.$i/24 dev eth0; done'}}
 
  
The simply execute:
+
Packets destined for a subnet will use the primary alias by default. If the destination IP is within a subnet of a secondary alias, then the source IP is set respectively. Consider the case where there is more than one NIC, the default routes can be listed with {{ic|ip route}}.
 
 
$ systemctl enable net-auto-wired.service
 
  
 
=== Change MAC/hardware address ===
 
=== Change MAC/hardware address ===
  
See [[MAC Address Spoofing]].
+
See [[MAC address spoofing]].
  
=== Internet Share ===
+
=== Internet sharing ===
  
See [[Internet Share]].
+
See [[Internet sharing]].
  
=== Router Configuration ===
+
=== Router configuration ===
  
 
See [[Router]].
 
See [[Router]].
 +
 +
=== Promiscuous mode ===
 +
 +
Toggling [[wikipedia:Promiscuous_mode|promiscuous mode]] will make a (wireless) NIC forward all traffic it receives to the OS for further processing. This is opposite to "normal mode" where a NIC will drop frames it is not intended to receive. It is most often used for advanced network troubleshooting and [[wikipedia:Packet_sniffing|packet sniffing]].
 +
 +
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/promiscuous@.service|<nowiki>
 +
[Unit]
 +
Description=Set %i interface in promiscuous mode
 +
After=network.target
 +
 +
[Service]
 +
Type=oneshot
 +
ExecStart=/usr/bin/ip link set dev %i promisc on
 +
RemainAfterExit=yes
 +
 +
[Install]
 +
WantedBy=multi-user.target
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 +
If you want to enable promiscuous mode on interface {{ic|eth0}} run [[enable]] {{ic|promiscuous@eth0.service}}.
  
 
== Troubleshooting ==
 
== Troubleshooting ==
Line 529: Line 400:
 
=== Swapping computers on the cable modem ===
 
=== Swapping computers on the cable modem ===
  
Most domestic cable ISPs (videotron for example) have the cable modem configured to recognize only one client PC, by the MAC address of its network interface. Once the cable modem has learned the MAC address of the first PC or equipment that talks to it, it will not respond to another MAC address in any way. Thus if you swap one PC for another (or for a router), the new PC (or router) will not work with the cable modem, because the new PC (or router) has a MAC address different from the old one. To reset the cable modem so that it will recognise the new PC, you must power the cable modem off and on again. Once the cable modem has rebooted and gone fully online again (indicator lights settled down), reboot the newly connected PC so that it makes a DHCP request, or manually make it request a new DHCP lease.
+
Some cable ISPs (videotron for example) have the cable modem configured to recognize only one client PC, by the MAC address of its network interface. Once the cable modem has learned the MAC address of the first PC or equipment that talks to it, it will not respond to another MAC address in any way. Thus if you swap one PC for another (or for a router), the new PC (or router) will not work with the cable modem, because the new PC (or router) has a MAC address different from the old one. To reset the cable modem so that it will recognise the new PC, you must power the cable modem off and on again. Once the cable modem has rebooted and gone fully online again (indicator lights settled down), reboot the newly connected PC so that it makes a DHCP request, or manually make it request a new DHCP lease.
  
If this method does not work, you will need to clone the MAC address of the original machine. See also [[Configuring Network#Change MAC/hardware address|Change MAC/hardware address]].
+
If this method does not work, you will need to clone the MAC address of the original machine. See also [[#Change MAC/hardware address]].
  
=== The TCP window scaling issue ===
+
=== The TCP window scaling problem ===
  
 
TCP packets contain a "window" value in their headers indicating how much data the other host may send in return. This value is represented with only 16 bits, hence the window size is at most 64Kb. TCP packets are cached for a while (they have to be reordered), and as memory is (or used to be) limited, one host could easily run out of it.
 
TCP packets contain a "window" value in their headers indicating how much data the other host may send in return. This value is represented with only 16 bits, hence the window size is at most 64Kb. TCP packets are cached for a while (they have to be reordered), and as memory is (or used to be) limited, one host could easily run out of it.
  
Back in 1992, as more and more memory became available, [http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1323.html RFC 1323] was written to improve the situation: Window Scaling. The "window" value, provided in all packets, will be modified by a Scale Factor defined once, at the very beginning of the connection.
+
Back in 1992, as more and more memory became available, [http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1323.html RFC 1323] was written to improve the situation: Window Scaling. The "window" value, provided in all packets, will be modified by a Scale Factor defined once, at the very beginning of the connection. That 8-bit Scale Factor allows the Window to be up to 32 times higher than the initial 64Kb.
  
That 8-bit Scale Factor allows the Window to be up to 32 times higher than the initial 64Kb.
+
It appears that some broken routers and firewalls on the Internet are rewriting the Scale Factor to 0 which causes misunderstandings between hosts. The Linux kernel 2.6.17 introduced a new calculation scheme generating higher Scale Factors, virtually making the aftermaths of the broken routers and firewalls more visible.
 
 
It appears that some broken routers and firewalls on the Internet are rewriting the Scale Factor to 0 which causes misunderstandings between hosts.
 
 
 
The Linux kernel 2.6.17 introduced a new calculation scheme generating higher Scale Factors, virtually making the aftermaths of the broken routers and firewalls more visible.
 
  
 
The resulting connection is at best very slow or broken.
 
The resulting connection is at best very slow or broken.
Line 553: Line 420:
 
When you have this problem, the {{ic|dmesg}}'s output is OK, logs are clean and {{ic|ip addr}} will report normal status... and actually everything appears normal.
 
When you have this problem, the {{ic|dmesg}}'s output is OK, logs are clean and {{ic|ip addr}} will report normal status... and actually everything appears normal.
  
If you cannot browse any website, but you can ping some random hosts, chances are great that you're experiencing this issue: ping uses ICMP and is not affected by TCP issues.
+
If you cannot browse any website, but you can ping some random hosts, chances are great that you're experiencing this problem: ping uses ICMP and is not affected by TCP problems.
  
You can try to use Wireshark. You might see successful UDP and ICMP communications but unsuccessful TCP communications (only to foreign hosts).
+
You can try to use [[Wireshark]]. You might see successful UDP and ICMP communications but unsuccessful TCP communications (only to foreign hosts).
  
==== How to fix it (The bad way) ====
+
==== Ways of fixing it ====
  
To fix it the bad way, you can change the tcp_rmem value, on which Scale Factor calculation is based. Although it should work for most hosts, it is not guaranteed, especially for very distant ones.
+
===== Bad =====
 +
 
 +
To fix it the bad way, you can change the {{ic|tcp_rmem}} value, on which Scale Factor calculation is based. Although it should work for most hosts, it is not guaranteed, especially for very distant ones.
  
 
  # echo "4096 87380 174760" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_rmem
 
  # echo "4096 87380 174760" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_rmem
  
==== How to fix it (The good way) ====
+
===== Good =====
  
Simply disable Window Scaling. Since Window Scaling is a nice TCP feature, it may be uncomfortable to disable it, especially if you cannot fix the broken router. There are several ways to disable Window Scaling, and it seems that the most bulletproof way (which will work with most kernels) is to add the following line to {{ic|/etc/sysctl.conf}} (see also [[sysctl]])
+
Simply disable Window Scaling. Since Window Scaling is a nice TCP feature, it may be uncomfortable to disable it, especially if you cannot fix the broken router. There are several ways to disable Window Scaling, and it seems that the most bulletproof way (which will work with most kernels) is to add the following line to {{ic|/etc/sysctl.d/99-disable_window_scaling.conf}} (see also [[sysctl]]):
  
 
  net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 0
 
  net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 0
  
==== How to fix it (The best way) ====
+
===== Best =====
  
This issue is caused by broken routers/firewalls, so let's change them. Some users have reported that the broken router was their very own DSL router.
+
This problem is caused by broken routers/firewalls, so let's change them. Some users have reported that the broken router was their very own DSL router.
  
 
==== More about it ====
 
==== More about it ====
Line 579: Line 448:
 
There are also several relevant threads on the LKML.
 
There are also several relevant threads on the LKML.
  
=== Realtek no link / WOL issue ===
+
=== Realtek no link / WOL problem ===
  
Users with Realtek 8168 8169 8101 8111(C) based NICs (cards / and on-board) may notice an issue where the NIC seems to be disabled on boot and has no Link light. This can usually be found on a dual boot system where Windows is also installed. It seems that using the offical Realtek drivers (dated anything after May 2007) under Windows is the cause. These newer drivers disable the Wake-On-LAN feature by disabling the NIC at Windows shutdown time, where it will remain disabled until the next time Windows boots. You will be able to notice if this issue is affecting you if the Link light remains off until Windows boots up; during Windows shutdown the Link light will switch off. Normal operation should be that the link light is always on as long as the system is on, even during POST. This issue will also affect other operative systems without newer drivers (eg. Live CDs). Here are a few fixes for this issue:
+
Users with Realtek 8168 8169 8101 8111(C) based NICs (cards / and on-board) may notice a problem where the NIC seems to be disabled on boot and has no Link light. This can usually be found on a dual boot system where Windows is also installed. It seems that using the offical Realtek drivers (dated anything after May 2007) under Windows is the cause. These newer drivers disable the Wake-On-LAN feature by disabling the NIC at Windows shutdown time, where it will remain disabled until the next time Windows boots. You will be able to notice if this problem is affecting you if the Link light remains off until Windows boots up; during Windows shutdown the Link light will switch off. Normal operation should be that the link light is always on as long as the system is on, even during POST. This problem will also affect other operating systems without newer drivers (eg. Live CDs). Here are a few fixes for this problem.
  
==== Method 1 - Rollback/change Windows driver ====
+
==== Enable the NIC directly in Linux ====
 +
 
 +
Follow [[#Enabling and disabling network interfaces]] to enable the interface.
 +
 
 +
==== Rollback/change Windows driver ====
  
 
You can roll back your Windows NIC driver to the Microsoft provided one (if available), or roll back/install an official Realtek driver pre-dating May 2007 (may be on the CD that came with your hardware).
 
You can roll back your Windows NIC driver to the Microsoft provided one (if available), or roll back/install an official Realtek driver pre-dating May 2007 (may be on the CD that came with your hardware).
  
==== Method 2 - Enable WOL in Windows driver ====
+
==== Enable WOL in Windows driver ====
 +
 
 +
Probably the best and the fastest fix is to change this setting in the Windows driver. This way it should be fixed system-wide and not only under Arch (eg. live CDs, other operating systems). In Windows, under Device Manager, find your Realtek network adapter and double-click it. Under the "Advanced" tab, change "Wake-on-LAN after shutdown" to "Enable".
  
Probably the best and the fastest fix is to change this setting in the Windows driver. This way it should be fixed system-wide and not only under Arch (eg. live CDs, other operative systems). In Windows, under Device Manager, find your Realtek network adapter and double-click it. Under the Advanced tab, change "Wake-on-LAN after shutdown" to Enable.
+
In Windows XP (example):
  
In Windows XP (example)
+
  Right click my computer and choose "Properties"
  Right click my computer
+
  --> "Hardware" tab
  --> Hardware tab
 
 
   --> Device Manager
 
   --> Device Manager
 
     --> Network Adapters
 
     --> Network Adapters
Line 603: Line 477:
 
{{Note|Newer Realtek Windows drivers (tested with ''Realtek 8111/8169 LAN Driver v5.708.1030.2008'', dated 2009/01/22, available from GIGABYTE) may refer to this option slightly differently, like ''Shutdown Wake-On-LAN --> Enable''. It seems that switching it to {{ic|Disable}} has no effect (you will notice the Link light still turns off upon Windows shutdown). One rather dirty workaround is to boot to Windows and just reset the system (perform an ungraceful restart/shutdown) thus not giving the Windows driver a chance to disable LAN. The Link light will remain on and the LAN adapter will remain accessible after POST - that is until you boot back to Windows and shut it down properly again.}}
 
{{Note|Newer Realtek Windows drivers (tested with ''Realtek 8111/8169 LAN Driver v5.708.1030.2008'', dated 2009/01/22, available from GIGABYTE) may refer to this option slightly differently, like ''Shutdown Wake-On-LAN --> Enable''. It seems that switching it to {{ic|Disable}} has no effect (you will notice the Link light still turns off upon Windows shutdown). One rather dirty workaround is to boot to Windows and just reset the system (perform an ungraceful restart/shutdown) thus not giving the Windows driver a chance to disable LAN. The Link light will remain on and the LAN adapter will remain accessible after POST - that is until you boot back to Windows and shut it down properly again.}}
  
==== Method 3 - Newer Realtek Linux driver ====
+
==== Newer Realtek Linux driver ====
  
Any newer driver for these Realtek cards can be found for Linux on the realtek site. (untested but believed to also solve the problem).
+
Any newer driver for these Realtek cards can be found for Linux on the realtek site (untested but believed to also solve the problem).
  
==== Method 4 - Enable ''LAN Boot ROM'' in BIOS/CMOS ====
+
==== Enable ''LAN Boot ROM'' in BIOS/CMOS ====
  
 
It appears that setting ''Integrated Peripherals --> Onboard LAN Boot ROM --> Enabled'' in BIOS/CMOS reactivates the Realtek LAN chip on system boot-up, despite the Windows driver disabling it on OS shutdown.
 
It appears that setting ''Integrated Peripherals --> Onboard LAN Boot ROM --> Enabled'' in BIOS/CMOS reactivates the Realtek LAN chip on system boot-up, despite the Windows driver disabling it on OS shutdown.
<br><small>This was tested successfully multiple times with GIGABYTE system board GA-G31M-ES2L with BIOS version F8 released on 2009/02/05. YMMV.</small>
 
 
=== DLink G604T/DLink G502T DNS issue ===
 
 
Users with a DLink G604T/DLink G502T router, using DHCP and have firmware v2.00+ (typically users with AUS firmware) may have issues with certain programs not resolving the DNS. One of these programs are unfortunatley pacman. The problem is basically the router in certain situations is not sending the DNS properly to DHCP, which causes programs to try and connect to servers with an IP address of 1.0.0.0 and fail with a connection timed out error
 
 
==== How to diagnose the problem ====
 
 
The best way to diagnose the problem is to use Firefox/Konqueror/links/seamonkey and to enable wget for pacman. If this is a fresh install of Arch Linux, then you may want to consider installing {{ic|links}} through the live CD.
 
 
Firstly, enable wget for pacman (since it gives us info about pacman when it is downloading packages)
 
Open {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} with your favourite editor and uncomment the following line (remove the # if it is there)
 
 
XferCommand=/usr/bin/wget --passive-ftp -c -O %o %u
 
 
While you are editing {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}, check the default mirror that pacman uses to download packages.
 
 
Now open up the default mirror in an Internet browser to see if the mirror actually works. If it does work, then do {{ic|pacman -Syy}} (otherwise pick another working mirror and set it to the pacman default). If you get something similar to the following (notice the 1.0.0.0),
 
 
<nowiki>ftp://mirror.pacific.net.au/linux/archlinux/extra/os/i686/extra.db.tar.gz</nowiki>
 
            => '/var/lib/pacman/community.db.tar.gz.part'
 
Resolving mirror.pacific.net.au... 1.0.0.0
 
 
then you most likely have this problem. The 1.0.0.0 means it is unable to resolve DNS, so we must add it to {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}}.
 
 
==== How to fix it ====
 
 
Basically what we need to do is to manually add the DNS servers to our {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} file. The problem is that DHCP automatically deletes and replaces this file on boot, so we need to edit {{ic|/etc/conf.d/dhcpcd}} and change the flags to stop DHCP from doing this.
 
 
When you open {{ic|/etc/conf.d/dhcpcd}}, you should see something close to the following:
 
 
DHCPCD_ARGS="-t 30 -h $HOSTNAME"
 
 
Add the {{ic|-R}} flag to the arguments, e.g.,
 
 
DHCPCD_ARGS="-R -t 30 -h $HOSTNAME"
 
 
{{Note|1=If you are using {{Pkg|dhcpcd}} >= 4.0.2, the {{ic|-R}} flag has been deprecated. Please see the [[#For DHCP assigned IP address]] section for information on how to use a custom {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} file.}}
 
 
Save and close the file; now open {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}}. You should see a single nameserver (most likely 10.1.1.1). This is the gateway to your router, which we need to connect to in order to get the DNS servers of your ISP. Paste the IP address into your browser and log in to your router. Go to the DNS section, and you should see an IP address in the Primary DNS Server field; copy it and paste it as a nameserver '''ABOVE''' the current gateway one.
 
 
For example, {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} should look something along the lines of:
 
 
nameserver 10.1.1.1
 
 
If my primary DNS server is 211.29.132.12, then change {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} to:
 
 
nameserver 211.29.132.12
 
nameserver 10.1.1.1
 
 
Now restart the network daemon by running {{ic|systemctl restart dhcpcd@<interface>}} and do {{ic|pacman -Syy}}. If it syncs correctly with the server, then the problem is solved.
 
 
==== More about it ====
 
 
This is the whirlpool forum (Australian ISP community) which talks about and gives the same solution to the problem:
 
 
http://forums.whirlpool.net.au/forum-replies-archive.cfm/461625.html
 
  
=== Check DHCP problem by releasing IP first ===
+
{{Note|This was tested several times on a GIGABYTE GA-G31M-ES2L motherboard, BIOS version F8 released on 2009/02/05.}}
  
Problem may occur when DHCP get wrong IP assignment. For example when two routers are tied together through VPN. The router that is connected to me by VPN may assigning IP address. To fix it. On a console, as root, release IP address:
+
=== No interface with Atheros chipsets ===
  
# dhcpcd -k
+
Users of some Atheros ethernet chips are reporting it does not work out-of-the-box (with installation media of February 2014). The working solution for this is to install {{AUR|backports-patched}}.
  
Then request a new one:
+
=== Broadcom BCM57780 ===
  
# dhcpcd
+
This Broadcom chipset sometimes does not behave well unless you specify the order of the modules to be loaded. The modules are {{ic|broadcom}} and {{ic|tg3}}, the former needing to be loaded first.
  
Maybe you had to run those two commands many times.
+
These steps should help if your computer has this chipset:
  
 +
* Find your NIC in ''lspci'' output:
  
=== No eth0 with Atheros AR8161 ===
+
{{hc|<nowiki>$ lspci | grep Ethernet</nowiki>|
 +
02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Broadcom Corporation NetLink BCM57780 Gigabit Ethernet PCIe (rev 01)
 +
}}
  
With the Atheros AR8161 Gigabit Ethernet card, the ethernet connection is not working out-of-the-box (with the installation media of March 2013). The module "alx" needs to be loaded but is not present.
+
* If your wired networking is not functioning in some way or another, try unplugging your cable then doing the following:
  
The driver from [http://linuxwireless.org/en/users/Download/stable/#compat-wireless_stable_releases compat-wireless] (that has become [https://backports.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Releases compat-drives] since linux 3.7) need to be installed. The "-u" postfix annotates that Qualcomm have applied a driver under a unified driver.
+
# modprobe -r tg3
  $ wget https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/projects/backports/2013/03/04/compat-drivers-2013-03-04-u.tar.bz2
+
# modprobe broadcom
  $ tar xjf compat*
+
# modprobe tg3
  $ cd compat*
 
  $ ./scripts/driver-select alx
 
  $ make
 
  $ sudo make install
 
  $ sudo modprobe alx
 
  
The alx driver has not been added to Linux kernel due to various issues. Compatibility between the different kernel versions has been spotty. For better support follow the [http://lists.infradead.org/mailman/listinfo/unified-drivers mailing list]and [http://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/workgroups/networking/alx alx page]for latest working solution for alx.
+
* Plug your network cable in. If this solves your problems you can make this permanent by adding {{ic|broadcom}} and {{ic|tg3}} (in this order) to the {{ic|MODULES}} array in {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}}:
  
The driver must be built and installed after every kernel change.
+
MODULES=".. broadcom tg3 .."
  
Alternatively you can use the AUR package for [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages/compat-drivers-patched/ compat drivers], which installs many other drivers.
+
* Rebuild the initramfs:
  
=== No eth0 with Atheros AR9485 ===
+
# mkinitcpio -p linux
  
The ethernet (eth0) for Atheros AR9485 are not working out-of-the-box (with installation media of March 2013). The working solution for this is to install the package [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages/compat-drivers-patched/ compat-drivers-patched] from AUR.
+
* Alternatively, you can create an {{ic|/etc/modprobe.d/broadcom.conf}}:
  
=== No carrier / no connection after suspend ===
+
softdep tg3 pre: broadcom
After suspend to RAM no connection is found although the network cable is plugged in.
 
This may be caused by PCI power management. What is the output of
 
  
# ip link show eth0
+
{{Note|These methods may work for other chipsets, such as BCM57760.}}
  
If the line contains "NO-CARRIER" even though there's a cable connected to your eth0 port, it is possible that the device was auto-suspended and the media sense feature doesn't work. To solve this, first you need to find your ethernet controllers PCI address by
+
=== Realtek RTL8111/8168B ===
  
# lspci
+
{{hc|<nowiki># lspci | grep Ethernet</nowiki>|
 +
03:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168B PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet controller (rev 02)
 +
}}
  
This should look similar to this:
+
The adapter should be recognized by the {{ic|r8169}} module. However, with some chip revisions the connection may go off and on all the time. The alternative {{Pkg|r8168}} should be used for a reliable connection in this case. [[Blacklist]] {{ic|r8169}}, if {{Pkg|r8168}} is not automatically loaded by [[udev]], see [[Kernel modules#Automatic module handling]].
  
...
+
{{Accuracy|"some revisions", no proof the driver is the cause, and not e.g poorly configured DNS servers}}
00:19.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82577LM Gigabit Network Connection (rev 06)
 
...
 
  
So the address is 00:19.0.
+
Another fault in the drivers for some revisions of this adapter is poor IPv6 support. [[IPv6#Disable functionality]] can be helpful if you encounter issues such as hanging webpages and slow speeds.
Now check the PM status of the device by issuing
 
  
# cat "/sys/bus/pci/devices/0000:00:19.0/power/control"
+
=== Gigabyte Motherboard with Realtek 8111/8168/8411 ===
 +
With motherboards such as the Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD3, booting with IOMMU off (which can be the default) will cause the network interface to be unreliable, often failing to connect or connecting but allowing no throughput. This will apply not only to the onboard NIC, but any other pci-NIC you put in the box because the IOMMU setting affects the entire network interface on the board. Enabling IOMMU and booting with the install media will throw AMD I-10/xhci page faults for a second, but then boot normally, resulting in a fully functional onboard NIC (even with the r8169 module).
  
substituting 00:19.0 with the address obtained from lspci.
+
When configuring the boot process for your installation, add {{ic|1=iommu=soft}} as a [[kernel parameter]] to eliminate the error messages on boot and restore USB3.0 functionality.
If the output reads "auto", you can try to bring the device out of suspend by
 
  
# echo on > "/sys/bus/pci/devices/0000:00:19.0/power/control"
+
== See also ==
  
Don't forget to substitute the address again.
+
* [https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-reference/ch05.en.html Debian Reference: Network setup]
 +
* [https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/7/html/Networking_Guide/ RHEL7: Networking Guide]
 +
* [http://www.linuxhomenetworking.com/wiki/ Linux Home Networking]
 +
* [https://blog.packagecloud.io/eng/2016/06/22/monitoring-tuning-linux-networking-stack-receiving-data/ Monitoring and tuning the Linux Networking Stack: Receiving data]
 +
* [https://blog.packagecloud.io/eng/2017/02/06/monitoring-tuning-linux-networking-stack-sending-data/ Monitoring and tuning the Linux Networking Stack: Sending data]
 +
* [http://blog.yadutaf.fr/2017/07/28/tracing-a-packet-journey-using-linux-tracepoints-perf-ebpf/ Tracing a packet journey using tracepoints, perf and eBPF]

Latest revision as of 21:42, 13 December 2017

This page explains how to set up a wired connection to a network. If you need to set up wireless networking see the Wireless network configuration page.

Check the connection

The basic installation procedure typically has a functional network configuration. Use ping(8) to check the connection:

$ ping www.google.com
PING www.l.google.com (74.125.132.105) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=1 ttl=50 time=17.0 ms
...

If the ping is successful (you see 64 bytes messages as above), then the network is configured. Press Control-C to stop the ping.

If the ping failed with an Unknown hosts error, it means that your machine was unable to resolve this domain name. It may be related to your service provider or your router/gateway. Try pinging a static IP address to prove that your machine has access to the Internet:

$ ping 8.8.8.8
PING 8.8.8.8 (8.8.8.8) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_req=1 ttl=53 time=52.9 ms
...

If you are able to ping 8.8.8.8 but not www.google.com, check your DNS configuration. See resolv.conf for details. The hosts line in /etc/nsswitch.conf is another place you can check.

If not, check for cable issues before diagnosing further.

Note:
  • If you receive an error like ping: icmp open socket: Operation not permitted when executing ping, try to re-install the iputils package.
  • The -c num option can be used to make exactly num pings, otherwise it pings infinitely and has to be terminated manually. See ping(8) for more information.
  • 8.8.8.8 is a static address that is easy to remember. It is the address of Google's primary DNS server, therefore it can be considered reliable, and is generally not blocked by content filtering systems and proxies.

Device driver

Check the status

udev should detect your network interface controller and automatically load the necessary module at start up. Check the "Ethernet controller" entry (or similar) from the lspci -v output. It should tell you which kernel module contains the driver for your network device. For example:

$ lspci -v
02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Attansic Technology Corp. L1 Gigabit Ethernet Adapter (rev b0)
 	...
 	Kernel driver in use: atl1
 	Kernel modules: atl1

Next, check that the driver was loaded via dmesg | grep module_name. For example:

$ dmesg | grep atl1
...
atl1 0000:02:00.0: eth0 link is up 100 Mbps full duplex

Skip the next section if the driver was loaded successfully. Otherwise, you will need to know which module is needed for your particular model.

Load the module

Search in the Internet for the right module/driver for the chipset. Some common modules are 8139too for cards with a Realtek chipset, or sis900 for cards with a SiS chipset. Once you know which module to use, try to load it manually. If you get an error saying that the module was not found, it's possible that the driver is not included in Arch kernel. You may search the AUR for the module name.

If udev is not detecting and loading the proper module automatically during bootup, see Kernel modules#Automatic module handling.

Network management

Device names

For computers with multiple NICs, it is important to have fixed device names. Many configuration problems are caused by interface name changing.

udev is responsible for which device gets which name. Systemd uses Predictable Network Interface Names, which automatically assigns static names to network devices. Interfaces are now prefixed with en (wired/Ethernet), wl (wireless/WLAN), or ww (WWAN) followed by an automatically generated identifier, creating an entry such as enp0s25.

Tip: This behavior may be disabled by adding net.ifnames=0 to the kernel parameters.
Note: When changing the interface naming scheme, do not forget to update all network-related configuration files and custom systemd unit files to reflect the change.

Get current device names

Both wired and wireless device names can be found via:

$ ls /sys/class/net

or

$ ip link

Note that lo is the W:Loop_device and not used in making network connections.

Wireless device names can also be retrieved using iw dev. See also Wireless network configuration#Get the name of the interface.

Tip: To change the device names, see #Change device name and #Revert to traditional device names.

Enabling and disabling network interfaces

You can activate a network interface using:

# ip link set interface up

To deactivate it do:

# ip link set interface down

To check the result for the interface eth0:

$ ip link show dev eth0
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,PROMISC,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master br0 state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
...
Note: If your default route is through interface eth0, taking it down will also remove the route, and bringing it back up will not automatically reestablish the default route. See #Manual assignment for reestablishing it.

Dynamic IP address

See #Network managers for a list of options in setting a dynamic IP address.

Static IP address

A static IP address can be configured with most standard network managers. Independently of the tool you choose, you will probably need to be prepared with the following information:

If you are running a private network, it is safe to use IP addresses in 192.168.*.* for your IP addresses, with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 and a broadcast address of 192.168.*.255. The gateway is usually 192.168.*.1 or 192.168.*.254.

Warning:
  • Make sure manually assigned IP addresses do not conflict with DHCP assigned ones. See this forum thread.
  • If you share your Internet connection from a Windows machine without a router, be sure to use static IP addresses on both computers to avoid LAN problems.
Tip: Addresses can be calculated with the ipcalc package; see #Calculating addresses.

Manual assignment

It is possible to manually set up a static IP using only the iproute2 package. This is a good way to test connection settings since the connection made using this method will not persist across reboots. First enable the network interface:

# ip link set interface up

Assign a static IP address in the console:

# ip addr add IP_address/subnet_mask broadcast broadcast_address dev interface

Then add your gateway IP address:

# ip route add default via default_gateway

For example:

# ip link set eth0 up
# ip addr add 192.168.1.2/24 broadcast 192.168.1.255 dev eth0
# ip route add default via 192.168.1.1
Tip: If you get the message RTNETLINK answers: Network is unreachable, try to break up the route creation in the following two parts:
# ip route add 192.168.1.1 dev eth0
# ip route add default via 192.168.1.1 dev eth0

To undo these steps (e.g. before switching to a dynamic IP), first remove any assigned IP address:

# ip addr flush dev interface

Then remove any assigned gateway:

# ip route flush dev interface

And finally disable the interface:

# ip link set interface down

For more options, see the ip(8). These commands can be automated using scripts and systemd units.

Calculating addresses

You can use ipcalc provided by the ipcalc package to calculate IP broadcast, network, netmask, and host ranges for more advanced configurations. An example is using Ethernet over Firewire to connect a Windows machine to Linux. To improve security and organization, both machines have their own network with the netmask and broadcast configured accordingly.

Finding out the respective netmask and broadcast addresses is done with ipcalc, by specifying the IP of the Linux NIC 10.66.66.1 and the number of hosts (here two):

$ ipcalc -nb 10.66.66.1 -s 1
Address:   10.66.66.1

Netmask:   255.255.255.252 = 30
Network:   10.66.66.0/30
HostMin:   10.66.66.1
HostMax:   10.66.66.2
Broadcast: 10.66.66.3
Hosts/Net: 2                     Class A, Private Internet

Network managers

There are many solutions to choose from, but remember that all of them are mutually exclusive; you should not run two daemons simultaneously. The following table compares the different connection managers. Automatically handles wired connection means that there is at least one option for the user to simply start the daemon without creating a configuration file.

Connection manager Automatically handles
wired connection
Official
GUI
Archiso [1] Console tools Systemd units
ConnMan Yes No No connmanctl connman.service
dhcpcd Yes No Yes (base) dhcpcd dhcpcd.service, dhcpcd@interface.service
netctl Yes No Yes (base) netctl netctl-ifplugd@interface.service
NetworkManager Yes Yes No nmcli,nmtui NetworkManager.service
systemd-networkd No No Yes (base) systemd-networkd.service, systemd-resolved.service
Wicd Yes Yes No wicd-curses wicd.service

See also List of applications#Network managers.

Set the hostname

A hostname is a unique name created to identify a machine on a network, configured in /etc/hostname—see hostname(5) and hostname(7) for details. The file can contain the system's domain name, if any. To set the hostname, edit /etc/hostname to include a single line with myhostname:

/etc/hostname
myhostname
Tip: For advice on choosing a hostname, see RFC 1178.

Alternatively, using hostnamectl(1):

# hostnamectl set-hostname myhostname

To temporarily set the hostname (until reboot), use hostname(1) from inetutils:

# hostname myhostname

To set the "pretty" hostname and other machine metadata, see machine-info(5).

Local network hostname resolution

The pre-requisite is to #Set the hostname, after which hostname resolution works on the local system itself:

$ ping myhostname
PING myhostname (192.168.1.2) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from myhostname (192.168.1.2): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.043 ms

To allow other machines to address the host by name, it is necessary to either:

  • Configure the hosts(5) file, or
  • Enable a service which resolves the hostname.
Note: systemd provides hostname resolution via the myhostname nss module, enabled by default in /etc/nsswitch.conf. However, clients may still rely on /etc/hosts, see [2] [3] for examples.

To configure the hosts file, add the following line to /etc/hosts:

127.0.1.1	myhostname.localdomain	myhostname

As a result the system resolves to both entries:

$ getent hosts
127.0.0.1       localhost
127.0.1.1       myhostname.localdomain myhostname

For a system with a permanent IP address, that permanent IP address should be used instead of 127.0.1.1.

Note: Another option is to set up a full DNS server such as BIND or Unbound, but that is overkill and too complex for most systems. For small networks and dynamic flexibility with hosts joining and leaving the network zero-configuration networking services may be more applicable:
  • Samba provides hostname resolution via Microsoft's NetBIOS. It only requires installation of samba and enabling of the nmbd.service service. Computers running Windows, macOS, or Linux with nmbd running, will be able to find your machine.
  • Avahi provides hostname resolution via zeroconf, also known as Avahi or Bonjour. It requires slightly more complex configuration than Samba: see Avahi#Hostname resolution for details. Computers running macOS, or Linux with an Avahi daemon running, will be able to find your machine. Windows does not have an built-in Avahi client or daemon.

Tips and tricks

Change device name

You can change the device name by defining the name manually with an udev-rule. For example:

/etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff", NAME="net1"
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="ff:ee:dd:cc:bb:aa", NAME="net0"

These rules will be applied automatically at boot.

A couple of things to note:

  • To get the MAC address of each card, use this command: cat /sys/class/net/device_name/address
  • Make sure to use the lower-case hex values in your udev rules. It doesn't like upper-case.

If the network card has a dynamic MAC, you can use DEVPATH, for example:

/etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules
SUBSYSTEM=="net", DEVPATH=="/devices/platform/wemac.*", NAME="int"
SUBSYSTEM=="net", DEVPATH=="/devices/pci*/*1c.0/*/net/*", NAME="en"

The device path should match both the new and old device name, since the rule may be executed more than once on bootup. For example, in the second rule, "/devices/pci*/*1c.0/*/net/enp*" would be wrong since it will stop matching once the name is changed to en. Only the system-default rule will fire the second time around, causing the name to be changed back to e.g. enp1s0.

To test your rules, they can be triggered directly from userspace, e.g. with udevadm --debug test /sys/DEVPATH. Remember to first take down the interface you are trying to rename (e.g. ip link set enp1s0 down).

Note: When choosing the static names it should be avoided to use names in the format of "ethX" and "wlanX", because this may lead to race conditions between the kernel and udev during boot. Instead, it is better to use interface names that are not used by the kernel as default, e.g.: net0, net1, wifi0, wifi1. For further details please see the systemd documentation.

Revert to traditional device names

If you would prefer to retain traditional interface names such as eth0, Predictable Network Interface Names can be disabled by masking the udev rule:

 # ln -s /dev/null /etc/udev/rules.d/80-net-setup-link.rules

Set device MTU and queue length

You can change the device MTU and queue length by defining manually with an udev-rule. For example:

/etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules
ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", KERNEL=="wl*", ATTR{mtu}="1500", ATTR{tx_queue_len}="2000"
Note:
  • mtu: For PPPoE, the MTU should be no larger than 1492. You can also set MTU via systemd.netdev(5).
  • tx_queue_len: Small value for slower devices with a high latency like modem links and ISDN. High value is recommend for server connected over the high-speed Internet connections that perform large data transfers.

ifplugd for laptops

Tip: dhcpcd provides the same feature out of the box.

ifplugd is a daemon which will automatically configure your Ethernet device when a cable is plugged in and automatically unconfigure it if the cable is pulled. This is useful on laptops with onboard network adapters, since it will only configure the interface when a cable is really connected. Another use is when you just need to restart the network but do not want to restart the computer or do it from the shell.

By default it is configured to work for the eth0 device. This and other settings like delays can be configured in /etc/ifplugd/ifplugd.conf.

Note: netctl package includes netctl-ifplugd@.service, otherwise you can use ifplugd@.service from ifplugd package. For example, enable ifplugd@eth0.service.

Bonding or LAG

See netctl#Bonding or Wireless bonding.

IP address aliasing

IP aliasing is the process of adding more than one IP address to a network interface. With this, one node on a network can have multiple connections to a network, each serving a different purpose. Typical uses are virtual hosting of Web and FTP servers, or reorganizing servers without having to update any other machines (this is especially useful for nameservers).

Example

To manually set an alias, for some NIC, use iproute2 to execute

# ip addr add 192.168.2.101/24 dev eth0 label eth0:1

To remove a given alias execute

# ip addr del 192.168.2.101/24 dev eth0:1

Packets destined for a subnet will use the primary alias by default. If the destination IP is within a subnet of a secondary alias, then the source IP is set respectively. Consider the case where there is more than one NIC, the default routes can be listed with ip route.

Change MAC/hardware address

See MAC address spoofing.

Internet sharing

See Internet sharing.

Router configuration

See Router.

Promiscuous mode

Toggling promiscuous mode will make a (wireless) NIC forward all traffic it receives to the OS for further processing. This is opposite to "normal mode" where a NIC will drop frames it is not intended to receive. It is most often used for advanced network troubleshooting and packet sniffing.

/etc/systemd/system/promiscuous@.service
[Unit]
Description=Set %i interface in promiscuous mode
After=network.target

[Service]
Type=oneshot
ExecStart=/usr/bin/ip link set dev %i promisc on
RemainAfterExit=yes

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

If you want to enable promiscuous mode on interface eth0 run enable promiscuous@eth0.service.

Troubleshooting

Swapping computers on the cable modem

Some cable ISPs (videotron for example) have the cable modem configured to recognize only one client PC, by the MAC address of its network interface. Once the cable modem has learned the MAC address of the first PC or equipment that talks to it, it will not respond to another MAC address in any way. Thus if you swap one PC for another (or for a router), the new PC (or router) will not work with the cable modem, because the new PC (or router) has a MAC address different from the old one. To reset the cable modem so that it will recognise the new PC, you must power the cable modem off and on again. Once the cable modem has rebooted and gone fully online again (indicator lights settled down), reboot the newly connected PC so that it makes a DHCP request, or manually make it request a new DHCP lease.

If this method does not work, you will need to clone the MAC address of the original machine. See also #Change MAC/hardware address.

The TCP window scaling problem

TCP packets contain a "window" value in their headers indicating how much data the other host may send in return. This value is represented with only 16 bits, hence the window size is at most 64Kb. TCP packets are cached for a while (they have to be reordered), and as memory is (or used to be) limited, one host could easily run out of it.

Back in 1992, as more and more memory became available, RFC 1323 was written to improve the situation: Window Scaling. The "window" value, provided in all packets, will be modified by a Scale Factor defined once, at the very beginning of the connection. That 8-bit Scale Factor allows the Window to be up to 32 times higher than the initial 64Kb.

It appears that some broken routers and firewalls on the Internet are rewriting the Scale Factor to 0 which causes misunderstandings between hosts. The Linux kernel 2.6.17 introduced a new calculation scheme generating higher Scale Factors, virtually making the aftermaths of the broken routers and firewalls more visible.

The resulting connection is at best very slow or broken.

How to diagnose the problem

First of all, let's make it clear: this problem is odd. In some cases, you will not be able to use TCP connections (HTTP, FTP, ...) at all and in others, you will be able to communicate with some hosts (very few).

When you have this problem, the dmesg's output is OK, logs are clean and ip addr will report normal status... and actually everything appears normal.

If you cannot browse any website, but you can ping some random hosts, chances are great that you're experiencing this problem: ping uses ICMP and is not affected by TCP problems.

You can try to use Wireshark. You might see successful UDP and ICMP communications but unsuccessful TCP communications (only to foreign hosts).

Ways of fixing it

Bad

To fix it the bad way, you can change the tcp_rmem value, on which Scale Factor calculation is based. Although it should work for most hosts, it is not guaranteed, especially for very distant ones.

# echo "4096 87380 174760" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_rmem
Good

Simply disable Window Scaling. Since Window Scaling is a nice TCP feature, it may be uncomfortable to disable it, especially if you cannot fix the broken router. There are several ways to disable Window Scaling, and it seems that the most bulletproof way (which will work with most kernels) is to add the following line to /etc/sysctl.d/99-disable_window_scaling.conf (see also sysctl):

net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 0
Best

This problem is caused by broken routers/firewalls, so let's change them. Some users have reported that the broken router was their very own DSL router.

More about it

This section is based on the LWN article TCP window scaling and broken routers and a Kernel Trap article: Window Scaling on the Internet.

There are also several relevant threads on the LKML.

Realtek no link / WOL problem

Users with Realtek 8168 8169 8101 8111(C) based NICs (cards / and on-board) may notice a problem where the NIC seems to be disabled on boot and has no Link light. This can usually be found on a dual boot system where Windows is also installed. It seems that using the offical Realtek drivers (dated anything after May 2007) under Windows is the cause. These newer drivers disable the Wake-On-LAN feature by disabling the NIC at Windows shutdown time, where it will remain disabled until the next time Windows boots. You will be able to notice if this problem is affecting you if the Link light remains off until Windows boots up; during Windows shutdown the Link light will switch off. Normal operation should be that the link light is always on as long as the system is on, even during POST. This problem will also affect other operating systems without newer drivers (eg. Live CDs). Here are a few fixes for this problem.

Enable the NIC directly in Linux

Follow #Enabling and disabling network interfaces to enable the interface.

Rollback/change Windows driver

You can roll back your Windows NIC driver to the Microsoft provided one (if available), or roll back/install an official Realtek driver pre-dating May 2007 (may be on the CD that came with your hardware).

Enable WOL in Windows driver

Probably the best and the fastest fix is to change this setting in the Windows driver. This way it should be fixed system-wide and not only under Arch (eg. live CDs, other operating systems). In Windows, under Device Manager, find your Realtek network adapter and double-click it. Under the "Advanced" tab, change "Wake-on-LAN after shutdown" to "Enable".

In Windows XP (example):

Right click my computer and choose "Properties"
--> "Hardware" tab
  --> Device Manager
    --> Network Adapters
      --> "double click" Realtek ...
        --> Advanced tab
          --> Wake-On-Lan After Shutdown
            --> Enable
Note: Newer Realtek Windows drivers (tested with Realtek 8111/8169 LAN Driver v5.708.1030.2008, dated 2009/01/22, available from GIGABYTE) may refer to this option slightly differently, like Shutdown Wake-On-LAN --> Enable. It seems that switching it to Disable has no effect (you will notice the Link light still turns off upon Windows shutdown). One rather dirty workaround is to boot to Windows and just reset the system (perform an ungraceful restart/shutdown) thus not giving the Windows driver a chance to disable LAN. The Link light will remain on and the LAN adapter will remain accessible after POST - that is until you boot back to Windows and shut it down properly again.

Newer Realtek Linux driver

Any newer driver for these Realtek cards can be found for Linux on the realtek site (untested but believed to also solve the problem).

Enable LAN Boot ROM in BIOS/CMOS

It appears that setting Integrated Peripherals --> Onboard LAN Boot ROM --> Enabled in BIOS/CMOS reactivates the Realtek LAN chip on system boot-up, despite the Windows driver disabling it on OS shutdown.

Note: This was tested several times on a GIGABYTE GA-G31M-ES2L motherboard, BIOS version F8 released on 2009/02/05.

No interface with Atheros chipsets

Users of some Atheros ethernet chips are reporting it does not work out-of-the-box (with installation media of February 2014). The working solution for this is to install backports-patchedAUR.

Broadcom BCM57780

This Broadcom chipset sometimes does not behave well unless you specify the order of the modules to be loaded. The modules are broadcom and tg3, the former needing to be loaded first.

These steps should help if your computer has this chipset:

  • Find your NIC in lspci output:
$ lspci | grep Ethernet
02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Broadcom Corporation NetLink BCM57780 Gigabit Ethernet PCIe (rev 01)
  • If your wired networking is not functioning in some way or another, try unplugging your cable then doing the following:
# modprobe -r tg3
# modprobe broadcom
# modprobe tg3
  • Plug your network cable in. If this solves your problems you can make this permanent by adding broadcom and tg3 (in this order) to the MODULES array in /etc/mkinitcpio.conf:
MODULES=".. broadcom tg3 .."
  • Rebuild the initramfs:
# mkinitcpio -p linux
  • Alternatively, you can create an /etc/modprobe.d/broadcom.conf:
softdep tg3 pre: broadcom
Note: These methods may work for other chipsets, such as BCM57760.

Realtek RTL8111/8168B

# lspci | grep Ethernet
03:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168B PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet controller (rev 02)

The adapter should be recognized by the r8169 module. However, with some chip revisions the connection may go off and on all the time. The alternative r8168 should be used for a reliable connection in this case. Blacklist r8169, if r8168 is not automatically loaded by udev, see Kernel modules#Automatic module handling.

Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

Reason: "some revisions", no proof the driver is the cause, and not e.g poorly configured DNS servers (Discuss in Talk:Network configuration#)

Another fault in the drivers for some revisions of this adapter is poor IPv6 support. IPv6#Disable functionality can be helpful if you encounter issues such as hanging webpages and slow speeds.

Gigabyte Motherboard with Realtek 8111/8168/8411

With motherboards such as the Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD3, booting with IOMMU off (which can be the default) will cause the network interface to be unreliable, often failing to connect or connecting but allowing no throughput. This will apply not only to the onboard NIC, but any other pci-NIC you put in the box because the IOMMU setting affects the entire network interface on the board. Enabling IOMMU and booting with the install media will throw AMD I-10/xhci page faults for a second, but then boot normally, resulting in a fully functional onboard NIC (even with the r8169 module).

When configuring the boot process for your installation, add iommu=soft as a kernel parameter to eliminate the error messages on boot and restore USB3.0 functionality.

See also