Difference between revisions of "Network Time Protocol daemon (简体中文)"

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{{i18n|Network Time Protocol daemon}}
 
{{i18n|Network Time Protocol daemon}}
  
This article describes how to set up and run NTPd (Network Time Protocol daemon), the most common method to synchronize the [[Time|software clock]] of a GNU/Linux system with internet time servers using the [[Wikipedia:Network Time Protocol|Network Time Protocol]]; if set up correctly, NTPd can make your computer act as a time server itself.
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本文描述如何设置和运行 '''NTPd''' (Network Time Protocol daemon)。它是最常见的方法使用网络时间协议来与 Internet 时间服务器同步 GNU/Linux 系统的[[Time (简体中文)|软件时钟]]。如果正确设置,NTPd 可以使你的计算机作为时间服务器运行。
  
 
==安装==
 
==安装==
[[pacman|Install]] {{pkg|ntp}}, available in the [[Official Repositories]].
+
[[安装]] {{pkg|ntp}}, 可以从[[官方源]]得到。
  
 
==配置==
 
==配置==
{{Tip|The {{pkg|ntp}} package is installed with a default {{ic|/etc/ntp.conf}} that should make NTPd work without requiring custom configuration.}}
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{{小贴士|{{pkg|ntp}} 包带有一个默认的 {{ic|/etc/ntp.conf}} 配置文件,可以让 NTPd 不需要自定义配置就可以运行}}
  
===Configuring connection to NTP servers===
+
===配置连接到 NTP 服务器===
The first thing you define in your {{ic|/etc/ntp.conf}} is the servers your machine will synchronize to.
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在你的 {{ic|/etc/ntp.conf}} 配置文件中定义的第一件事是你机器想同步的服务器。
  
 
NTP servers are classified in a hierarchical system with many levels called ''strata'': the devices which are considered independent time sources are classified as ''stratum 0'' sources; the servers directly connected to ''stratum 0'' devices are classified as ''stratum 1'' sources; servers connected to ''stratum 1'' sources are then classified as ''stratum 2'' sources and so on.
 
NTP servers are classified in a hierarchical system with many levels called ''strata'': the devices which are considered independent time sources are classified as ''stratum 0'' sources; the servers directly connected to ''stratum 0'' devices are classified as ''stratum 1'' sources; servers connected to ''stratum 1'' sources are then classified as ''stratum 2'' sources and so on.
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It has to be understood that a server's stratum cannot be taken as an indication of its accuracy or reliability. Typically, stratum 2 servers are used for general synchronization purposes: if you do not already know the servers you are going to connect to, you should use the [http://www.pool.ntp.org/ pool.ntp.org] servers ([http://support.ntp.org/bin/view/Servers/NTPPoolServers alternate link]) and choose the server pool that is closest to your location.
 
It has to be understood that a server's stratum cannot be taken as an indication of its accuracy or reliability. Typically, stratum 2 servers are used for general synchronization purposes: if you do not already know the servers you are going to connect to, you should use the [http://www.pool.ntp.org/ pool.ntp.org] servers ([http://support.ntp.org/bin/view/Servers/NTPPoolServers alternate link]) and choose the server pool that is closest to your location.
  
The following lines are just an example:
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下面几行仅仅是例子:
  
 
  server 0.pool.ntp.org iburst
 
  server 0.pool.ntp.org iburst
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  server 3.pool.ntp.org iburst
 
  server 3.pool.ntp.org iburst
  
The ''iburst'' option is recommended, and sends a burst of packets if it cannot obtain a connection with the first attempt. The ''burst'' option always sends a burst of packets, even on the first attempt. The ''burst'' option should never be used without explicit permission and may result in blacklisting.
+
''iburst'' 选项是推荐的,如果第一次尝试无法建立连接的话,会发送一系列的包。''burst'' 选项总是发送一系列的包,即使第一次尝试也是这样。如果没有明确的允许的话不要使用 ''burst'' 选项,有可能被封禁。
  
 
===配置自己的 NTP 服务器===
 
===配置自己的 NTP 服务器===
If setting up an NTP server, you need to add [http://www.ntp.org/ntpfaq/NTP-s-refclk.htm#Q-LOCAL-CLOCK ''local clock''] as a server, so that, in case it loses internet access, it will continue serving time to the network; add ''local clock'' as a stratum 10 server (using the ''fudge'' command) so that it will never be used unless internet access is lost:
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如果建立一个 NTP 服务器,你需要添加 [http://www.ntp.org/ntpfaq/NTP-s-refclk.htm#Q-LOCAL-CLOCK ''local clock''] 作为一个服务器,因此,如果它失去网络连接,它也可以继续为网络提供服务;添加 ''local clock'' 作为一个 stratum 10 服务器 (使用 ''fudge'' 命令)这样它就只会在失去连接时使用本地时钟:
  
 
  server 127.127.1.0
 
  server 127.127.1.0
 
  fudge  127.127.1.0 stratum 10
 
  fudge  127.127.1.0 stratum 10
  
Next, define the rules that will allow clients to connect to your service (''localhost'' is considered a client too) using the ''restrict'' command; you should already have a line like this in your file:
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下一步,定义规则允许客户端连接你的服务(''localhost'' 也被认为是一个客户端)。使用 ''restrict'' 命令;你应该在文件中已经有一行:
  
 
  restrict default nomodify nopeer noquery
 
  restrict default nomodify nopeer noquery
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  restrict default kod nomodify notrap nopeer noquery
 
  restrict default kod nomodify notrap nopeer noquery
  
{{Note|This still allows other people to query your time server. You need to add {{ic|noserve}} to stop serving time.}}
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{{注意|这会允许其他人查询你的时间服务器。你需要添加 {{ic|noserve}} 来停止提供时间。}}
  
 
Full docs for the "restrict" option are in {{ic|man ntp_acc}}. See https://support.ntp.org/bin/view/Support/AccessRestrictions for detailed instructions.
 
Full docs for the "restrict" option are in {{ic|man ntp_acc}}. See https://support.ntp.org/bin/view/Support/AccessRestrictions for detailed instructions.
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}}
 
}}
  
{{Note|Defining the log file is not mandatory, but it is always a good idea to have feedback for ''ntpd'' operations.}}
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{{注意|定义日志文件不是必须的,但是它对于反馈 ''ntpd'' 操作是有好处的。}}
  
 
===其他关于配置 NTP 的资源===
 
===其他关于配置 NTP 的资源===
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{{Gentoo|NTP}}
 
{{Gentoo|NTP}}
  
==Using without daemon==
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==不以守护进程使用==
To synchronize your system clock just once, without starting the NTP daemon, run:
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想要仅仅同步时钟一次,不想启动守护进程的话,运行:
 
  # ntpd -qg
 
  # ntpd -qg
 
  # hwclock -s
 
  # hwclock -s
  
{{ic|ntpd -qg}} has the same effect as the {{ic|ntpdate}} program, [http://support.ntp.org/bin/view/Dev/DeprecatingNtpdate which is now deprecated]. {{ic|hwclock -s}} stores the time to the hardware clock so that it is preserved when rebooting.
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{{ic|ntpd -qg}} {{ic|ntpdate}} 程序效果相同,而ntpdate 已经[http://support.ntp.org/bin/view/Dev/DeprecatingNtpdate 不推荐使用]. {{ic|hwclock -s}} 把时间存储到硬件时钟上,这样重启的时候就不会丢失了。
  
{{ic|ntpd}}'s {{ic|-g}} option allows shifting the clock further than the panic threshold (15 min by default) without a warning. Note that such offset is abnormal and might indicate either wrong timezone setting, clock chip failure, or simply a very long period of neglect. If in these cases you would rather not set the clock and print an error to syslog, remove {{ic|-g}}:
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{{ic|ntpd}} {{ic|-g}} 选项允许时钟漂移大于警报级别(默认是 15 分钟)而不发出警告。注意这种误差是不正常的,也许意味着失去设置错误,时钟芯片错误,或仅仅是长时间的忽略。如果在这些情况下你不想设置时钟而且输出错误到 syslog,删除 {{ic|-g}}
 
  # ntpd -q
 
  # ntpd -q
  
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==参见==
 
==参见==
* [[Time]] (for more information on computer timekeeping)
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* [[Time (简体中文)]] (更多关于计算机计时的信息)
  
 
==外部链接==
 
==外部链接==

Revision as of 07:50, 18 January 2012

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本文描述如何设置和运行 NTPd (Network Time Protocol daemon)。它是最常见的方法使用网络时间协议来与 Internet 时间服务器同步 GNU/Linux 系统的软件时钟。如果正确设置,NTPd 可以使你的计算机作为时间服务器运行。

安装

安装 ntp, 可以从官方源得到。

配置

小贴士: ntp 包带有一个默认的 /etc/ntp.conf 配置文件,可以让 NTPd 不需要自定义配置就可以运行

配置连接到 NTP 服务器

在你的 /etc/ntp.conf 配置文件中定义的第一件事是你机器想同步的服务器。

NTP servers are classified in a hierarchical system with many levels called strata: the devices which are considered independent time sources are classified as stratum 0 sources; the servers directly connected to stratum 0 devices are classified as stratum 1 sources; servers connected to stratum 1 sources are then classified as stratum 2 sources and so on.

It has to be understood that a server's stratum cannot be taken as an indication of its accuracy or reliability. Typically, stratum 2 servers are used for general synchronization purposes: if you do not already know the servers you are going to connect to, you should use the pool.ntp.org servers (alternate link) and choose the server pool that is closest to your location.

下面几行仅仅是例子:

server 0.pool.ntp.org iburst
server 1.pool.ntp.org iburst
server 2.pool.ntp.org iburst
server 3.pool.ntp.org iburst

iburst 选项是推荐的,如果第一次尝试无法建立连接的话,会发送一系列的包。burst 选项总是发送一系列的包,即使第一次尝试也是这样。如果没有明确的允许的话不要使用 burst 选项,有可能被封禁。

配置自己的 NTP 服务器

如果建立一个 NTP 服务器,你需要添加 local clock 作为一个服务器,因此,如果它失去网络连接,它也可以继续为网络提供服务;添加 local clock 作为一个 stratum 10 服务器 (使用 fudge 命令)这样它就只会在失去连接时使用本地时钟:

server 127.127.1.0
fudge  127.127.1.0 stratum 10

下一步,定义规则允许客户端连接你的服务(localhost 也被认为是一个客户端)。使用 restrict 命令;你应该在文件中已经有一行:

restrict default nomodify nopeer noquery

This restricts everyone from modifying anything and prevents everyone from querying the status of your time server: nomodify prevents reconfiguring your ntpd (with ntpq or ntpdc), and noquery prevents dumping status data from your ntpd (also with ntpq or ntpdc).

You can also add other options:

restrict default kod nomodify notrap nopeer noquery
注意: 这会允许其他人查询你的时间服务器。你需要添加 noserve 来停止提供时间。

Full docs for the "restrict" option are in man ntp_acc. See https://support.ntp.org/bin/view/Support/AccessRestrictions for detailed instructions.

Following this line, you need to tell ntpd what to allow through into your server; the following line is enough if you are not configuring an NTP server:

restrict 127.0.0.1

If you want to force DNS resolution to the IPv6 namespace, write -6 before the IP address or host name (-4 forces IPv4 instead), for example:

restrict -6 default kod nomodify notrap nopeer noquery
restrict -6 ::1    # ::1 is the IPv6 equivalent for 127.0.0.1

Lastly, specify the drift file (which keeps track of your clock's time deviation) and optionally the log file location:

driftfile /var/lib/ntp/ntp.drift
logfile /var/log/ntp.log

A very basic configuration file will look like this (all comments have been stripped out for clarity):

/etc/ntp.conf
server 0.pool.ntp.org iburst
server 1.pool.ntp.org iburst
server 2.pool.ntp.org iburst
server 3.pool.ntp.org iburst

restrict default kod nomodify notrap nopeer noquery
restrict -6 default kod nomodify notrap nopeer noquery

restrict 127.0.0.1
restrict -6 ::1  

driftfile /var/lib/ntp/ntp.drift
logfile /var/log/ntp.log
注意: 定义日志文件不是必须的,但是它对于反馈 ntpd 操作是有好处的。

其他关于配置 NTP 的资源

In conclusion, never forget man pages: man ntp.conf is likely to answer any doubts you could still have (see also the related man pages: man {ntpd|ntp_auth|ntp_mon|ntp_acc|ntp_clock|ntp_misc}).

Template:Gentoo

不以守护进程使用

想要仅仅同步时钟一次,不想启动守护进程的话,运行:

# ntpd -qg
# hwclock -s

ntpd -qgntpdate 程序效果相同,而ntpdate 已经不推荐使用. hwclock -s 把时间存储到硬件时钟上,这样重启的时候就不会丢失了。

ntpd-g 选项允许时钟漂移大于警报级别(默认是 15 分钟)而不发出警告。注意这种误差是不正常的,也许意味着失去设置错误,时钟芯片错误,或仅仅是长时间的忽略。如果在这些情况下你不想设置时钟而且输出错误到 syslog,删除 -g

# ntpd -q

Synchronize once at boot time

If you want to synchronize your system clock once every time the system boots, you can add a ntpd -qg & line to your /etc/rc.local. See Autostarting for alternative methods.

You must also start the hwclock daemon and add it to your DAEMONS array to initialize it at every boot. See Time#hwclock daemon for more information.

In order for this method to work you have to make sure that, when rc.local is executed, the network connection has already been initialized (for example you should not background essential network-related daemons in /etc/rc.conf)

Warning:
  • Using this method is discouraged on servers and in general on machines that need to run continuously for more than 2 or 3 days, as the system clock will be updated only once at boot time.
  • Running ntpd -qg as a cron event is to be avoided, unless you are aware of how your running applications would react to instantaneous system time changes.
  • If something other already takes care of updating the hardware clock, for example another operating system in dual boot, you should avoid starting hwclock.

作为守护进程运行

启动 ntpd

ntpd sets 11 minute mode, which syncs the system clock to hardware every 11 minutes. The hwclock daemon measures hardware clock drift and syncs it, which conflicts with ntpd.

Stop the hwclock daemon (if it is running):

# rc.d stop hwclock

Start the ntpd daemon:

# rc.d start ntpd

Add ntpd to your DAEMONS array so it starts automatically on boot and make sure hwclock is disabled:

/etc/rc.conf
DAEMONS=(... !hwclock ntpd ...)

NetworkManager

Note: ntpd should still be running when the network is down if the hwclock daemon is disabled, so you should not use this.

ntpd can be brought up/down along with a network connection through the use of NetworkManager's dispatcher scripts. You can install the needed script from [community]:

# pacman -S networkmanager-dispatcher-ntpd

Running as non-root user

When compiled with --enable-linux-caps, ntp can be run as a non-root user for increased security (the vanilla Arch Linux package has this enabled).

Note: Before attempting this, make sure ntp has already created /var/lib/ntp/ntp.drift.

Create ntp group and ntp user:

# groupadd ntp
# useradd -r -d /var/lib/ntp -g ntp -s /bin/false ntp

Change ownership of the ntp directory to the ntp user/group:

# chown -R ntp:ntp /var/lib/ntp

Edit /etc/conf.d/ntpd.conf and change

NTPD_ARGS="-g"

to

NTPD_ARGS="-g -u ntp:ntp"

Finally, restart the daemon:

# rc.d restart ntpd

Running in a chroot

Note: Before attempting this, complete the previous section on running as non-root, since chroots are relatively useless at securing processes running as root.

Edit /etc/conf.d/ntpd.conf and change

NTPD_ARGS="-g -u ntp:ntp"

to

NTPD_ARGS="-g -i /var/lib/ntp -u ntp:ntp"

Then, edit /etc/ntp.conf to change the driftfile path such that it is relative to the chroot directory, rather than to the real system root. Change:

driftfile       /var/lib/ntp/ntp.drift

to

driftfile       /ntp.drift

Create a suitable chroot environment so that getaddrinfo() will work by creating pertinent directories and files (as root):

# mkdir /var/lib/ntp/etc /var/lib/ntp/lib /var/lib/ntp/proc
# touch /var/lib/ntp/etc/resolv.conf /var/lib/ntp/etc/services

and by bind-mounting the aformentioned files:

/etc/fstab
...
#ntpd chroot mounts
/etc/resolv.conf  /var/lib/ntp/etc/resolv.conf none bind 0 0
/etc/services	  /var/lib/ntp/etc/services none bind 0 0
/lib		          /var/lib/ntp/lib none bind 0 0
/proc		  /var/lib/ntp/proc none bind 0 0
# mount -a

Finally, restart the daemon again:

# rc.d restart ntpd

It is relatively difficult to be sure that your driftfile configuration is actually working without waiting a while, as ntpd does not read or write it very often. If you get it wrong, it will log an error; if you get it right, it will update the timestamp. If you do not see any errors about it after a full day of running, and the timestamp is updated, you should be confident of success.

Alternatives

Available alternative to NTPd are Chrony, a dial-up friendly and specifically designed for systems that are not online all the time, and OpenNTPD, part of the OpenBSD project and currently not maintained for Linux.

参见

外部链接